Ernst Kretschmer  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Kretschmer (* October 8, 1888 in Wüstenrot near Heilbronn; † February 8, 1964 in Tübingen) Prof. Dr. med. Dr. phil. h.c., was a German psychiatrist who researched the human constitution and established a typology. In 1929 Kretschmer was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Character Styles

Kretschmer divided personality into two "constitutional groups": Schizothymic, which contain a "Psychaesthetic proportion" between sensitive and cold poles, and Cyclothymic which contain a "Diathetic" proportion between gay and sad. The Schizoids consist of the Hyperesthetic (sensitive) and Anesthetic (Cold) characters, and the Cycloids consist of the Depressive (or "melancholic") and Hypomanic characters.

Works

  • Wahnbildung und manisch-depressiver Symptomenkomplexe, Berlin, (1914, dissertation) (development of delusion and manic-depressive symptom complex)
  • Der sensitive Beziehungswahn, Berlin(1918), 2. Aufl. Berlin (1927), habilitation) (the sensitive relative delusion)
  • Physique and Character (International Library of Psychology) (1931), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21060-7
  • Medizinische Psychologie, (1922) (medical psychology)
  • Hysteria, Reflex, and Instinct, Leipzig (1923) Greenwood, ISBN 0-8371-5754-4
  • Die Veranlagung zu seelischen Störungen, mit Ferdinand Adalbert Kehrer (1883–1966), Berlin (1924) (the disposition for psychic disturbances)
  • Störungen des Gefühlslebens, Temperamente, Handbuch der Geisteskrankheiten. Band 1. Berlin (1928) (psychic disturbances and temperaments)
  • The Psychology of Men of Genious (International Library of Psychology), Berlin (1929), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21061-5
  • Das apallische Syndrom, in Ztschr. Neurol. Psychiat, 169,576-579 (1940) (the apallic syndrome)
  • Psychotherapeuthische Studien, Stuttgart (1949) (psychotherapeutic studies)
  • Robert Gaupp zum Gedächtnis, Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift, Stuttgart (1953) 78: 1713. (in memory of Robert Gaupp)
  • Gestufte Aktivhypnose - Zweigleisige Standardmethode, In: V. E. Frankl, V.v. Gebsattel and J.H. Schultz, Hrsg.: Handbuch der Neurosenlehre und Psychotherapie, Band IV, pp. 130–141. Urban & Schwarzenberg, München-Berlin (1959)
  • Gestalten und Gedanken (1963) (characters and thoughts)

See also




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