List of rulers of Tuscany  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.


Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197


These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Arles

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the original dynasty.


House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.


Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434-1531

Medici Dukes of Florence, 1531-1569

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
2Cosimo I1537-09-201569-08-21fourth cousin of Alessandro

Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569-1737

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1Cosimo I1569-08-211574-04-21 
2Francesco I1574-04-211587-10-19son of Cosimo I
3Ferdinando I1587-10-191609-02-07brother of Francesco I
son of Cosimo I
4Cosimo II1609-02-071621-02-28son of Ferdinando I
5Ferdinando II1621-02-281670-05-23son of Cosimo II
6Cosimo III1670-05-231723-10-31son of Ferdinando II
7Gian Gastone1723-10-311737-07-09son of Cosimo III

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1737-1801

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
8Francesco II Stefano1737-07-121765-08-18great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I
9Pietro Leopoldo I1765-08-181790-07-22second son of Francesco II Stefano
10Ferdinando III1790-07-221801-08-03second son of Pietro Leopoldo I

Bourbon Kings of Etruria, 1801-1807

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1Ludovico I1801-08-031803-05-27Grandson of Francisco II Stefano
2Carlo Ludovico II1803-05-271807-12-10son of Ludovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807-1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814-1860

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
10Ferdinando III1814-04-271824-06-18(restored)
11Leopoldo II1824-06-181859-07-21son of Ferdinando III
12Ferdinando IV1859-07-211860-03-22son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860-present

See also

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