Der Cicerone  

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"His assertion of a non-religious impetus to the Renaissance touched off a debate with later art historians, such as Henry Thode who asserted the important role Christianity played. The debate raged among the scholarly community, with some, such as Aby M. Warburg, siding with Burckhardt. Burckhardt generally viewed the periods following the Renaissance, such as Mannerism and the Baroque as "raw and deviant" (Der Cicerone); he objected to Bernini's St. Teresa on moral grounds. The preeminence of his view of the Renaissance as the principal era of art history lasted in Germany until the 1930s when the Nazis pushed medieval art as core-German."--Dictionary of Art Historians [1]


"Seit 1855 wurde der Begriff „Barock“ von Jacob Burckhardt im Der Cicerone mit positiver Bedeutung benutzt und Ende der 1880er Jahre als wissenschaftliche Zeitbestimmung in den Sprachgebrauch eingeführt. Aus der Kunstgeschichte wurde der Begriff dann auf die Musik und Literatur der Zeit übertragen und wird heute als allgemeiner historischer Epochenbegriff verwendet."--Sholem Stein

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Der Cicerone : Eine Anleitung zum Genuss d. Kunstwerke Italiens (1855) is a book by Jacob Burckhardt.

Cicerone.

Full text

THE CICERONE.


1H£ dCEliOyE-


THE CICERONE.

AN

ART GUIDE

TO

PAINTING IN ITALY.


ittx i\t m 0f ®ra&jeUm anir ^taknte.


TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF DR. JACOB BURCKHARDT By MRS. A. H. CLOUGH.


A NEW EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED

By J. A. CROWE,

ATTTHOR OF THE "HISTORY OF PAIMTINO IK ITALY FROM 1H£ SECOKDJTD .THE


SIXTEENTH CENTURY."



LONDON : JOHN MUKRAY, ALBEMARLE STBEET.

1879.

[AU Rights r«aerved.\


LOKSOK : BBADBtTBYi IGVEW, & CO., FBnriXBS, WHITBTBUBa.


PREFACE.


This Handbook is intended as a practical Guide to the Traveller and lover of art in studying on the spot the works of painting, both native and foreign, existing in Italy. It con- tains an historical account, up to the close of the seventeenth century, of the rise and course of the various schools repre- sented in Italy, pointing out their various characteristics, and especially describing their founders and principal* masters, and enumerating the most remarkable and characteristic works of each of them.

Although the Handbook is not arranged according to places, but according to schools, the Index of places, giving the names of the Painters whose works are to be found in each Town, in Churches, and Public or Private Galleries, will enable the tra- veller to study all the paintings collected in any particular place ; while the condensed form of the volume fits it to be a portable companion.

The author. Dr. Jacob Burckhardt, bears the highest repu- tation in Germany as an authority on the history of Art, In 1855 he brought out the * Cicerone,' a handbook of Architec- ture, Sculpture, and Painting, of which this volume contains the part devoted to painting. Since that time Dr. Burckhardt, having accepted the Professorship of History at Basle, gave up the work of editing the second edition to Dr. A. von Zahn, of Dresden. Dr. von Zahn with great kindness undertook the


vi Preface.

labour of revising the English translation, and furnished addi- tions and corrections which made the translation practically equivalent to a third edition.

Great care was taken by Dr. von Zahn to bring the work up to the latest point of information in enumerating the works of the various masters and naming them correctly. The different authorities are given when, as is constantly the case, there is a variety of opinion. Among the numerous coadjutors in this part of the work may be mentioned especially the late Herr .0. Miindler, of Paris, whose initials constantly appear, as do those of Messrs. Crowe and Cavalcaselle, and also those of Dr. Friz- zoni and Dr. Bode.

The translator desires gratefully to acknowledge the advan- tage she has derived jfrom the advice and assistance of Mr. F. W. Burton, which his well-known thorough knowledge of art has rendered peculiarly valuable.

London, 1873.


The present edition has been carefdlly revised. It comprises numerous painters and works of painting not included in earlier editions, and as far as possible it is corrected to the latest date. The parts enclosed in square brackets with the syllable Ed. are added by the Editor.

DDssELDOKF, August, 1879.


CONTENTS.


CPAPTEE I.

PAOB

Antique Painthtg 1—8

Painting on Pottery — ^Wall-Paintinga.

CHAPTER II.

MSDL£VAL PAINTliiG 8—17

Catacombs — The Byzantine Style.

CHAPTER III.

Romanesque Painting 18—24

Cimabue — Duccio da Siena.

CHAPTER IV.

The Gothic Style . . . . . . . . ". 24—57

Giotto and the Giottesques — Sienese School — North Italian Schools— Fra Angelico.

CHAPTER V.

Painting of the XVth Century 57—111

" The Renaissance" — Florentine School — Paduan School — The Bresdans and other Schools— The Venetians; the Vivarini, the Bellini— Umbrian, Bolognese, and Nea- politan Painters — German and Flemish Masters — Paint- ing on Glass.


THE CICERONE.


THE CICERONE.


AN


ART GUIDE


TO


PAINTING IN ITALY.


tax i\t nt d ®ra&jeUm anir ^iviiimi%.


TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN OF DR. JACOB BURCKHARDT Br MRS. A. H. CLOUGH.


A NEW EDITION, REVISED AND CORRECTED

By J. A. CROWE,

AUTHOR or THE "HISTORY OF PAINTING IN ITALY FROH IHB SECONDJTO . THE


SIXTEENTH CENTURY.


. V-.


\

. DEC laa


vO


u


ole\K:


vv


LONDON : JOHN MUEJRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1879.


[All Rights reserved.]


A


8


Antique Painting.


whioh were found in Bome, and are now to be seen in the rooms a belonging to the Vaiican Library, where is also the Aldobrandini mar- riage. The impresaion is of the same kind as that made by the Buoolic poets, and it is not impos- sible that the painter may have been inspired by them.

The subserviency of this whole style to decorative purposes is shown, among other thinffs, by the subordination of the waole to a

Earticular colour of the wall. Many mdscapes, for instance, are painted brown on brown, green on green, sometimes also, for a strons con- trast, ^enish white on a red wall There is no special character in the details of the landscape, as for ex- ample in the foliage; theolive alone, on account of its peculiar growth, retains a certain character. Also where garlands and leaf work ap- pear as part of the decorations,


only the most necessary part of the special form of the leaf is in- dicated with bold effect.

In the numerous pictures of still life (including kitchen utensils and dead animals) we reoo|;niBe an art capable of creating illusion, yet seeking to produce that effect in wall paintings, at least in a very limit^ measure. The painter in- deed was required to delineate those objects, but he was not asked to reproduce them in the finest and most idealized form by means of groups, backgrounds or light and atmosphere, as de Heem was expected to render them by his Dutch contemporaries. The most graceful antique mosaic of Bome, the Vases with the doves (Museo Capitolino: vase room) is/ perhaps one of the most instructive examples of the degree of illusion attempted in the most precious ma- terial.


CHAPTER XL— MEDIEVAL PAINTING.


The history of Christian painting begins with the wall paintings of the Catacombs, which contain me- morials of this art dating from the second to the eighth century. Nu- merous fresh excavations in Home enable the traveller to gain for him- self an idea of this art, the know- ledge of which but a few years ago was only to be obtained from old and not veiy accurate copies. The collection of (fairly good) copies in 2> the Museo Cristiano of the Lateran, and the excellent publications of de Hossi and Perret give, after a visit to a single catacomb, a good insight into the seneral contents of those remarkaue places. The oldest and best pictures in Rome are to be ^founa in the Catacombs of S. Nereo dand Achillea, S, Ccdisto, S. PriS' g cilia, S, Proetextatus, S. Ponziano, and S, Agnese: those of S. Sebas-


tiano, which are always accessible, are nearly destroyed.

Of inferior interest to the Roman Catecombs are those near S, Gen- imro dei Poveri at Naples, where ^ also are found considerable remains of both ancient Christian and Pa- gan paintiues, though the greater number are figures of Sainte, dating from about the eighth century backwards, already strongly Byzan- tine in character.

The style of the Catacomb pic- tures in the older works closely resembles antique painting in form and feelinff, followmg step by stq> ite graduid degeneracy into stiff- ness and want of form. Most im- portent and characteristic for the primitive relations of Christianify to art are the conception and selec- tion of subjecte.

We find united with the fonna


Catacombs.


and types of antique paintings, as we have become acquainted with them in Pompeii and elsewhere, the first traces of an artistic mode of thought, which, after a long period of entire degeneracy in art, reappears in the movement which revivified Christian art in the thir- teenth century, and is not there- fore to be found in the severe and narrow forms of the Mosaics.

Pre-eminent here stands Sym- bolism : which is often but an out- ward combination of incidents and scenes, the true relations of which must be known to the spectator beforehand, being here without any more necessary affinity than the fish with the designation of Christ, the initial letters of which repre- sent the IX0T2 : (so the story of Jonah or the raising of Lazarus as the type of the Resurrection) ; at other times it is a truly artistic combination, which, with the aid of antique themes, creates a beau- tiful form for an ethical or religious idea, through the characteristics of the figures and their action, as in the well-known figure of the Good Shepherd in S. Calisto, S. Nereo and AchUleo and elsewhere. Chris- tian art also tries its powers in the creation of typical images, of which the special variations from the an- tique are the same as those seen in the oldest Christian sculptures of the sarcophagi. Associated with the first pictures of the Madonna a {S. CalistOf S, Marcellino e Pietro, b S. PriscUla) are the earliest at- tempts at a portrait of Christ {S, Nereo and AchUleo) ; the Apostles also are first represented with the characteristics by which they have been identified through all after times (same place, chapel of the Evangelists). The artistic treat- ment of the action andjexpression does not go beyond what ancient art supplied to the Christian painter ; incidents like the Adoration of the Magi, the Last Supper, the Miracle


of the Loaves, only appear as fiffurea standing in a row, with some slight expressiou^in the attitudes, and the si^;ns of life here apparent soon stiffen into a purely conventional arrangement.

The ancient Christian sarcophagi serve to complement the Catacomb paintings, thoush they express another set of ideas; the figured ground of drinking glasses (Vase in Museo Onstiano of the Vatican) d may also help to complete the pic- ture of the oldest practice of Christian art.

MOSAIC PAINTING.

In church mosaics we have an almost uninterrupted and authen- ticated series of Christian paintings from the time when Christiani^ became a state institution. We must here give a short account of the influences under which they arose.

Art here is fettered by rules more strict and rigid than those of any earlier time. Ecclesiasti- cal pomp and monumental effect, and a firm conviction that work once done must last eternally, prompt the use of materials which exclude the artist from participa- tion in any labours but those of drawing cartoons or choosing glass pastes. The Church desires or only permits what Church pur- poses strictly demand. Her re- quirements must be satisfied in an imposing manner. The subject beiQg m in all is set in just so much accessory scenery as suffices to explain the theme without an appeal to sensual beauty. The Church has other means of affecting the imagina- tion than those of artistic con- trast in action, shape, or colour. She provides quite a different feel- ing for harmony than that derived from beautifid formal contrasts. The artist no longer invents ; he has only to reproduce what the


10


MeduBval Painting.


Church has discovered for him. !For a time art still keeps up some remains of the joyous spirit in- herited from ancient times, and within its narrow limits still cre- ates sinele forms that are grand and lifeuke. But gradually it sinks and falls back at last into mere mechanical repetition.

THE BYZANTrNE STYLE.

This repetition of somethinff learnt b^ heart is the essentiiu characteristic of what we call the Byzantine style. Thus, in Con- stantinople, where in course of time the practice of almost all the best art of the Christian world was concentrated, after about, the time of Justinian, there grew up a system adopting a certain arrangement of the scenes-to be represented, a par- ticular manner of depicting sinele figorea according to their import- ance and their rank, and a special treatment of every detail. Every one learnt this system by heart, as far as his natural capacity al- lowed, and then reproduced it, for the most part without any reference to nature. Therefore it is that we find in this style so many almost identical Madonnas ; therefore the various representations of the same scene so nearly resemble each other, while the single sacred figures of the same person are exacuy alike. It is astonishing to observe this complete dying out of individual character,* which is gradually- sup- planted by a uniform tjrpe, sunilar in every detaiL We have to com- pare it with the art of ancient un- progressive nations (Egyptians, Chinese, &c.) to conceive how form could be subjected. to an uniform

  • It takes reftige in illuminating, or at

least shows itself there in the reproduc- tion of better ancient originals. But gradually it died quite out» and when new subjects, e. g.y stories of martyr- doms, have to be represented, it is only by a new combination of familiar elements.


traditional law. The Byzantine sys- tem was indeed partly founded on reminiscences of antiquity, but so stiff as hardly to be recognisable. The expression of holiness always^ takes the shape of moroseness, since art was not pennitted t^' arouse the thought of the super- natural by producing forms that were free as well as grand. Even ^ the Madonna becomes sulky, though the small lips and thin nose seem to make a certain at- tempt at loveliness ; in male heads there is often a repulsive malig- nant expression. The drapery, , arranged in a particular number of conventional modes, has a special way of falling into delicate stiff folds and breaks; when the type requires it, it is merely a stirface of ornaments, gold, and jewels ; in other places, in easel pictures con- stantly, and often in mosaics, cold serves to represent the high lights. The movements and positions be- "^ come more and more lifeless, and in works of the eleventh century, like the old mosaics of S. Marco, a, they preserve hardly a trace of life.

