Geometric abstraction  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Geometric abstraction is a form of abstract art based on the use of simple geometric forms placed in non-illusionistic space and combined into non-objective compositions. Throughout 20th century art historical discourse, critics and artists working within the reductive or pure strains of abstraction have often suggested that geometric abstraction represents the height of a non-objective art practice, which necessarily stresses or calls attention to the root plasticity and two-dimensionality of painting as an artistic medium. Thus, it has been suggested that geometric abstraction might function as a solution to problems concerning the need for modernist painting to reject the illusionistic practices of the past while addressing the inherently two dimensional nature of the picture plane as well as the canvas functioning as its support. Wassily Kandinsky, one of the forerunners of pure non-objective painting, was among the first modern artists to explore this geometric approach in his abstract work. Other examples of pioneer abstractionists such as Kasimir Malevich and Piet Mondrian have also embraced this approach towards abstract painting.

However, geometric abstraction cannot only be seen as an invention of 20th century avant-garde artists or movements. It is present among many cultures throughout history both as decorative motifs and as art pieces themselves. Islamic art, in its prohibition of depicting human or animal figures (to prevent believers from idolatry), is a prime example of this geometric pattern-based art. Abstract art has also historically been likened to music in its ability to convey emotional or expressive feelings and ideas without reliance upon or reference to recognizable objective forms already existent in reality. Wassily Kandinsky has discussed this connection between music and painting, as well as how the practice of classical composition had influenced his work, at length in his seminal essay Concerning the Spiritual in Art.

Expressionist abstract painting, as practiced by artists such as Jackson Pollock, Franz Kline, Clyfford Still, and Wols, represents the opposite of geometric abstraction.

Artists who have worked extensively in geometric abstraction include Richard Anuszkiewicz, Wassily Kandinsky, Kazimir Malevich, Alexander Rodchenko, Frantisek Kupka, Theo van Doesburg, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Piet Mondrian, Victor Vasarely, Max Bill, Nadir Afonso, Vieira da Silva, George Johnson, Peter Graham, Gordon Walters, Frank Stella, Kenneth Noland, Thomas Downing, Ronald Davis, Burgoyne Diller, Jack Reilly, Sean Scully, and Larry Zox, among others.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Geometric abstraction" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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