Facadism  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Facadism, fa├žadism (or fa├žadomy) refers to an architectural and construction practice where the facade of a building was designed or constructed separately from the rest of a building. More often it refers to the practice where only the facade of a building is preserved with new buildings erected behind or around it.

There are aesthetic and historical reasons for preserving building facades. Facadism can be the response to the interiors of a building becoming unusable, such as being damaged by fire. In developing areas, however, the practice is sometimes used by property developers seeking to redevelop a site as a compromise to preservationists who wish to preserve buildings of historical or aesthetic interest. It can be regarded as a compromise between historic preservation and demolition and thus has been lauded as well as decried.

There is sometimes a blurred line between renovation, adaptive reuse, reconstruction and facadism. Sometimes buildings are renovated to such an extent that they are "skinned", preserving only the exterior shell, and used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. While this is equivalent to facadism, the difference is typically the retention of roof and or floor structures, maintaining a credible link to the original building. In contrast, facadism generally involves retaining only one or two street facing walls for purely aesthetic and decorative purposes. Facadomy is a practice in postmodern architecture reaching its peak in the latter half of the 20th century. The setback or podium architecture technique gives an illusion of integrity to the original building by visually separating the old from the new, helping to mitigate farcical effects such as the floors and windows not lining up or a dramatic clash of styles.

Critics label the practice as architectural sham, claiming that it sometimes results in part of the building becoming a folly.

Contents

Distribution and control measures

Despite being highly controversial and denounced by many preservationists as vandalism, facadism is used as the demand for new development is overwhelming community desires for preservation. Facadism appears often in cities where there is a strong pressure for new development.

While the controversial practice of facadism is encouraged by governments in some cities (such as Toronto, Sydney and Brisbane), it is actively discouraged in others (such as Paris and Melbourne).

Architectural podiums are often seen by some architects as a solution to this problem and these are allowed for as part of planning frameworks in urban heritage areas.

International policies

The practice of facadism conflicts with ICOMOS international charters. The Venice Charter, article 7, states that: "A monument is inseparable from the history to which it bears witness and from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all or part of a monument cannot be allowed except where the safeguarding of that monument demands it or where it is justified by national or international interest of paramount importance".

By country

Australia

In Australia, the Burra Charter has some policies which deal with facadism.

Melbourne

In the rapidly growing city of Melbourne, facadism has existed as early as the 1930s.Template:Citation needed The Old Commerce building at the University of Melbourne is a prominent example of a building which has been relocated and "stuck on" a newer building.Template:Citation needed

Template:Multiple image

With the introduction of heritage controls in the later twentieth century, several large buildings have been completely "skinned".Template:Citation needed These include the T&G buildings on Collins Street and the Savoy Hotel on Spencer Street.Template:Citation needed

However, implementation applied only to heritage registered buildings and it was relaxed in subsequent years,Template:Citation needed which allowed several poor examples of facadism to appear particularly with heritage buildings of only local significance.Template:Citation needed For example, the heritage registered Carlton & United Breweries site is a large site on Swanston Street, Melbourne which has contained hollow suspended facades for almost three decades.Template:Citation needed That led the Melbourne City Council to rethink the policy.Template:Citation needed

In the late 1990s, facadism was discouraged with the introduction of a 10-metre policy, which advocated for the retention of at least 10 metres of the front of a building.Template:Citation needed This helped to retain context and the integrity of important transitions and relationships such as entrances and complex roof structures.

The Olderfleet group of buildings (which includes the Rialto and Winfield) and the 1 Collins Street development are seen as well-executed examples of this preservation policy.




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Facadism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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