This style now gained great in- fluence in Italy alBO. Not only did many important countries and towns. Home amonff the number, remain for quite a "Siousand years in an apparent and partially real dependence on the Greek empire, but Byzantine art likewise pos- sessed special qualities, which for a time assurea its predominance over all Italian art. In both countries the religious feeling was the same ; it was not till the mid- dle of the eleventh century that the ecclesiastical breach between Home and Byzantium was once for aU decided. Nothing, therefore, es- sentially checked its influence. Thiis the broken and impoverished life of Italian art could not but be overshadowed by that of Byzan- tine culture, now entirely unri-


Byzantine Styk.


11


iralled in the metropolis at least, even had the latter style possessed no advantage beyond the tradition of its artistic method. This, how- ever, was a decisive point in those times ; the Church which only thought of creating an effect by splendid materials and the richest possible treatment of them, found her purposes better answered by the artists and works of art broneht from Constantinople than by the native artists. Thus the Italian painter, from the seventh to the thirteenth century has but the choice, either to exercise his un- tutored pencil in meaner tasks, or humbly to act as assistant to the

^ Byzantine artists. In particular towns like Venice, whole colonies of Greeks settled round a church as Mosaic workers, even for a cen- tury or more. It was a srand mo- ment in Italian life when they were dismissed, because a native creative spirit had awakened afresh, and was again capable of representing sacred things inde-

vpendently. The Byzantine influ- ence lasted on a long time here and there (in Venice, Lower Italy, &c.), and even now has not <^uite died out, because the Byzan- tme style was so closely connected in the popular mind with the sa- cred types.

The Italian mosaics can be di- vided into two tolerably marked classes; the ancient Chnstian, up to the seventh century, in which the antique ideas, more or less dying out, can still be traced ; and those produced under the Byzantine in- fluence after the seventh century. This influence varied in degree; there is a great difference between the works of the Greeks themselves who had colonized, and what was afterwards more or less copied from them, but for centuries we find no single figure in Church Mosaics quite unaffected by the Byzantine style.


ANCIENT CHRISTIAN MOSAICS.

The ancient Christian Mosaics have for two reasons great histo- rical value. They show the form which the ideas of that time gave to the biblical characters, especially those of the New Testament. The type of Christ may have been ptutly created out of an old tradi- tion, but not so definitely as is often assumed. The costume of Christ, of his followers and Apostles, is an ideal one adopted chiefly from Roman art. Other personages are characterized by a costume belong- ing to their rank, often very splen- did. In the heads there is un- questionably an attempt at an ideal (thoush not sensuously beau- tiful) but the average of physical form had sunk so low that hardly any but peculiarly ugly faces could be produced. In the second place, we see here a system of reli- gious modes of expression and trains of ideas, created less by art than by the Church, and forming a historical memorial of the highest value. And in truth it is mostly the Ecclesiatriumphans which here speaks : the principal subject is not the earthly wanderings of Christ and the Saints, but their Apocalyptic glorification. These forms seem to exist without sur- roundings, in infinite space, I'epre- sented by a blue ground, and also often, latterly always on a gold ground : the earth provided for them is either a simple flat surface, or adorned with flowers, with the river Jordan in addition, or the rivers of Paradise. Their {.atti- tudes are composed and solemn ; they seem to exist rather than to act. In order to understand the cycle of ideas here developed, we must put ourselves into the same point of view. The mere choice of position for instance, in placing Apostles and Prophets opposite each other, stands for an expres-


12


MedicBval Painting.


sion of Promise and Fulfilment; the simple action of stepping for- ward, a bowing of the knee, suffice as symbols of worship ; the raising of the arms signifies speaking, pray- ing or declaration of power, accord- ing to the circumstances. The spirit of the time is so strong that it takes the slightest hint as a com- plete expression, and is ready to follow it without requiring any expressions in the features corre- sponding with the incident, or any external explanation. As we have said above. Art was never more restricted; the public of the day have never been disposed to con- cede more or to require less of it.

MOSAICS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY.

It would lead us very far, if we attempted here to describe this particular cycle of art ; of the Ko- man Mosaics Platner's description of Home gives an exact account; those in Eavenna contain much that is not to be found in Borne, but here too the subject can be guessed at. Our enumeration in- cludes only the more important works. Crowe and Oavalcaselle give a most complete description.

a After the mosaics of S. Costanza* at Rome, of the time of Oonstantine, mentioned before in connection

' with ancient ornamentation, those of the orthodox Baptistery, S. Chio-

ifvanni in Fonte, in Bavenna, are the earliest masterpiece (ante 430), indeed the only one in which the full decorative richness (settings, ornamental figures, alternations of stucco, relief and mosaic) of late Boman work is combined with good and lifelike drawing; it is also one of the most splendid spe- cimens of ensemble of colour in the

V- whole of art.

  • The rade and insignificant mosaics on

the niches of the side door belong to the seventh century.— B.


The biblical stories which are represented in S, Maria Maggiore at Some, on the upper walls of thee central nave, ana on the arch of triumph (earlier than 450, but many of them much altered, or quite modem) will stand as spe- cimens of the picture Bible then in use. In many compositions there are subjects taken from Trajan's column.

In the monumental chapel of Galla Flacidia, now S, Nazaro e Celso, at Bavenna, the beautiful <2 coloiired ornaments on a dark blue ground are better than the figures (about 450). Of the same date ^ (432 — 440?) is the Mosaic ornamen- tation in the Vestibide of the Bap- c tistery of the Lateran. So also the two female figures of the church of the Jewish Christians and Pagan Christians in Sta, Sabina at Some. /

Under Leo the Great (440-461) were produced the front mosaics of the Arch of Triumph in St. Paid at flT Some, which have now again been restoi^ed by means of fragments and copies. They are the first ob- tainable prototypes of a representa- tion, which afterwards became com- mon, of the twenty-four Elders (oat of the Apocalypse); also the gigantic half -figure of Christ in the centre was one of the most remarkable in ancient Christian art. The mo- saics of the tribune appear to have been made in the thirteenth oentury, after an original of the fifth ; they contain, like nearly all tribune mosaics, Christ enthroned with various Saints, and underneath them the Saints of the Church and also the Founders. Elsewhere Christ is represented standing on a hill or on clouds, not floating as in the modern manner.

MOSAICS OF THE SIXTH CENTURY.

This last position we find in the most beautiful mosaic in Borne,


Moaaica of Fifth and Sixth Centuries.


13


a tliat of SS. Catmasand Damian in the Forum (526—530). Thoueh much restored, especially in the part on the left, this grand work embodies in a form already some- what stiff, one of the last free inspirations of Christian art. The execution is still beautiful and carefuL The mosaics at Ravenna in the

^Arian Baptistery (or S, Maria in Cosniedin about 550?) are a mere imitation of the painting in the dome of the other Baptisteiy. Of

^ the same date (526 — 547) are those of the niches of the Choir in S.

c Vitale, which comprise among others the splendid ceremonial pic- tares of Justinian and Theodora, works far more remarkable for the subjects which they illustrate than

^ for execution ; on the walls next to them are the bloody and bloodless sacnfioesof the Old Testament (the Sacrifice of Abel, Abraham's Re- . ception of the Three Angels, the Sacrifice of Isaac, the Inception of Melchisedek) ; the History of

' Moses ; Prophets. The two great friezes with processions of Saints

din. 8, ApolUnare Nitovo, on the upper parts of the walls of the central nave (553 — 566) are for size the most important pieces of

V mosaic in the continent of Italy. Of the two cities, Ravenna and Glassis (the ancient harbour of Ravenna), from which the pro- cessions are seen to issue, the for- mer is represented by a most re- markable view of the palace of the Ostrogoth kings, now all but com- pletely destroyed.* Apparently of the sixth century are the mosaics of the chapel of the archiepiscopal palace, buut presumably 439 — 450; the prevailing architectural oma- mentotion of which is grand in

  • Still more ancient are the Adoration

of the Kings and the Christ Entombed, at the sides of the choir, the twenty-six scenes from the New Testament, and the single figures between the windows.— B.


character, whilst the method of execution and a certain barbaric richness of costume indicate the growing Byzantine infiuenoe.

In the cathedral of Trieste, thee side tribune on the left contains in the niche two good figures of Apos- tles in the same style. (The Ma- donna in the central semi-dome and all the mosaics of the side- tribune on the riffht belong to the advanced Byzantine school.)

In Milan, in the Cappella S. f Aquiltno, an octagonal building, annexed to S. Lorenzo, are two semi-domes with mosaics, repre- senting Christ between the Apos- tles, and the announcement of the birth of Christ to the Shepherds, moderately good works of the sixth or even fifth (?) century. There also are the newly restored mosaics of the Chapel of S. Sqtiro, in S. ^ Ambrogio ; fifth century.

The origin of the mosaic in 8, h Pudenziana at Some is disputed; it must have been executed after an original of the fourth centuiy, and in spite of a great deal of restoration, it may represent a composition of the time of Con- stantine. The tribune of 8. Teo-i doro at Borne (seventh century) contains a partial repetition of the ^ mosaic of the 88. Cosmaa and Da- J mian. The mosaics of the inner church of 8. Lorenzo fuori (578 — k 590) over the Arch of Triumph have been lately entirely renewea.

The transition to the Byzantine style was, as may be imagined, a gradual one ; a stony stiffening in traditional types is in point of fact Byzantinism.

In Ravenna this transition is seen in the large and very remark- able mosaic of the tribune of 8, ApolUnare in Classe (671— 677); ? besides the repetition of the Sacri- fices of the Old Testament (from S. Vitale), there is also here a ce- remonial picture of the Empire. The spandrils of the arches over


14


Mediaeval Painting,


the oolumns of the nave are deco- rated \9\t\L a moBt complete collec- tion of ancient Christian emblems (in modern copies) ; the series of portraits of the archbishops, which fiurmount them like a frieze, is almost the only specimen (pre- served at least by a copy) of the series of portraits of the early me- diaeval churches. * Here, too, we must mention the

a mosaics of the tribune of 8. Agnese fuori (625— ^8), in Borne, and in one of the adjoining chapels of the Lateran Baptistery, the so-called

b Oratorio di 8. Venanzio (640—642). It is clear in this last work that the artist has quite lost all freedom of mind, ail pleasure and interest in his work. No wonder that he no longer understands what he merely repeats. Some smaller fragments are found in the little Tribune of

c 8. Stefano Eotondo — also on one of

d the altars on the left in 8. Pietro in

Vincoli (S. Sebastian as a votive

picture for the plague of 680, here

clothed and represented as an old

man), and others.

We find traces of a last though unsuccessful effort against the By- zantine spirit in the (much-restored)

e mosaics of the Choir of St, AmJbro- gio at Milan (?832), though here also the inscriptions are partiy Greek. The features are rudely sketched, the drapery given in a harsh, iris-hued colour (of white, green, and red), the distnbution of the figures (very unequal in size) is quite unartistic, and yet there is much more Ufe in it than in con- temporary Roman works of the period t

  • In S. Paul at Rome a series of new

mosaic portraits replace the old. Compare the heads of the Popes used as consoles in the cathedral of Siena.

t Also interesting as containing all the patron saints of Milan of that time. Christ enthroned nnder a glory, sur- rounded by Michael and Oabriel, and next to them S. Gervasius and S. Pro- tasius. below in round settings 8. Can- dida, 8. Satyms, and S.)Marcellma ; on the


After the beginning of the ninth century, the Roman mosaics sink to a degree of rudeness for which it is not easy to find a historical reason in the civilization of the time; since Byzantine art, the influence of which is here everywhere visible, shows less elegance in execution here than any^mere else.

