Golden Age of Mexican cinema  

From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

"The only survivor of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema was Luis Buñuel with films like The Exterminating Angel in 1961." --Sholem Stein

Related e

Google
Wikipedia
Wiktionary
Wiki Commons
Wikiquote
Wikisource
YouTube
Shop


Featured:
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Enlarge
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The Golden Age of Mexican cinema (in Spanish: Época de oro del cine mexicano) is the name given to the period between 1935 and 1959 where the quality and economic success of the cinema of Mexico reached its peak.

The golden era is thought to have started with the film ¡Vámonos con Pancho Villa! (1935), which is to this date considered the best of the cinema of Mexico. The movie was a box-office failure by Fernando de Fuentes that followed his box-office smash hit Allá en el Rancho Grande. The quality and box-office success of Mexican films continued after the end of World War II when Mexican cinema became focused on commercial films.

Contents

Background

In 1939 Europe and the United States were involved in World War II and the film industries of these regions were severely affected. The first because it was where the war was taking place and the second one because it rationed materials used for armament, cellulose (used to produce film) was included. In 1942, German submarines destroyed oil tankers of PEMEX and Mexico joined the allies in the war against the German nation. Mexico gained status of most favored nation and after a reduction in manufacture of many consumer goods, including films, the film industry of Mexico found new sources of materials and equipment to save itself. The low competition from the cinema of France, Italy, Spain and Argentina and the world leader, the United States, focused on war films made it possible for the national movie industry to conquer the Mexican and Latin American markets.

The golden era

One of the first box-office successes was the film Allá en el rancho grande of Fernando de Fuentes which became the first classic of the cinema of Mexico. This producer completed the film after Vámonos con Pancho Villa but because of post-production problems with the second he released the first one a film he had not had many artistic aspirations for but was a success in the box office. The artistic quality of the second film was significantly higher but only lasted in theaters for two weeks. Jalisco canta en Sevilla (starred by ranchera singer Jorge Negrete) was another production of de Fuentes and the first co-produced with Spain. These films are all in the rural genre but also in the musical/comedy genre. The rural genre also produced drama films such as María Candelaria and La perla. This last film was written by Pulitzer prize-winning author John Steinbeck and adapted to the screen by Emilio Fernández "El Indio" who also directed it.

Another genre of urban comedy with stars like Cantinflas and Tin Tan produced many important films. The first films were produced and written by Arcady Boytler and take place in the middle-class neighborhoods and low-class barrios of Mexico City. These places also inspired urban reality films such as Los olvidados of Luis Buñuel and Nosotros los pobres starred by singer Pedro Infante. The biggest diva of the cinema of Mexico was María Félix who made rural dramas playing as well the roles of a native or a peasant than roles of socialites in La diosa arodillada and La mujer sin alma. However, the role that gave her the nickname "La Doña" was Doña Bárbara.

Decades of labor disputes between studios and talent played a role in bringing about the end of the golden age, but the primary cause was concentration of studio ownership. During the land reforms of President Lázaro Cárdenas, American sugar plantation owner and bootlegger William O. Jenkins sold his land holdings and made a comparatively safer investment in Mexican movie theaters. By the mid-1940s, Jenkins owned two theater chains and controlled all film showings in 12 states. His chains began limiting the exhibition of Mexican films to allow more Hollywood films to be shown. He also used his influence in the industry to dictate regulations that limited film production to a few genres. These low-budget, low quality films became known as "churros".

In 1944, Jenkins invested in Churubusco studios. The company soon came to dominate the Mexican industry, and by the late 1950s, CLASA, Azteca Films, and Tepeyac Studios had all either closed or been bought out, leaving only Jorge Stahl's San Angel Inn as competition. In 1957, Jenkins bought the theater chain of Abelardo Rodríguez, his last remaining competitor, effectively taking control of every aspect of the Mexican cinema industry, from production to exhibition. The only survivor of the golden days was Luis Buñuel with films like El ángel exterminador in 1961.

Pedro Infante and Jorge Negrete were the two grand leading men of the core of this "Golden Age", and while Negrete was the leader of the Actors Union when it began, alongside Cantinflas, Infante was and always will be the one everyone knows as El Ídolo del Pueblo or The Idol of the People. Both worked on the film Dos Tipos de Cuidado or "Two Guys to be Careful with", where Jorge played 'Jorge Bueno' and Pedro played 'Pedro Malo'. One year after the film was made, Jorge Negrete died of illness when he was in Hollywood California for a tour performance. Pedro led the motorcade of his funeral by riding his legendary Harley Davidson, and wearing the uniform of the famed Motorcycle Traffic Cops of el Distrito Federal; or Escuadron de la Direccion del Transito Distrito Federal, whose name included Acrobático or Acrobat, a title they earned after their legendary death defying stunts as daredevils. Infante was made honorary leader (or 'Comandante') of the group for life after he and Luis Aguilar made the organization a classic part of cinema history in Mexico with the tragic stories of ATM or A Toda Maquina and its sequel Que Te Ha Dado Esa Mujer (What has that woman given you).

For many the end of the Golden age of the cinema of Mexico came on April 15 1957 when a private Plane crashed in the area of Mérida, Yucatán. Pedro Infante was aboard the plane, and he died instantly. "Oh, what a horrendous task", people would say, when the Rescue Crews had to recover the charred remains of he who was El Ídolo, whom they recognized him via a gold bracelet that he wore. His Funeral could be compared with a State Funeral for a hero, since he has always been considered the iconic figure of an era.

Films

Image:Una mujer sin amor.PNG
Una mujer sin amor (1951)

1930s

1940s

people were pernt turnts* Cuando los hijos se van (1941)

1950s

People

Actors

Cinematographers

Directors

Screenwriters

Studios




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Golden Age of Mexican cinema" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

Personal tools