Francesco di Giorgio
From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Francesco di Giorgio Martini (baptised 23 September 1439 – 1502) was an Italian painter of the Sienese School, a sculptor, an architect and theorist, and a military engineer who built almost seventy fortifications for the Duke of Urbino.
Born in Siena, he apprenticed as a painter with Vecchietta. In panels painted for cassoni he departed from the traditional representations of joyful wedding processions in frieze-like formulas to express visions of ideal, symmetrical, vast and all but empty urban spaces rendered in perspective. Francesco di Giorgio is also known for architectural designs and sculptural work for Federico III da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, for whom he built star-shaped fortifications.
He composed an architectural treatise Trattato di architettura, ingegneria e arte militare that he worked on for decades and finished sometime after 1482; it circulated in manuscript. Its projects were well in advance of completed projects at the time. The third book is preoccupied with the "ideal" city, constrained within star-shaped polygonal geometries reminiscent of the star fort, whose wedge-shaped bastions are said to have been his innovation.
Francesco di Giorgio finished his career as architect in charge of the works at the Duomo di Siena, where his bronze angels are on the high altar.
- Bertrand Gille, 1978. Les Ingénieurs de la Renaissance, Thèse Histoire, Paris, 1960. Seuil, in series Points Sciences) ISBN 2-02-004913-9