The most remarkable of these mosaics, as to subject, that from the Triclinium of Leo IIL (about/ 800) having been moved to the chapel of Sancta Sanctorum (or Scala Santa), has been subjected to recomposition, though copied ex- actiy from the old. (The two in- vestitures at the side of the semi- dome : Christ givins the keys to S. Silvester, and a banner to the great Constantine ; Si Peter giving a stole to Leo IIL, a banner to Charlemagne ; the portraits of the latter have some semblance of au- thenticity, but are in veiy bad condition.) Under the next Popes mosaics grow ruder and more life- less and become distorted to an inconceivable degree. So we find it in and above the Tribunes of 88, Nereo and Aehilleo, 8. Maria deUag JVamcella (817—824), 8. CecUia and /* 8. Prassede^-the last three, build- i ings of the time of Paschal I. (817— 824). S. Prassede has an Arch of Triumph in mosaic, with the ex- traordinary representation of the heavenly Jerusalem and the little chapel (on the right), **Orto del Pai^diso," the interior of which is aU in mosaic. In the semi-cupola

left the town of Tours, and 8. Ambrose at the burial of S. Martin; on the right the* townfof Milan and 8. Ambrose and 8. Augustine seated at desks.— There is in- deed a great interval to lie traversed "be- tween such elementarv beginnings and Raphael's Madonna di Foligno and Santa Cecilia, or the 8ante Conversazione of Titian.

In an adjoining chapel on the right of the church the cupola contains the half- length ilgnre of 8. Satyro on a gold ground, somewhat earlier than the mo- saics of the tribune.


Mosaics of Ninth Century.


15


^of the tribune of S, Marco (827 — S44), are some others, mere carica- tures.

In Venice, where there was a closer connection with Byzantium and greater wealth than in Borne, mosaics show not only the mode of conception, but the neat and elegant execution of the Byzantines. The

  • church of S, Mark's, with its 40,000

square feet of mosaics, is by far the richest monument of this Oriental style.

Among these, we note as inte- resting for the subject, the re- ceived, conventional representa- tions of gospel history in the Byzantine manner (especially on the vaultings and many wall sur- faces of the interior); — the collec- tion of numerous single figures of saints (chiefly on the piers and in the curves of the arches) ; — ^the

^ legendary method of narration (in the Capella Zeno, with the story of S. Mark, and in one of the five semicircular fniches of the fagade, the story of his dead body) ; — here amons others the picture of the church; — another history of the body of the Saint, in the right transept (on the wall to the right) ; — the oaptism of the Apostles and the Angels of various ranks, dis- tinguished by their various em- ployments (shallow cupolas of the Baptistery chapel) ; — ^lastly, in the chief cupolas of the church, the feast of Pentecost, where strangers of various nations are distingui&ed by their costume and appearance (front cupola) ;— Christ, with four archangels, attended by the Virgin and the Apostles, and surrounded by the only complete series in mosaic of the Christian virtues (central cupola) ;~the miracles of the Apostles, &c. (left cupola).

Judging from the style, these works are of very various dates; though, for convenience sake, we mention them here together. The severe, lifeless Byzan€ne school is


represented in the mosaics of all the cupolas (eleventh and twelfth century), except those to the right ; the Christ between the Virgin and. John, inside above the inner door, is the earliest, and considered to belong to the tenth century. The mosaics above mentioned of the Capella Zeno, also those of a wallop niche of the fagade, as well as many others, are Byzantine in style, thouffh somewhat modified and more lifelike, and verv delicate in their details. In striking con- trast with these are the mosaics of the vestibule, both before the three doors and on the left side of the church, importantworksof the west- ern romanesque style of the thir- teenth century (except some obvi- ously modem additions), the history of the creation as far as Moses, siven in a naive narrative manner. Again more Byzantine, although not earlier than the end of the thirteenth and fourteenth century, are the mosaics before mentioned and others in the Baptistery, Those of the chapel^ of S. IsidorOf in the left transept y^ (about 1350), are unskilfully Giot- tesque. About 1430, those in the Cappella di Ma^oli^ by MickUlg Giambono, * but only the left-hand half of the vaulting ; the right shows a much better hand (per- haps not Venetian) of the end of the fifteenth century. Scattered over the whole church are composi- tions by the Vivarini, Titian^ and Jt^ many later painters. (The cupola on the right. Paradise on the vault in front, most of the semicircles of the fa9ade, &c.) None of tiiese mosaics, not even the earlier ones, presuppose a distinct plan witii subordmate detail, nor do they reveal any apparent progress in the development of poetic or dogmatic thought. Even round the High Altar, the sacrifice of Cain and

  • Perhaps father and son of the same

name, the latter of whom executed tha right-hand half.— Mr.


16


MedicBval Painting.


Abel 18 the only instance of the flystem of Old Testament allusions to the sacrifice of the Mass such as

a we found in the Choir of 8, Vitale. * The churches of Palermo and its neighbourhood contain the prin- cipal monuments of Byzantine mo- saic painting, chiefly practised by Greek artists, under iforman rule.

' In the work on Architecture we have indicated how slight is the omnic connection between this ri^ ornamentation and the archi- tecture which it adorns. The selection of types, and the skill with which scenes are enriched with numerous figures, as well as technical knowledge, reveal the practised Byzantine school, though some mosaics display the hand of native artists ; but we must not r^pird the Greek and Latin inscrip- tions as the criteria of this. The order to be followed in the most important monuments is, according to Crowe and Cavalcaselle : the

h Choir of the CcUhedral of Cefalu (after 1148) ; contemporary, but of inferior workmanship, the Cappeiia

e PakUiTia, at Palermo ; fragments in

dthe Martorana {S. Maria delV Am-

e miraglio) ; the CcUhedral of Hon- reale, finished 1182, nearer the

/ decline ; the Cathedral of Hessina, thirteenth century. On the main- land we must mention here the much-injured mosaics of the new

^side tribune in the Cathedral of Balemo (after 1084) ; and compare with them the very rude wall

A paintings of S. Angela in FormiSy a few miles from S. Maria di Capuayt executed about the same

  • The Mosaics in the Cathedrals of

Marano and Torcello are still entirely Byzantine.— R [In S. Donato of Murano an Assumption with tiie Four Evangelists is a good example of the art of mosaics at Venice in the twelfth century.— Ed.]

t These paintinss, described as early as 1862 by Crowe and C. were, according to Neapolitan publications, discovered in 1868, and were to be " restored," without delay, which, according to general ex- pectation in South Italy, would be equi-


time ; the latter being almost the only monument remaining in paint- ing of the movement in art pa- tronised by Abbot Besiderius, of Monte Cassino [and the wall paint- ings of Sant' £lia of Nepi, completed in the beginning of the eleventh century by John, Stephen, and Nicholas of Rome.— Ed. J We look i in vain in any of these works for signs of real artistic development ; the 'chief impression is that of a high degree of splendour in deco- ration. Where the representation of the action does become really lifelike, the violent movement of figures, which in general are con- ceived in a symmetrical arrange- ment, and the realism of many m- dividual gestures, becomes almost comic, as, for instance, on the walls of the central nave of the Cathedral of Monreale ; and the best things/ done by this style of art will always be the ardiitectnrally-severe figures in repose in the niches of the Choir.

Taken as a whole, these careful late Byzantine Mosaics and wall paintings of Venice and Southern Italy are wonderful evidence of the conaitions imposed on art by the church of Gregory VII. The cor- poreal presentment of Christ and the Saints shrivels to a mero emblem, but this emblem is brought before us with a lavish expenditure of costiy materials and laborious execution. The greatest possible honour is to be paid to religion ; but it is superfluous to suggest personality or beauty, since devo- tion can be excited strongly enough without either.

The panel pictures on wood in the Byzantine style now to b& found in Italy are innumerable, especially pictures of the Madonna. Very few date from before 1000 ; for the greater number are copies

valent to destroying them. [They hare been restored, and in one or two pieces above the portal completely renewed.— Ed.]


Byzantine Easel Pictures.


17


from special miraculous pictures of the Madonna, and were produced either towards the end of the middle ages, or in quite modem times; besides this, we must re- member that Greek communities appear here and there in Italy amongst which the Byzantine mode of representation has remained consecrated. The peculiar colours of the varnish, the green flesh- shadows, the raised gold of the hatchings, make these paintings easily recognizable. I cannot say with any approach to certainty, whether in the type of the Madonna, there are varieties to be distin- ^ished ; it is difficult to trace this back to such old originals as we possess of the type of Christ. The so-called Black Virgin is not a real type, but rose from the mistaken repetition of Madonnasgrown brown

a with age. The picture in S. Maria Maggiore (chapel of Paul V.) was certainly once (IXth century) painted light ; but later copies, particularly when darkened by age, will give the impression of a deep brown complexion.

Some especially instructive By- zantine easel pictures are to be found in the collection at the Miiseo

h Oristiano of the Vaiicanj which was founded by the late Monsig. Laureani, and contains a great number of small pictures, some of them very valuable, of the school 4»f Giotto and the beginning of the fifteenth century. As Rome pos- sesses few examples of monumental art of this period, these are a wel- come supplement. There, among others, is the death of S. Ephraim, painted in the eleventh century by

cthe Greek Emanuel Tzanfwnvari, There are also many Byzantine

d pictures in the Naples Micseum.

In conclusion, we have still to


mention two works of art, of which one was undoubtedly and the other probably produced in Constanti- nople itseli. The altar-piece {Pala ^ d'Oro)m the treasury of St. Mark\* at Venice (ordered in 976?), con- sists of gold plates, lately put together again, containing a con- siderable number of figures, and whole scenes in enameL The style is much the same as that of the last-named mosaics ; the execution exquisitely delicate ; in the absence of gradations of tints, which were unknown to the enamel work of that time, the lights and the folds of the drapery are expressed by the most delicate gold hatchings. The other is the so-called Dalmatica of Charlemagne, to be *seeD in the treasury of St. Peter, at Borne. It/ is a deacon's robe, apparently of the twelfth century, which several emperors wore at their coronations. On a ground of deep blue silk, nimierous groups of figures are worked in gold, silver, and a few colours ; in front, Christ in glory,, with angels and saints; behind, the Transfiguration on Mt. Tabor ; on the sleeves, Christ as the dis- penser of the Sacraments. It is a remarkable relic of the time when not only the Church, but the offi- ciating priest was considered a symbol, a theory expressed under the veil of the most costly mate- rials possible. Besides this, in the Opera del Du(nno at Florence is a^ piece of wax mosaic in miniature dimensions, of the most delicate execution, a marvel of minute workmanship.

  • Where I saw it in 1846. In the year

1854 there was [as there now is, 1879] a covered altar-piece on the High altar itself, with a back painted in the year 1845 [hy Paolo, Luca, and Lorenzo oC Venice.— Ed.]


C


18


Romanesque Painting.


CHAPTER III.— ROMANESQUE STYLE OF PAINTING.


With the eleventh century paint- ing enters as it were upon a new life, and forms for itself a new style, which we may call the Romanesque. Ill-conceiyed repetitions of the an- tique are gradually remodelled in

^ the spirit of modem times.

Alongside of the Byzantine style which nad become dominant in Italy, there had always existed a species of uneducated national art, chiefly employed in the ornamenta- tion of inferior churches which could not afford the expense of either mosaics or Greek artists. It was from among the workers in this style, which, in contradis- tinction to the Byzantine, may be ^ called Old Lombardic, that the new movement arose. The earliest mo- numents of note are the wall-paint- ings, mostly of legendary subjects, io the reputed temple of Bacchus,

a S. Urbano alia Caffarella, at Borne, nominally of the year 1011. Simi- lar fragments are to be found in

h the Lateran Museum, whither they were taken from S. Agnese. The , chief characteristics of the new style, marked action, and appropri- ate, if not quite easy, gesture, are already here in embryo. In spite of incomplete execution, the sym- pathy of the beholder is aroused ;

^ art begins to invent anew, after long centuries of repetition and

^ combination. There is naturally a mixture of acquired fiyzantinism even in this simple narrative wall- })ainting ; and two later works, the frescoes of the entrance into S.

c Lorenzo fuori (post a. d. 1217, hardly recognisable through modern resto- ration), and those of the chapel of

ri*V. Silvestro in the front court of •SS. Quattro Coronati, both of the beginning of the thirteenth century, re&pse again into a still more By- zantine manner. Rude works like- wise are the paintings of uncertain


dato discovered in 1858, in the lower church of S, ClemevUe, though c in them we find occasional living touches, as, for instance, a mother embracing a child. But meantime the new impulse had grown strong enough to make itself felt even in most monumental mosaic painting. In S, Maria in Trcutevere the semi-/" dome of the Tribune and the curve of the Arch of Triumph, contain the first important creations of the Romanesque style in Italy (1139 — 1153) ; in spite of the rudeness of the forms in these mosaics, we re- cosnise with pleasure a germ of individual life in the appearance of new incidents; Christ and the Virgin enthroned together are un- Byzantine even in conception. The Virgin between the Five Wise and the Five Foolish Virgins, on the fagade is of the same time, extremely stiff. For the later mosaics of the apse, ascribed to^ Cavallini, see below. The mosaics of the choir, also, of S. Clementeh (before 1150) are, in their figures, quite Romanesque ; the leaf orna- ment in the semidome resembles the splendid ornament in the Lato- ran, only in other colours and with the addition of many little fibres. The mosaics in the niche in S, ^ Francesca JRomana is merely a re-» petition of older types, and ugly in* execution.

