French Directory  

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"In political-historical usage, Brumaire can refer to the coup of 18 Brumaire in the year VIII (9 November 1799), by which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the government of the Directory to replace it with the Consulate, as referenced by Karl Marx in his pamphlet, "The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon", in which Marx parallels Napoleon's original coup with the later 1851 Coup of his nephew, Louis-Napoleon." --Sholem Stein

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The Executive Directory was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate. The period of this regime (2 November 1795 until 10 November 1799), commonly known as the Directory (or Directoire) era, constitutes the second to last stage of the French Revolution.

The directory system of government was also used in several French-dominated regions of Italy; see Directory (political).

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