French Left  

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The Opium of the Intellectuals (1955) by Raymond Aron, The Capitalism of Seduction (1981) by Michel Clouscard

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The Left in France (gauche française) at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. But in 1914, after the assassination of the leader of the SFIO, Jean Jaurès, who had upheld an internationalist and anti-militarist line, the SFIO accepted to join the Union Sacrée national front. In the aftermaths of the 1917 Russian Revolution and the Spartacist insurrection in Germany, the French Left divided itself in reformists and revolutionaries during the 1920 Tours Congress, which saw the majority of the SFIO spin-out to form the French Section of the Communist International (SFIC).

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