Still, either from historical causes or because the right artist had not yet appeared, this new Romanesque movement produced, for some time,, no considerable result. The only inspiration in art which can be claimed for the time of Innocent III. and his immediate successors is found in the better works of the Cosmati. Painting makes no ad- vance. A relapse mto the old fiy- zantinism shows itself, for instance, in the details of the large apsidal


Home — Venice — Parma.


19


a mosaics in S, Paul (after 1216), which appears to be a new arrange- ment of what was placed there in the fifth century ; also in the mural paintings just mentioned (p. 18). In the mosaics [now completely renewed] of the fa9ade of tne Ca-

h thedral of Spoleto, which were exe- cuted in 1207 by a painter named Solsem/us, the Byzantine is found combined with a certain freedom and dignity, especially in the ges- tures of the Virgin and St. John ; Christ appears again in the youth- ful form for which the Byzantines had substituted that of an old man. The struggle between the two styles took quite a different course

^ in different districts. In Venice the Komanesque, as we have seen, came out splendidly in the mosaics

6 of the vertibule of St. Mark^ al- though at times falling back into

^ Byzantinism. In Parma the frescos

c^of the Baptistery (excepting the lower ones, which are unimportant Giottesques) are among the most remarkable early specimens of the Bomanesque style ; the work of various hands, auring the first hidf of the thirteenth century, they exhibit, especially in the narrative ports at the edge of the cupola, the characteristics of life and move- ment, the passionate gestures pe- cmliar to this style, which is as yet incapable of physiognomical ex- pression. On the fa9ade of the

e Cathedral of Beggio (twelfth or thirteeuth century) are single fig- ures of saints, mostly in repose, m fresco, belonging indiscriminately to both styles ; — also on the walls of J S. ZeTwne at Verona, showing out from behind half-ruined paintings of the fourteenth century ; — in the

//vestibule of 8. Ambrogio at Milan (of various dates) ; and elsewhere. Jir In the Sacro apeco at Subiaco, its picturesque interior derives a pecu- liar charm from some inferior wall- paintings of the twelfth and thir- teenth centuries, with the artists'


names inscribed. There is here a possibly eenuine portrait of S. Francis (the youthful monk with- out the stigmata, on the right as you enter the chapel of S. Gregorio), which has indeed undergone fre- quent repaintings.

DECAY OF BYZANTINE STYLE.

Before we begin to speak of Tus- cany, let us reconsider the position of art, as it was then developing itself. A youthful style, which has much to tell, but only a limited capacity of expression, grows up alongside of the style traditionally hallowed by its devotion to reli- gious purposes. It does not yet aim at beauty and grace, but neither is it confined to the severe and ascetic; almost unintentionally the figures take a youthful form. Nor does this style of art recognise any peculiar sanctity in the well- known sequence of Byzantine po- sitions and dresses, in the fixed types of sacred myths, etc. ; it gives all according to its own impiuses, and forms for itself positions more harmonious with Nature, flowing garments, fresh, lively traits of fife. At first it is allowed its way here and there on church walls, with its simple few colours in dis- temper. Next the workers in mo- saic, who considered their method inseparable from the Byzantine manner, by and bye discover that the new style has taken possession of one of the patnarchal churches in Kome, and is beginning to work also in mosaia From this point a real struggle seems to have begun ; - the Byzantine party sometimes vi- gorously uphold their old custom, sometimes attempt to divert the new style, mix it with their own, and seek to take from it its true bold character. In the works above named at Parma and Venice, it appears again quite uncontrolled, yet alongside of it Byzantinism:

c 2


20


Romanesque Painting.


asserts itself, both in its stiff forms as well as in its occasional conces- sions to the new ; its complete de- struction was brought about by the school of Giotto. Its connection with the most distinguished, most traditionally sacred form of art, mosaic, kept it up beyond its natu- ral term. It was not till this art had irrecoverably lost, not its per- manence, but its predominance, till all Italy was awake to the charm of fresco, that then, too, the By- zantine style perished.

TUSCANY.

At the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the highest art of the country, excepting in Pisa, first arose, the Byzantine style was undeniably supreme in Tuscany. The merit of the Tuscan painters of the time immediately succeeding, with whom, following the lead of Yasari, we used once to begin the history of art, consisted less in the immediate overthrow of the style, than in the new life they brought into it ; with a genera] Byzantinism of conception, individual parts yet became freer, more lively, and more beautiful, till at last the old bonds were altogether broken.

SIENA.

The importance of Siena's share in the very early development of art has become more doubtful since a the date 1221 in the large Madonna of Guide da Siena^ in S. Domenico (second chapel left of choir), has been regarded as the falsification of a date later by some fifty years. The first beginning of beauty, and, in the position of the child espe- cially, of a feeling for lines, and a life likeness in drawing, could only have been a merit in Italy as op- posed to the Byzantinism prevail- iua in Siena, which one sees in the oldest works of the Academy there.


(Crowe and Cavalcaselle moreover consider the fiesh parts of this pic- ture to have been painted over in the fourteenth century. ) The con- temporary pictures in the churches there and m the Academy are de- cidedly inferior to the Madonna of Guido. The student will find in the painted covers of the account books of the thirteenth century b (Academy), works bearing the names of artists of merely local celebrity.

AREZZO AND PISA.

In Arezzo and Pisa also, Marga-^ ritone of Arezzo (born about 1216) and Qiunta da Fisay who is said to have painted in Assisi from the year 1220, both mentioned by Ya- sari as the earliest examples of the new movement, can claim no higher place in the development of art. ./ Oiunta^s repulsive Crucifix in ^. c Eamieri e Leonardo^ the thoroughly feeble paintings of the same date in S. Fiero in ChradOy a few miles d nearer the sea than Pisa, and others of a similar kind, show that the advance made by the great sculptor Niocolo Pisano was no mere imi- tation nor was it stimulated by the painting of his immediate pre- decessors at Pisa. We shall speak, in their place, of the works as- cribed to Giunta in S. Francesco at Assisi.

FLORENCE.

In Florence, the ornamentation of the Baptistery was the principal work of the first half of the twelfth century and for a considerable time later. The niche in the choir, the mosaics of which were made after 1225 by a monk named Jacobus^ contains an excellent and important innovation ; kneeling figures on Corinthian capitals are employed as supporters of the central picture, one of the fij»t purely artistic con-


Tuscany.


21


oeptions, for even though these supporters may have a symbolical sense, still their chief purpose is the proper diyision of the space, a point to which Byzantine art, devoted simply to the subject, had paid no attention ; they are the originals of the figures supporting the arches a and filling the niches of the Sistine, In the cupola itself, the great Christ by the Florentine Andrea Tafi (bom after 1250, died after 1320), though keeping to the By- zantine outlines, is yet a very remarkable figure, dignified yet lif e- l^e. The species of friezes in con- centric lines, containing biblical stories and groups of angels, which occupy the rest of the dome, show the work of four or five diiSerent hands ; some is purely Byzantine, and should most probably be attri- buted to the Greek Apollonitis, who came, according to Vasari, from Venice; some is pure Romanesque, and reminds us of the Baptistery at Parma; other parts again are of mixed styles. (A great part has lost its original character by restora- tions.) Asides this, mosaic here begins to serve the purposes of architecture in friezes, balustrades, and other details of building.

In the time of the crisis which is conmiemorated by this monument of art, fell the early years of the Florentine [Cenni di Pepi, com-

/ monly called.— Ed. 1 Cimabue(l2401 till after 1302). There is no trace in his works of decided opposition

> to the Byzantines ; even in nis last and greatest work, the Christ be-

^ tween the Virgin and the Baptist, in the niche in the choir of the Cathedral at Pisa, he follows the usual arrangement almost entirely. But within the traditional limits there is a movement towards beauty

. and Ufe. His two great pictures of Madonnas made an epoch in

c Christian art. One now in the Academy at Florence does not in-


deed equal Guido of Siena in the freedom and skilful arrangement of the principal figures ; but it shows, especially in the angels* heads, that the master had a clear perception of the causes and elements of human grace. The other, in 8. M. Novella {Cap. Jliuxellai, in the right ^ transept), is far superior, and more unconscious; here we see the be- ginning of a proper feeling for nature, which can never agam be satisfied with the conventional re- presentation of a narrow series of facts. We fully comprehend, on^ seeing this great picture, the over- powering impression which it made on its contemporaries, as though it was a vision from above. There is ' in it so little that is displeasing to modem feeling, even the unpre- pared and uninitiated eye, that hardly any altar-piece of later times can compare with this in solemnity of impression and a touching mix- ture of dignity and grace.*

But Cimabue first displayed his whole capacity in the frescos of the upper church of S. Francesco at Assisi. These are unfortunately much injured, so that each indi- vidual picture requires a special effort of imagination. Following the very careful researches of Crowe and Cavalcaselle, we have before us in the wall pictures of Assisi, a continuous series in which the advance of art from Cimabue' s im- mediate predecessors up to QioUo can be observed. They divide the pictures into the following groups : ( 1 ) in the nave of the Lower Churchy «  the life of Christ and S. Francis (in Vasari erroneously attributed to Citmbue), by a rude hand some- what like the painter of S. Piero in Grado : in the Upper Church ; (2) the southern transept, on the west-/

• No other pictures ascribed to Cima^nte are now regarded as genuine. The 8. Cecilia, with the scenes of her martyrdom Ufflzi, No. 2), is far too free for him.


22


Romanesque Painting.


em wall, the Crucifixioiii appa- rently by QiuTda Fisano, and in the same antique feeble style the other remains on this and the south wall ; here are the scanty traces of a Crucifixion of Peter, and a fanci- ful scene of Simon Magus driven about in the air by demons ; (3)

« the paintings in the choir, Scenes out of the life of the Virgin, of uncertain authorship, forming the link with the better paintings, those most resembling Oimdbue in the northern transept ; the remains of a Christ enthroned, of a throne with the symbols of the Evangelists and winded skeletons ; (4) by Ci-

^mdbue hmdself: there are a Ma- donna with four angels among the Giottesque pictures on the west wall of the southern transept of

<5the Lower Church; (5) the three ceiling paintings, with figures, of the Upper Church ; in the transept, the four Evangelists with angels, all seated writine, bending towards a tower-crowned city, much in- jured, in the style of the northern transept ; in the 3rd compartment of the curved ceiliDg, counting from the door, the pamting men- tioned in the volume on architec- ture, on account of its decorative effect ; circular pictures of Christ, of the Virgin and two Saints, sup- ported by angels represented as Victories, encircled by festoons issuing from vases, borne by naked Genii; in the first arch from the door the four Fathers of the Church dictating to their copyists ; the two last ardiies in a more advanced style, bright colouring, and con- ceived in a manner which recals

^ the Roman Mosaics of RttsvMi and Oaddo Qaddi (bom about 1259, died after 1333). Next (6) come the two upper series of wall pictures in the body of the building, with sixteen histories of the Old and sixteen of the New Testament ; then the entrance wall with the Ascension and the Feast of Pente-


cost, under the medallions of SS. Peter and PauL These almost en- tirely ruined works, the latest of which Vasari especially extols as the production of Gi'indbue, are probably the work of various handa under the influence of Cimabue. Energetic gestures, a fresh and. lively treatment of incidents, with, a teUing arrangement of groups, strike us as forcibly as do parti> cular trivial and coarse traits which, one usually expects only in the school of Giotto. Lastly (7), the lower series of wall pictures in the e body of the building, the life of S. Francis, one of the most detailed cyclical representations of the mar- vellous legend. In the beginning of this series of pictures (not in- cluding the first ]^icture) we recog- nise in the technical execution as well as in the artistic conception, an immediate connection with the upper cycles ; in the continuation of the narrative, the transition to the method of Giotto, to which the five last and the first pictures of the series approach so nearly, that we must attribute them to him as their author, though certainly in the period of youthful effort and comparatively imperfect technical experience.

Great diversity of feeling existed among the immediate contempo- raries of Cimabue, as to their ac- ceptance of the new element intro- duced by him. The unknown author of the mosaics of the Tri- brnie of S. Miniato at Florence/ (1297 ?) is a stiff Byzantine ; the only beginning of any feeling for nature is in the figures of the ani- mals, which people the green meadow ground of his picture (now entirely renewed so that the origi- nal character is quite destroyed). On the other hand Gaddo Oaddt's Lunette, with the Coronation of the Virgin within, above the prin- g cipal entrance of the Cathedral, shows, in spite of the full splendour


Ducdo da Siena,


23


of the Byzantine method, the deep impression which CimaJbue^s Ma- donnas had produced. The mosaics of the pulpits in the transepts of A the Cathedral of Pisa are still more in Giotto's style. (Annunciation and Madonna with angels.)

