Fiqh  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Fiqh (is Islamic jurisprudence. While Sharia is believed by Muslims to represent divine law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad), fiqh is the human understanding of the Shariasharia expanded and developed by interpretation (ijtihad) of the Quran and Sunnah by Islamic jurists (Ulama) and implemented by the rulings (Fatwa) of jurists on questions presented to them.

Figuratively, fiqh means: knowledge about Islamic legal rulings from their sources. So, fiqh's figurative definition is taken from its literal one in the sense that deriving religious rulings from their sources necessitates the mujtahid to have a deep understanding in the different discussions of jurisprudence. He must look deep down into a matter and not suffice himself with just the apparent meaning. A person who only knows the appearance of a matter is not a faqīh. Conceptually, the human attempt to understand divine law (shariah). Whereas shariah is immutable and infallible, fiqh is fallible and changeable. Fiqh is distinguished from usul al-fiqh, the methods of legal interpretation and analysis. Fiqh is the product of application of usul al-fiqh, the total product of human efforts at understanding the divine will. A hukm is a particular ruling in a given case.

Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a Faqih (plural Fuqaha).

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Fiqh" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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