Dunning–Kruger effect  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people with low ability at a task overestimate their ability. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from people's inability to recognize their lack of ability. Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their level of competence.

As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the bias results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others". Colloquially, people experiencing this bias are said to be "on Mount Stupid".

But in spite of the inherent appeal of Dunning and Kruger's claimed results, which align with many people's just world theories, their conclusions are strongly challenged when subjected to mathematical analysis and comparisons across cultures.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Dunning–Kruger effect" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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