SIENESE SCHOOL.

About this same time the Sienese school also shows its future ten- dency. Contemporary with Dioti- salvi was Ducdo [living 1282 to 1339], whose great altar-piece (1308

If — 1310), now divided, is set up in the Cathedral (at the two ends of the transept), on the left the Madonna with angels and saints ; on the right the stories of Christ in many smaller pictures.* If to produce individually beautiful ob- jects were the highest purpose of painting, Duccio would have ex- celled lul the thirteenth and four- teenth century, not even excepting Orca^a. Great must have been his joy, when he found himself capable of reproducing for his asto- nished contemporaries the beauty of the human countenance and the balanced grace of lovely movements and attitudes by his own methods (and not by following antique models, like Niccolo Pisano). Yet his method is stiU Byzantine, and in his historical compositions he 'rather, strictiy speaking, gave life to the traditional subjects of the school than introduced anv new ones. Whether he produced much or littie else besfdes this altar- piece, he undoubtedly ^ave the tone to the school of his native city during a whole century. By his contemporary Ugolino tnere is nothing authentic to be seen in Italy, since the altar-piece in Or- sanmichele is declared not to belong to him. By Segna there is an altar-

c piece at Castiglioiie Fiorentino,

  • The predella pictures are in the sa*

crlsty.


ROMAN MOSAICS OF XIII. CENTURY.

Bome was about this time the scene of a remarkable and original movement, which suggests the idea that the history of art might have followed quite a different course but for the catastrophe which re- moved the Papal chair for seventy years to the banks of the Ehone.

Between 1287 and 1295 the monk Jacobits Torriti completed the great mosaic of the Tribunes of the Altars in the Laieran and S, Maria d Maggiore. The former is still mo- notonous and faulty as to grouping, but remarkable for its expression of enthusiastic adoration. [Crowe and Cavalcaselle regard it as an older work merely restored by Tor- rUi; and the narrow parts between the windows also as the work of a master (the monk painted on the left) before Torriti's time.] The latter is one of the grandest pro- ductions of the pre-Giottesques, especially the circular picture in the centre in blue starred with gold; the Virgin, while being crowned by Christ, lifte up her hands in an adoring, and, at the same time, modestly deprecating at- titude. In addition to the beauty and the sense of motion expressed in the forms, there is, especially in the angels, which remind us of Cimabue, a truly lovely expression, and in the arrangement of the whole, the ground and decoration, fullness and freedom which Cima- bue had awakened anew in full force. Especial attention also should be given to the mosaics of the Cosmati, whose work in archi- tecture and sculpture likewise is of great excellence. By Ja^ob there e exists a half-length picture of the Saviour, simple in its line, over the right-hand side-door in the vesti-/ bule of the Church at Civita Cas- tellana, and the small picture of the Saviour between two slaves, refer- ring to the order of the Trinita-


24


The Gothib Style.


rians, on the porch now belonging a to the Villa Mattel on the Ccelian ; by Johannes is the Madonna on the iDurand Monument in S. Maria csopra Minerva^ and of the Cardinal Consalvo in S. Maria Maggiore, equally noble and gracefiiL Out of the School of the Cosmati must have arisen Pietro Cavallini, to whom Vasari attributes the lower mosaics in the Tribune of S. Maria in Trastevere, the single figures from the story of Christ ana the Virgin. Here, as in the Tribune, sinmar in style, of S. Crisogono d (the fragment of a Madonna be- tween IS. Chrysogonus and S. James), we recognise the transition to the manner of Gi(rtto. The narrative mosaics of the old f agade e of S. Marm Maggiore (conveniently seen from the upper loggia of the new one), completed about 1300 by FUippo Rusutt% are, in truth, not very full of invention, but are re- markable for their free arrangement


as architectural decoration, remind* ing ui here of the Pompeian work. The lower series are perhaps by Gaddo Gaddif to whom Vasari at- tributes the whole. Crowe and Cavalcaselle consider them related to the pictures in the vaulting in the Upper Church at Assisi.

While in these works at Home the Byzantine style appears to be nearly conquered, at Naples it still predominates. The beautiful mo- saic of a Madonna with two saints^ in S. RestitiUa (one of the chapels on the left), is a specimen of this style (about 1300), resembling Ci- mabue in its feeling of dignity and lifelikeness. A chapel in the Ca- thedral (C. Minutoli, in the right g transept) is said to liave been

Eainted by a contemporary of the itter, Tommaso degli btefani (1230-1310?); but ancient and modem repaintings have quite de- stroyed the character of the work.


CHAPTER IV.— THE GOTHIC STYLE.


Italian painting, in this its first great development, which moves parallel with Gothic art generally, and which in this branch also we designate as the Gothic style, has one great external advantage over painting in the north, that nere it is not merely the servant of archi- tecture, but possesses its own inde- pendent life. Wall surfaces are placed at its disposal, such as are never granted to it in the north, at least in large churches, and its assistance is counted upon as an essential means of decora- tion. Painting, as a special art, attracts to itseU the greatest genius of the time, OioUo, The position which it holds in relation to the other arts, even in the thirteenth century, is wonderfully elevated by his performances ; the taste for


' fresco in large series of pictures, I which he and his followers did so I much to strengthen, laid the firm foundation, without which Michael Angelo and Kaphael would never have accomplished the works in which their greatness was most displayed.

Giotto lived 1266-1337. Among his most important pupils and im- mediate followers, chiefly Floren- tine, we may name Taddeo Gaddi (born about 1300, died 1366) ; Gi- ottinOf or (? Tmnmaso di Stefano), 1324, till after 1395 (?) ; * Giovanni da Melano [of Milan, but bom at Caverzaio, near Como, and a resi-

  • [Under the name of Giottino Yasari

seems to have confounded two painters, Maso di Banco (1343-50) andOiotto di Ste- fano, of whom there fare records as late as 1869. See Qaet Milanesi, new ed. of Vas., 8vo, nor. 1878, torn, i p. 622.— Ed. 1


Giotto — norence.


25


dent at Florence in 1365 and 1366.— Ed.] ; Aipdrea Orcagna (or Orgagnay either a special sarname, mooey changer^ or else contracted from Arcagnuolo, properly Andrea di CioTie), bom about 1308, died in or soon after 1368 ; his brother, Nardo; then Agnolo Gaddi (died 1396); Spinello Aretino (born about 1333, died 1410) ; [Jacopo da Casentino (flourished in the middle of the fourteenth century) ; Bernardo Daddi (bom about 1300, died about 1350). — Ed.] ; Antonio Veneziano, Francesco da Volterra (both of these worked in the Campo Santo at Fisa towards the end of the four- teenth century) ; Niccolb di Pietro, and others. We may also provi- sionally include among these the painters who worked with them in the Campo Santo at Pisa, the Sie- nese Amhrogio and Pietro di Lo- renzo^ whom we shall come back to when we treat of the school of their native city.

We proceed to enumerate the most important works according to the places where they are found, always giving the name of the master to whom they are attributed by tradition. When it is necessary to be acquainted with the contro- versies concerning these names, they will be alluded to as briefly as may be. Some of the more important altar-pieces are mentioned here also.

PADUA.

a The chapel of S. Maria delV Armxx, ; the interior entirely co- vered with the frescos of QioUo (of 1303, therefore his earliest great work). The Life of the Vir- gin, and the History of Christ in many pictures; on the skirting, done in grey on grey, the allego- rical figures of the Virtues and Vices ; on the front wall, the Last Judgment. [The wall-paintings in the choir by a feeble follower : in the Last Judgment also some parts


by the hand of scholars — Crowe and Cavalcaselle] (Best light in the morning). Remains of paintings by GiaUo in a hall near the Sa- b cristy of // Santo, — In the dead house of the Eremitani^ a Madonna c in the Giottesque style.

RAVENNA.

S. Giovanni Evangclista. The^ vaulting of the 4th chapel on the left ; in each of these divisions a Father of the Church and an Evan- gelist seated at laree desks (accord- ing to Crowe and C. by Giotto),

FLORENCE.

S, Croce. In the choir: Agnolo^ Gaddi, Legends of the True Cross ; Ton choir arch Saints and Prophets by Agnolo Gaddi. — Ed.].

In the ten chapels on the two sides of the choir :

1st chapel on the right (the smaller Cappella Bardi) [outer side, in a recess, St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.— Ed.] : inside. Story of S. Francis, by Giotto. Upon the altar, always covered, the figure of S. Francis attributed to CtTnahue [more probably by Margheritone d'ArezzoX

2nd chapel on the right (C. Pe- ruzzi) : the Story of John the Evan- gelist (on the right) and John the Baptist (on the left), quite cleared of whitewash since 1863, by Giotto.

3rd chapel on the right: half effaced representation of the Fight of St. Michael and the heavenly host with the Dragon, finely con- ceived; author imknown.

[1st chapel on the left, of old Tosinghi, in a recess above the entrance: Virgin in a Mandorla, by Giotto.— Ed.].

4th chapel on the left (C. del Pulci) : Bernardo Daddi, Martyr- dom of S. Stephen and S. Lawrence.

5th chapel on the left (C. S. Silvestro) : Giottino, on the right, three miracles of S. Silvester ; on the left, niches over a tomb with


26


The Oothic Style.


flomewliat remarkable frescos of a Last Judgment and a Deposition. [Probably by Maso di Banco.]

At the end of the right transept the great BaronceUi chapel [the entrance wall of which is covered with frescos by Taddeo Gaddi (recovered from whitewash in 1868-9).— Ed.]: AltarpiecebyG'io^to. Frescos with the Life of the Virgin by Taddeo Gaddi; the figures on the ceiling by the same. (The Madonna della Cintola on the wall to the right is by Bastiatw Main- ardi,) The paintings by Taddeo are among the best of the school ; the treatment of the grouping and the drapeiy here is especially re- markable for its boldness and its beauty.

In the 0. del Sagramento, or Castellani, the last on the right; on the ceiling the Evangelists and the Doctors of the Church (very much like Agnolo Gaddi, Cr. and Oav.); on the walls, only cleared from whitewash in 1868-69 ; on the right, scenes from the Life of S. Nicolas and John the Baptist ; on the left, S. John the Evangelist and S. Antony; according to Va- fiari, by Stamina (really by Agnolo Gaddi,^Ed.).

In the passage before the Sa- cristy, amon^ other things, a carved crucifix attributed to Oiotto,

In the C. Medici at the end of the passage, a number of altar- pieces of the end of the fourteenth century. [Amongst them one by Orcagna, and parts of another by his pupil, Niccola Tommasif and a coronation of the Virgin, by Lo- renzo di Niccolo, — ^Ed.]

In the Sacristy, on the wall to the right, the Scenes of the Passion, probably by Niccold di Pietro Gerini; the lower ones seem to be by an energetic, but somewhat rude Giottesque ; above, the kneeling disciples and angels, round the risen Christ, very teau<


tifuL In the altar chapel (Binuc- cini) of the Sacristy, the Life of the Magdalen and of the Virgin, and as well as paintings on the ceiling and the altar picture, date 1379, of the school of the Gaddi (ascribed by Vasari to Taddeo) [commissioned of Giovanni da Melano in 1365].

In the former refectory of the cloister adjoining (now a ware- house for the offices established in the cloisters) a large, and, on the whole, weU preserved Last Supper of Giotto. One of the purest and most powerful works of the four- teenth century, which has always made me wonder why Giotto's au- thorship should be so persistently refused to it, while no other can be named. Above are the Crucifixion, the pedigree of the Franciscans, and some scenes from the legend of S. Francis and S. Louis, by inferior hands. [Crowe and C. ascribe the Last Supper to Taddeo Gaddi; the Crucihxion to Niccold di Pietro Gerini.]

Almost all these frescos can be best seen by morning light.

S. Maria Novella. Cappellaa Strozzi, at the end of the left tran- sept ; the Last Judgment (at the back). Paradise (on the left) and the altar-piece (1357) by Andrea Or- cagna : Hell (on the risht) by his brother Nardo. The Paradise is remarkable as giving the highest form of beauty and grace in the shapes of the faces attained by the school.

Chiogtro verde: The history of» Genesis painted in sreen on green, by Paolo Vccello and Dello Delli.

Adjoining the cloister, the cele- brated Cappella degli Spagnuoli,c painted 1322-1355, according to Vasari by Taddeo Gaddi and Si- nume di Martino of Siena, which is now denied. According to Crowe and C. the ceiling pictures of the ship of the Apostles, the


Oiolto — Florence.


27


Kesurrection and the Descent of the Holy Ghost, are probably exe- cuted by Antonio Verieziano, from a composition of Taddeo; the As> sumption, by a feeble contempo- rary of the same school, showing a resemblance to the Saviour in limbo on the northern wall, as- cribed by Vasari to Simone. The wall-pictures appear to indicate a combination of Florentine and Sie- nese influences, and resemble the paintings attributed to Simone in the Campo Santo at Pisa (the upper series of the life of S. Ba- nieri), probably by Aiidrea da Fi- renze. It is a masterpiece of the school, considering the general ar- rangement, the richness of the com- position in the Biblical scenes, and the allegorical meaning of the two pictures on the side walls; the Triumph of S. Thomas Aquinas, and the Church MiUtant and Tri- umphant. (Best light: between 10-12.)

Besides less important remains in differents parts of the Cloister : in the so-called old refectory, a Madonna enthroned with four saints, more Sienese than Floren- tine in character, and

In a little vaulted room of the Farmacia, some rude frescos of the Passion by Spinello Aretlno. (Entrance from the Via Scala. )

In the Vault of the Strozzi

family underneath the Cappella

degli Spagnuoli : the Crucifixion,

Adoration of the Child, Evange-

a lists and Prophets by GioUino*

b San Miniato al Monte. Besides several unimportant remains on the walls of the church.

The Sacristy planned by Spinello with the story of S. Benedict (about 1385).

c Carmine, In the cloister : a Madonna between saints ; the founders underneath, a beautiful fresco, probably by Giovanni da Melano, In the Sacristy : some-


what slight wall-paintings of the Life of S. Cecilia, in the style of the Bicci,

San Felice [above the lodge of the d nuns and facing the high altar, a fine crucifix by Giotto. — Ed.].

8, Felicitd, Some buildincs at- «  tached to the back of the church on the right; in an old chapter- room, Christ crucified, with his disciples ; in a passage near, an ^ Annunciation ; the last almost worthy of Orcagna.

5th altar to the right: Ma- donna, enthroned between saints, altar-piece in 5 parts by T. Gaddi.

In the Sacristy, a large Crucifix, Giottesque.

Ognissanti : [a crucifix by Giotto./ —Ed. ] In the Sacristy : Fresco [pro- bably by Niccolb diFietro GeHnL — Ed.], Christ crucified, with angels, saints, and monks. [In the choir. Madonna with saints, by J?. Daddi, -Ed,]

S' Anibrogio, Second altar ongr the right. Madonna nursing the child, with two saints, by Agnolo Gaddi (?).

3rd altar on the right : Descent from the Cross, by GioUino (?).

Bigallo. In the steward's room : h Frescos by three diflferent hands, below it a Misericordia by Giot- tino (?) [a triptych of the Madonna, with gospel scenes, dated 1333, by Taddeo Gaddi. — Ed.] ; the naive

Eicture of the Orphans is by a ite Giottesque of the fifteenth century, Ventura di Moro*

Cathedral, The Apostles audi saints under most of the windows of the whole circle of chapels, like- wise by a late Giottesque, Lorenzo di Bicci, On one of the front pil- lars the beautiful S. Zenobius [o£ 1367-8, by Orcagna.— Ed.].

  • Piero Chelini was the painter of the

decorations.


28


The Gothic Style.


a S. Maria la nuova. Outside, near the door, the two ceremoni^ pictures by the son of Lorenzo Bicci, Bicci di Lorenzo^ much restored.

2' Orsanmichele, In the tabernacle of Orcagna the very beautiful votive Madonna, formerly ascribed to Ugolino da Siena, more Florentine than Sienese in character. (5^t half of the fourteenth century. ) [Ac- cording to Crowe and C. more likely Ikni Lorenzo Monaco, though docu- ments discovered by Sign. G. Mi- lanesi suggest the authorship of Bernardo Daddi.y

^' Palazzo del Podestdu (Bargello), now Museo nazionale. In the Chapel : the frescos of Giotto ; on the side walls scenes from the le- gends of Magdalen, over the en- trance the picture of Hell, opposite to it Paradise with the celebrated portraits of Dante, Brunette Latini, and Corso Donati. All very much injured by former whitewashing and the introduction of a mezzonin. The restoration is older and not so good as what has been done since lor the decorative paintings of the Palazzo; Dante's portrait for in- stance, is quite ruined.

Single remains of frescos, also easel pictures in various churches ;

d several of the latter in the Certosa (older side-churdbi). The most important of the large

<-• altar-pieces in the Uffizi : No. 6, Christ on the Mount of Olives, Giottesque, perhaps Lorenzo Mon- aco. No. 7, Mourners round the body of Christ, apparently by the painter of the Orphans in the Bieallo. Without a number, the valuable altar-piece of Oiovanni da Melano from the Ognissanti

/ In the Accademia delle belle Arti: R. Sala dei quadri grandi. No. 4 et seq. ; the doors of the shrine

  • These documents, though clear in

themselves, are not proved to refer to the JIfadonna in question.— Ed.


in the Sacristy, from S. Croce, by Taddeo Oaddi, after Giotto's com- positions. No. 15, A Madonna enthroned, by Giotto. No. 31 (called Taddeo Gaddi), the great Deposition, by Niccold di Pietro Gerini. No. 30, the Annunciation, by Lorenzo Monaco, No. 33, Ma- donna with Angels and Saints, by Agnolo Gaddi, (Crowe and Cav.)

PISA.

Th^ Campo Santo. Beginning from g the chapel at the eastern small end, there follow in order : —

The Ascension, Kesurrection, and Passion, much painted over. Ac- cording to Vasari, by Buffalmacco, a painter [whose existence as early as 1351 at Florence is proved by records. — Ed.], but to whom Vasari ascribes the most diverse works, among others, Pietro di Puccio's pictures from Genesis. Crowe and C. consider them the work of a feeble hand of the end of the four- teenth century, in style closely resembling the Sienese pictures on the south wall.

SoiUh wall. Triumph of Death, h Last Judgment, and HelL The famous pictures ascribed to Orcaugmu and his brother Nardo. According to Crowe and Cav. by a Sienese artist, impossible to distinguish from the Lorenzetti

The Ufe of the hermits in the Thebaid (about 1340-60), by Pietro Lorenzetti and Ambrogio (also called di Lorejizo, erroneously by Vasari Laurati), of Siena.

The three upper pictures of the legends of S. Ranieri, according to Vasari, by Simone da Siena, com- pleted, according to documents, in 1377, by a certain A ndrea da Firenze, whose style, however, shows essen- tial resemblances with that of the Sienese master ; thus we find single heads of angels and women altogether Sienese in style ; so is perhaps also the want of skill in the arrangement.


Giotto and the Giottesques.


29


Aiitonio Veneziano. The three lower pictures (1386-87).

Spinello Aretiiw. Three pictures with the legends of SS. Ephesus and Potitus (1391).

Francesco da Volterra (formerly at- tributed to (rio^to). The remarkably spirited Story of Job (1370 et seq.). a North wall. Pietro di Puccio, formerly attributed to BuJ^almacco, certainly not by the painter of the Passion mentioned above : God as Preserver of the World, and the stories of Genesis as far as Noah's sacrifice : also the Coronation of the Virgin over the entrance of a chapel on the same side. (The re- maining stories from the Old Testa- ment, by Beiwzzo GozzoUy will be mentioned later. )

b In S. Francesco: the ceiling of the choir, with the Saints floating in pairs opposite each other, ana the allegorical figures of the Virtues, by Taddeo Gaddi (1342).

In the chaptdr-house the much- injured but remarkable scenes of

cthe Passion, by Niccolb di Pietro Oerini (1392); on the roof, half- length figures in medallions.

^ In S. Cater ina: third altar on the left, a Glory of S. Thomas, by Francesco Traini, whom Vasari calls Orcagna's best pupil [but whose practice from 1322 to 1345 shows that he was the contem- porary rather than the disciple of Orcagna. — Ed.].

^ In S. Martino: Frescos of the fourteenth century, in a side chapel on the right, and over the choir of the nuns.

f Old pictures in S. Eanieri, in the collection of the Academy {Traini*s 8. Dominic) and in private hands.

PISTOJA.

g In S, Francesco aX Praix), on the vaulted roof of the Sacristy, are painted four saints between the richly-adorned groining of the arches, somewhat in the style of Niccolb di Pietro,


The adjoining chapter-house con- h tains frescos by various hands, amoujg others by Pitccio Oapanna [admitted a member of the Floren- tine guild in 1350. —Ed.] : the vault is altogether occupied by the Beati- fication of S. Francis; on the principal wall, Christ on the Cross, which spreads out into branches, with figures of saints, &c.

PRATO.

In the Catli^ral (Pieve) the first i On the left is the Cappella della Cintola, painted by Agrvolo Gaddi^ 1365, with the Life of the Virgin and the legend of the Girdle. Chef- d'oeuvre of the schooL

Chapel on the left next the choir : rude legends of fourteenth century.

Chapel on the right next the choir : Life of the Virgin and legends of St; Stephen, insignificant productions of the fourteenth cen- tury; painted over. [Crowe and Cav., on the contrary, declare them to be interesting works perhaps begun by Stamina and completed by Anionio VUe.]

In S. Francesco: what was for-y merly the chapter-house, painted by N. di Pietro Gerini, the Passion and Legends of S. Matthew and S. Antony of Padua. A Crucifixion and the ceiling certainly by Lorenzo di Niccolb. Cr. and Cav.

AREZZO.

In the Cathedral^ a niche of the k \ right side aisle, painted by Spinello, but much painted over. (The Christ Crucified with Saints.)

In S, AgostinOy in a former chapel, Z high up on the wall : Madonna, by SpinellOy part of an Annunciation.

In S. Domenico : frescos, much m painted over, by Parri Spinelli, son of the former, near the door ; the Christ Crucified with Saints, and two Apostles, both pictures sur- rounded by mart^doms with smaller figures.

In the first court of the Cloister Tt


30


The Gothic Style.


of S, Bernardo : the legends of this saint, in monochrome, reminding ns of the earlier painters in the Chiostro verde in S. M. Novella; ascribed to Uccello, a In S. Francesco: Cappella di S. Michelangelo : remains of wall- paintings DV Sjnnello, St. Michael's Combat with Lucifer. In the choir, on the ceiling, the Evangelists, pro- bably by Bicd di Lorenzo.

What else is to be found in other towns in Tuscany is, to judge from all we know, not important. We shall speak later of Siena, which developed a style peculiar to itself ; for the present we must mention

lSpinello*8 frescos in the Palazzo pubblicOf Sala di Balia : the history of the Emperor Frederick Barba- rossa and Pope Alexander III. The procession of the Pope, whose rein is held by the Emperor, is one of the best ceremonial pictures of Giotto's school; for some of the other scenes it is less easy to answer ; the rest clearly shows itself to be the work of an inferior painter (1407-8).

c In the Academy at Siena are a few small pictures by Spinello ; among others. No. 245, a Death of the Virgin, which shows the supe- riority of the school of Giotto in composition compared with the Sienese. ^ S. Piero a Megognaw) at Foggi- honzi : in the Sacristy a remarkable picture [Virgin and Child with Angels] by Taddeo Oaddi (1356).

ASSISI.

S. Francesco. For the Upper Church, comp. pp. 21-2. e The Lower Church. — On the prin - ciptd vaulted roof over the tomb the Allegories of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience, along with the ; Beatification of S. Francis. Chef- d'oeuvre of Giotto. !

In the northern transept, remains of a large and very rich Cruci-


fixion, given to Pietro Cavalliniyf who, however, in the mosaics men- tioned p. 24, shows himself too stiff to be capable of this work [according to (5rowe and Cav., by Pietro Lorenzetti] ; farther on, the Descent from the Cross, the Depo- sition, and S. Francis receiving the Stigmata; on the vaulting, small pictures of the Passion (per- haps by Pucdo Capanna). [In the ff neighbouring chapel of Napoleon Orsmi, next to the sacristy, half lengths of the Virgin and Child, between S. Francis and S. John the Baptist, by Pietro LorenzeUi.h — Ed.1

In the southern transept the pic- tures from the story of (Sirist, and S. Francis, on the east and west wall, attributed by Kumohr to Giovanni da Melano, by Crowe and i Cav. to Giotto.

In the Cap. del Sacramento (apsey of the southern transept), the his- tory of S. Nicolas and tne Apostles, by Giottino (?) ; [altar-piece of the Virgin and ChUd, between S. Fran- cis and S. Nicholas, by Pietro Lorenzetti. — ^Ed.] ; in that of the Magdalen (in the 3rd chapel onjt the right) the life of the Maedalen and S. Mary of Egypt, attributed to BuffaZmacco [according to Crowe and Cav. by Puccio Capanna] ; in the Cap. Albomoz, southern apse of the vestibule, mechanicidly exe- cuted frescos of the fourteenth century, also erroneously called Bufalmacco.

In the chapel of S. Martin (1st I chapel on left), the legends of the Saints, in ten pictures, one of the best works of the Sienese school, by SimoTie di Martino, Crowe and Cav.

Over the chancel: the Corona- tion of the Virgin, by Giottino, who is also the author of several other single figures here.*

• I adviae every lover of art, if he have the good fortune to come to Assisi on aach a wonderful spring day as I had in


Characteristics of the Oiottesque Style.


31


a In 8. Chiara : on the four divi- sions of the ceiling of the central dome, female Saints arranged two and two, surrounded by angels, by Qiottino (?) According to Crowe and Cay. more feeble than the frescos of the Cap. del Sagramento in S. Francesco.

ROME.

h In. S. PeteVf on the inside of the fagade, the NaviceUa, originally a composition of GiottOy although now quite changed into a modem form by repeated renovations, and even new arrangement of the mosaics.

c In the Stanza Capitolare of the Sacristy : separate panels, taken out of an altar-piece by Giotto. Probably the Ciborium of Cardinal Stefaneschi (1298, Crowe and Cav.).

d In the Vatican^ the collection of old pictures in the Mitseo Cristiano,

c In 5. Giovanni in Laterano : on one of the first pillars of the outer side aisle to the right, a fragment preserved of a fresco by Giotto : Boniface VIII. proclaiming the buU of Indulgence of the Jubilee of 1300 : with two followers.

NAPLES.

/ In the little church of the Itieo- noraia, (not far from the Fontana Medina) : the paintings in the cen- tral dome over the gallery te the left of the present entrance (an- ciently the vaulted roof of the west- ern side-aisle), formerl^r ascribed te Giotto : his authorship is contested on account of several heads re- garded as portraits (Marriage of Louis of Tarentum and Joanna of Naples, 1347), which certainly would chronologically be a diffi- culty : more than this, the church

the year 1848, to make his observations l>etimes. A second visit in 1853, in pour- ing rain, made me hitterly regret all I 1 lad formerly neglected. The lower church Avas dark as night, only the? golden rohe of S. l**rancis gleamed down from the vault above.


was not founded until 1352. Crowe and Cav. suggest a second-rate pupil of Giotto, tiK Neapolitan Rohertm g de Oderisio, by whom there is a Crucifixion in the chuch of S. Fran- cesco at Eboll In seven divisions of the ceiling the administration of the Seven Sacraments; in the eighth (apparently) an allegory of Christ'and the Church. A master- piece in the telling of the story by a few indsive traite and truly dra- matic clearness of representation. Tolerably preserved (lately much altered in tone by la3nng on of varnish) and convenient to look at. (Best view in the morning.) In the same church there are various remains of the fourteenth century; as in the chapel left of the choir on the vaulted ceiling ; the frescos on the walls of the same chapel, of the fifteenth century.

In S. Chiara the miraculous pic- h ture on the 3rd pier on the left, by CHotto (?), perhaps the only remaina of his extensive frescos. In the Municipio, but once in S. Antonio Abate, St. Anthony enthroned, by Niccolo Tommasi (1371).

In the large refectory adjoining, t" now Piazza S. Trinity Maggiore, Nos. 19-20, a large wall-picture of Christ enthroned between Sainte, Oiottesque in style, [not improbably by Cavallini. — ^Ed.] /

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OIOTTESQUE STYLE.

We may not seem justified after this brief enumeration, in passing on and endeavouring to describe the general characteristics of the School rather than to point out the special peculiarities of individual masters. But setting aside the necessity to be brief, we really can hardly deal otherwise with artists whose highest aim seems to have been to perpetuate the peculiar forms of their school. No painter as yet had dreamt of freedom. The school was destined to carry out


32


The Gothic Style.


fully and entirely its course of thought and of painting in a given form for a century, without essen- tial advance or change in its method of representation before it broke down altogether under the awakening spirit of the fifteenth century, which fgave free scope to indiviaual character. The school only makes its full impression when taken as a whole ; but then it claims to rank amongst the greatest monuments of our age.

It does not indeed move half-ab- sent or satiated eyes ; but the mind must go half-way to understand it. No especial **Connoisseur8hip" is needed, but a certain amount of labour. Let us take, for instance, the first work of the school which meets the eye of the visitor to the « Uffizi at Florence, the Gdhsemam', (No. 6, in the first gallery near the door). Severe, apparently without efifects of light, individual character or expression of feeling, this pic- ture repels thousands of visitors at once. £ven when examined with the glass it does not become more beautiful. But perhaps some one may remember other representa- tions of the same subject, where the three sleeping disciples are cer- tainly arranged as to colouring and effect of light according to aU the miles of refined art, but still they are only three sleepers in idealised drapery. Here it is clear that they have fallen asleep while praying. And many such traits of deep meaning are to be found in the works of this school, but only by him who looks for them thought- fully. We will now treat of some special points.

Giotto's great merit did not lie in the aim to express ideal beauty, in which he was surpassed by the Sienese (p. 23, h)j nor in the power of realistic execution carrried to the point of illusion, in which the most inferior modern painter can surpass him, and in which the


sculptor, Giovanni Pisano, had ad- vanced far beyond him in spite of his far narrower scope. Single de- tails are only given as far as is necessary to express the whole. Therefore we have as yet no de- fining of the materials of which the objects consist, no difference of texture is given in drapery, archi- tecture, flesh, etc. Even the colouring follows a certain conven- tional scale rather than the reality. Ked, yellow, and blueish horses, for instance, in Spinello's frescos at h the Campo Santo of Pisa ; yellow ground among other things.* In general the colouring is light, as fresco requires, with clearer tints for the light parts : the deep, rather dull than transparent, tone of the Byzantines was very properly given up. (The most delicate execution in fresco, on the whole, is that of Antonio VenezianOf in the Campo c Santo.) The drawing of the human figure is carried out as far as is required for the free expression of mental and bodily action ; but the latter is not yet represented for the sake of its beauty and grace, but for the sake of the subject. (The very remarkable group of nude figures in the Hell of the Campo d Santo shows a naturalism of which the first sign is to be looked for in Giovanno Pisano. Similar, but less free, is the history of the first human beings by Pietro di Piiccio, c also there. The type of the heads does indeed differ somewhat with individual painters, and according to the subjects of their pictures ; but very much less than in later painters who worked through con- trasts and gradations of expression. Giotto himself has a type always to be recognised in men and women, not unpleasant, but without any attractiveness. The great Madonna in the Academy at Florence is a/

  • The dark red of much of the atmo-

sphere is only groimding, from which the blue has come ofL


Characteristics of the Giottesque Style.


33


good example of his manner of giving form and expression, especi- ally in the profiles of the heads of

a angels. .Aiso the picture in S. Croce, Be individualises most, perhaps, in his earliest great work, the frescos of the Arena. In the two Gadd'is we constantly meet

h with the same heavy chin. {Cap. Baroncclli' in ^S^. Croce.) Andrea Orcagna is the first to aim at real

c grace {Cap, Strozzi in S. Maria Novella); in the Last Judgment there the forms are more harsh and decided. Individual character is sometimes less, sometimes more dis- tinctly marked ; has most accent perhaps, in Antonio Veneziano, Spi- nelloj whose drawing is often coarse, and who in parts of less importance becomes entirely inanimate, has little that is attractive in his heads. The feeling for beauty, for melody as one might say, is chiefly de«  veloped in the drapery, which, in saintly personages, is essentially ideal, just as the middle ages had adopted it from the ancient Chns- tian tradition. Not only does it follow the pose and the movements of the figures, but it posseses a special, otten unsurpassable, beauty of line, which essentially increases the feeling of dignity and holiness. The Last Supper in the ancient

d Refectory ai S, Croce, contains some of the best examples of this.

The scene is invariably ideal, and suggested rather than realised in accordance with nature, not be- cause art is in its infancy, for here it already solves the most difficult problems, but because the painters were quite aware that no men such as they depicted, could really move under such low-arched church porches, between such small town walls, doors, and trees, or on such steep inclines as they represented.*

  • As regards perspective, their feeling

for the direction of lines was correct, but they were not acquainted with its laws, ■especially as to the necessity of assuming


But they gave what was needed to make the story clear, simply and beautifullv (the Cathedral of Flo- rence as the symbol of a church, in ^ the C. degli Spo/gnuoli in S, M, Novella) mostly in lines which har- monised with the setting of the whole picture ; so, for ins^nce, the plants and trees in a straight row {Cap. degli Spagmwlij Trionfo dellay Morte, Campo Santo) : the rocks shaded off to make different planes, and sharply marked, to divide the different subjects. In the last named picture there is a singular^ contrast between the carpet, un- foreshortened and without any per- spective, under the group in the garden, and the ground under the party of riders, which is realistic- ally represented, t But in another sense also the feeUng for space is ideal. For Giotto space exists to be filled as much as possible with rich life, not for the sake of picturesque effect ; it is merely a scene for ac- tion. With him, as with Giovanni Pisano, every action is developed or imaged forth by the greatest possible number of figures, so that merely as regards space there is no place for accessories. The school is so rich in the best things that it hardly knows what to do with its wealth, and does not feel the need of what is secondary. Again, the close connection of the school with architecture affords it far creater freedom than in the North, and larger surfaces to work on. In the decoration of the lines of the vaulted ceilings, in giving them settings of ornaments and half- length figures, painter and architect so work together that they seem to

a definite distance of the spectator from the picture, which discovery first enabled the masters of the 10th century to achieve a consciously correct perspective in their drawing.

t It is a peculiarity of the Sienese school, to represent all the patterns of the drapery, in which they display remarkable delicacy, quite flat, without any regard to perspective and modelling,

D


34


The Gothic Style.


be but one person. In ceiling paintings, by the way, we 6ncl as yet no idea of foreshortening. {In- cormiata at Naples : the master fills the converging angles of his (^ eight ^-cornered lunettes, each with a hovering angel, whose golden garments harmonise splendidly with the dark blue ground.)

Such were the conditions out of which the new conception of cha- racter and action grew ; and this is the great merit of the Giot- tesque school. In feeling it is not more saintly or exalted than the Byzantine, which sought to express the supersensual and the eternal in mummies. But the intention is brought much more home to the beholder, inasmuch as it is clothed in a new and living expression. Even for single figures, like the Evangelists in the four comers of a vaulted ceiling {e.g., the chapel of the Madonna iu the Cathedral of

& Frato), theGiottesques are no longer satisfied with a symmetrical ar- rangement, a book or an attitude ; the lofty character of the subject is given in the life-like and noble turn of the figure and the head, in the expressive features, in the free and yet solemn folds of the drapery. How, for instance, can there be a grander conception of the Apostle John than that of this school, as a venerable old man, gazing in deep meditation, while his eagle glances shyly up to him ?

Befoi*e going on to the larger com- positions, it must be acknowledged that in this school subject, incident and action are repeated as in ancient art. (Comp. e. g, the three lives of the Virgin in the Cap. Baroncelli

cin S. Grace, in the Choir of the Sacristy there, and in the Chapel of the Madonna in the Caihedfral at

d Frato. ) The painters of this school were not on this account plagiarists, nor did they regard each other as such ; it was the common property of the school, which each artist re-


produced according to his capacity,, not slavishly, but in a lifelike manner, and with additions of his own. There was a demand in churches and cloisters for such re- presentations of the Passion, the Life of the Virgin, the Story of S. Francis, &c., as were familiar, and no other. As the artist was only asked for the object itself, not for a treatment of it which should ex- press his personal genius ; the wish was for something that was beautiful and easy to understand, not for anything individual. Never- theless, as we" shall shortly see, there remained a vast field open for independent Creation in the spirit of the age.

How much of this conamon pro- perty belongs to Giotto himself? The question is not unanswerable, for any one who carefully examines all the works of the school one after another ; but this we cannot attempt. This much is certain, that he is the original source of a stream of fresh invention and crea- tiveness. Probably no other painter ever so completely transformed and gave a new and healthy direction to his art.

His youthful work, the fresco in MadomMJb delV Arena, at Fadua, is c especially characteristic of him, and in every action the most im- portant point is chosen out for representation. We select only a few incidents of secular, often quite every-day life ; their merit lies in what seems to be self-evident, yet Giotto's Byzantine predeces- sors had not understood, and could not represent it in their works.

Deep grief wrapt up in itself; Joachim with the Shepherds; he comes towards them walking as in a dream. — The loving meeting ; Joachim's return to Anna, who takes his head in both hands quite sweetly and kisses him. — Intense expectation ; the suitors of the Virgin kneeling before the Altar,


Giotto^ a Style of Narration.


35


some in earnest prayer, some in the highest tension of feeling ; a most dignified group without any display of emotion. — Silent ques- tioning and guessing ; the wonder- ful group of the Temptation. — The divided action of the central figure in the raising of Lazarus ; he stretches out his right hand towards Christ, to whom he appears a moment before to have been kneel- ing in entreaty ; now he turns towards Lazarus, with a gesture of intense emotion. — The secret mes- sage ; the treaty of Judas with the Priest, whose two hands (as is often the case with Giotto) appear to speak.— Christ mocked; in the group of scoffers the approaching figure bowing ironically is especiaUy masterly. — The lofty moderation in pathos ; in the group under the Cross, the Virgin fainting yet still upright, is supported in the arms of her friends ; their sorrow is not (as in the painters of the seven- teenth century) for the fainting itself, but for her terrible agony. — A dialogue in gestures ; the soldiers with the robe of Christ ; one fancies one hears them speaking. — The lamentation round the dead Christ has nothing extravagant ;* the body is as it were wrapt round in love and grief ; the shoulders and back lie on the knees of the mother, who embraces him ; a female saint sup-

Eorts his head, another holds up is right hand, another the left ; the penitent Magdalen, holding the feet on which her eyes are fixed. Everywhere the subjects are con- ceived in a higher and more intel- lectufd manner than by many of the greatest of Giotto's successors. Observe how the inferior painter of a the toall-pidurcs in the choir has gone beyond the mark ; in the As- sumption of the Virgin the Apostles f^ to the earth not only in devo-

  • Unless it is going too far that John

should endeavour to throw himself on the Iwdy.


tion but struck by the rays which issue from her glory.

What here we feel to be great in a monumental work of the highest j rank, is not less so in the small, I almost slightly sketched histories ! of the life of Christ in the Flo- h

rcntine Academy. (These, as well I as the stories of S. Francis treated as parallels, are taken from the shrine of the Sacristy of S. Croce ; of the original twenty>-six, six are wanting.) Here, too, the narrative is most telling and full of spirited touches. (Compare with the gate of Andrea Pisano. )

The beholder must come to Giotto's creations with the intention to seek for these immortal ideas. The schools inherited them from him and made use of them. But where they speak to us with such glorious directness as in the works above mentioned and in the Last Supper in the Refectory of S. Croce, there we feel ourselves in the very presence of the Master himself.

The bystanders who enliven par- ticular scenes by their presence are not mere fiUins, such as modern art has often added merely with a view to picturesque efifect, to please the eye, but always really useful for the explanation of the story, reflections without which the action would be less speaking. Look at the resurrection of John the Evangelist, by Giotto, in the G. Peruzzi at ^S*. c Groce ; here the miracle is first realised by the action of the ter- rified and astonished spectators, which is given with full dramatic effect. Opposite, in the history of the Baptist, the scene where his head is brought in receives its full effect from the two spectators, who press against each other full of horror. Inniunerable other in- stances might be given.

Occasionally, single figures and groups stand apart from Sie action, because they are only intended to give definiteness to a locality or a

D 2


86


The Gothic Style.


person ; they are in reality mere genre-figures. So the fisherman in

a Giotto* s Navicella ( Vestibule of S. Peter) ; although we may also con- sidw him as a symbolic counterpart to the Christ standing on the right ; a complete fishing scene by Antonio

ft Veneziano (Campo-SaTUo^ legend of

S'. Ranieri), &c. The Campo Santo

contains in the " Life of the Her- mits," by the Sienese Pietro di

c Lorenzo, or Lorenzetti, a great col- lection of single subjects, of which the best, most happily treated, may be defiued as genre ; they are mo- tives of repose, work done while seated, quiet talking, fishing, &c. The Sienese genre painter was far better qualined to represent sub- jects of this kind, than those involv- ing the powerful expression of changing emotion.

The more deeply pathetic scenes sometimes overstep the true limit, as certain pictures of the Passion will show. The doubtful compo- siti(»i in the Campo Santo, attri-

<?buted to BufalmaccOf contains amongst splendid groups of specta- tors, one that is painful to cari- cature, of the Virgin sinking lifeless, and her attendants; one of the executioners lifts up his arm with the most violently strained action, to break the limbs of the wicked robbers. (The finest Crucifixion of the Giottesque school, most rich in beautiful touches, is probably that

ein the C. degli Spagnuoli; one of the most important series of the Passion anywhere was formerly in

Ahe Chapter-lwuse of S, Francesco at Pisa.)

With these exceptions inner emo- tion often comes out most beauti- fully aud truly. See (Campo Santo,

g Fr, da VoUerra) the gestures of dignified reproach with which Job speaks to God, while pointing to his lost flocks ; or the deep feeling with which S. Eanieri (in the upper series of pictures) makes his vow to the holy Monk. Most powerful is


the effect which the author of the Triumph of Death {Campo Santo) h has produced in the group of cripples and beggars vainly crying to Death to reEeve them; their parallel gesture with their muti- lated arms is most telling, taken together with the expression of their features. It is a case where even repulsiveness appears to be fully justified in art. This alone gives the full meauing of contrast to the group in the garden ; it is, by the way, the best executed picture of worldly life given by the Gothic school ; the working out of what the miniatures in our Min- nesingers' manuscripts only indi- cate ; yet with a distinct flavour of Boccaccio.

In the group of riders the deep horror of the three corpses is ex- pressed with inimitable beauty in their cautious approach, their lean- ing over and holding back ; pic- torially, also, it is an excellent composition. In simpler produc- tions, for instance in the sacristy of S. Miniato at Florence, Spinelloi displays his rude grandeur. The subject here is the often-repeated legend of S. Benedict, given in the simplest manner. Power and calm authority could hardly be better represented than here continually in the gestures and form of the holy abbot; the temptation also, and the penance of the youthful monk, the humiliation of the king of the Goths, the group of monks round the stone which the devil has taken possession of, are among the most spirited conceptions of the Florentine school. Much be- sides is, on the other hand, slightly conceived and rudely executed. (Also considerably painted over.)

Each according to their subjects, these painters at times attain the highest possible expression of men- tal feeling. I do not think that the scene of Christ showing his wounds was ever so perfectly con-


The Lad Judgment. Glories.


37


ceived as in the group, only par-

a tially preserved, in the Oampo Santo, attributed to Bitffalmacco. Instead of Thomas alone, there are several disciples who recognise the Saviour, and, amid worshipping and adoring, contemplate his wounds with tender sympathy ; together they form one of the most beautifully arranged groups of the school. (Compare with this Guercino's excellently painted and yet so coarsely con-

h ceived picture in the Vatican gal- lery.) In the picture of the As-

c cension also, immediately following this, the great amount of painting over cannot wholly destroy the beautiful old conceptions ; we clearly recognise how the apostles are divided between wonderment, pro- testation, and devoted adoration. But any one who wishes to see with what small means a great, and for the time, overpowering impression, can be produced, should contemplate

dihe ^* Sacrament of Penance " in the Incoronata at Naples ; the priest is turning away almost in horror from the woman in confession, while the penitents are moving away, veiled and bowed down. In this respect, the Incoronata is altogether one of the most important of art monu- ments.

The representation of the celes- tial, holy, supersensual is conceived on the same principle as in the Byzantine period; symmetrical in grouping and position, 'it seems to descend among earthly things as if it was natural and true, and as revelation; in the ideal mode of conceiving the space, the outward representation also seems the right one. (The fifteenth century first began to depict the sky by means of strata of clouds, and Correggio first gives to the clouds the definite cubic contents and degree of con- sistency which adapt them for giving a local support to angels and saints.) The same ideas which have been traditional in art since


the early Christian times, and are impressive even in the meagre By- zantine form, here come forth in beautiful freshness. What for so many centuries was but sugges- tion, at last reaches a sublime realisation, in accordance with the feeling of the age.

Here we may take occasion to speak of the representations of the Last Judgment. Many such had existed both in the East and in the West before Orcagna [Lorenzetti], or whoever was the author of the work, painted his in the Campo Santo. But here, for the first time, the Judge becomes not merely a func- tion, but a personal character, to whom the attitude and a celebrated gesture give a grand life-likeness. The belief of the age gave the Ma- donna a place as intercessor in the Last Judgment; the painter gave her the same almond-shaped glory as to Christ; her inferior position is only indicated by her attitude following his nearly line for line. The Apostles are here no longer mere inanimate spectators, but they take the most lively interest in the scene ; we see them lamenting, some looking up aghast to the Judge, some wrapped in their own. sorrowful thoughts, some talking together. Even one of the herald angels crouches trembling upon a cloud, covering his mouth with his hand. Below, five archangels carry out most energetically the duty of dividing the souls ; in the two who drive back into hell those who are struggling out, the most violent action is aimed at and attained.

Even Glories in this school are always worthy of attention. The traditional symmetrical arrange- ment of the principal figure, and of the groups of angels is more or less preserved, but thoroughly inter- penetrated with a grand feeling of life. Nothing can be more original than the Vision of God with six angels (Campo SantOf story of Job}y


38


The Gothic Style.


in an oval Glory, above a landscape with a green sea, yellow earth, and red (though doubtless formerly blue) sky ; Satan stands upon a rock near to God. No effects of light or dis- tance could heighten the simple, grand character of this Theophany. Or (just over the eastern en- trance of the south wall) the Ascen-

a sum of the Virgin ; three angels on either side, aud two more powerful male angels support and hold the border of the Glory in which the Virgin floats towards her son. Bo we not believe much more genuinely that she really floats and has a supernatural existence than we be- lieve it of those numerous Madon- nas of later centuries which rest on masses of clouds sown with scattered angels, with effects of light and landscape below. The floating, also, is not seldom in the school of Giotto represented with such grace and solemnity that one seems to see the highest develop- ment of art. In the Last Judg-

6 ment {Campo Saivto) there are two angels whose like is hardly to be found again before KaphaeL

Besides the Biblical and legend- ary subjects, the school developed itself in large, freely-conceived, al- legorically symbolic pictures, and series of pictures. It was under the influence of a learned, literary, and poetical culture, which took , the lead and was represented by the genius of Dante. Even with the great poet we ask ourselves whether he is great on account of his symbolism or in spite of it. Sym- bolism did not arise with him, as in antiquity, through and along with poetry and art, but poetry and art had to accommodate themselves to it. In Dante, indeed, all is insepa- rably woven together; he is just as much a scholar and a theologian as a poet. The artist, on the other hand, was here employed on some- thing lying beyond his sphere ; his part was to serve, and he did it


with solemn earnestness. But we are not bound to follow the line of thought of a time full indeed of aspiration, but not yet in harmony with itself, still less to adapt our- selves to a strange eucyclopsBdia of various elements of culture; we must rather distinguish between that which was perishable and feeble and that which remains the immortal in Giotto's school of art.

Allegory is primarily the repre- sentation of an abstract conception in a human form. In order to be intelligible, it must correspond with this conception as far as possible in character and attributes ; it can not always be explained by inscriptions. I confess that of all the allegories of the Giottesque school only one really impresses me, the figure of Death represented as a winged woman, *' la Morte, " in the Trionfo ^ della Morte; but Death is, indeed, not simply an allegory, but a de- moniac power. The Virtues and Vices, as they are set forth by Giotto in the Arena (lower divisions) ^ only interest us as part of the history of culture, as attempts to give form to the abstract ; they have no place in our mode of thought. Any one who has seen in Italy some himdred representations of the four cardinal virtues, of all periods of Christian art, will per- haps join with me in wondering that so little of them remains in his remembrance, while historical 0gures remain strongly impressed on his memory. The cause is simply that they have not touched our souls, but only passed before our eyes. The three Christian virtues, Faith, Love, Hope, make a deeper impression, because they are usu£dly characterised not by their essential external attributes, |but by an in- tensified expression of feeling, and therefore call forth feeling in us. The Arts and Sciences set forth in a long and complete series in the Ca2)i)ella decfli isjiogniiolif in S, M, c


Allegory. — Symbolism.


39


Novella, and accompanied by their ; representations, would leave us quite cold but for the sweet Sieuese beads : Giotto in bis reliefs on tbe

a Campanile, wbicb may be ten years later tban these pictures, not with- out purpose substituted for the alle- gorical figure some dramatic action expressive .of the quality. And whence we may ask arose the im- pulse towards this allegorising taste which pervades the whole (also the Byzantioe) middle ages? It was originally a remnant of antique my- th^ogy, which Christianity had deprived of its true signification. The progenitor was Marcianus Ca- pella, and lived in the Hfth cen- txiry. Art will never quite dispense with allegory, and could not do so in ancient times, but in its best period art will use it moderately and give it no over-prominent po- sition by laying stress on the mystery.

Figures of this kind will, then, in the best period be principally represented separately, and not in- troduced into historical scenes. (Compare Baphael, ceiling of the

b Camera della SegiiMura, and Hall of Coiista7itine. ) Giotto was bolder, he allowed himself to be tempted, undoubtedly through Dante, to paint in the Lowe/' Church at

^Assisi, among other things, a real marriage ceremony' between S. Francis and a figure which repre- sents Poverty ; in the poet the inci- dent remains symbolic, and the reader is not for a moment de- ceived ; but with the painter it is really a betrothal, even though he throws in innumerable hints and indications, though Christ intro- duces Poverty to S. Francis, and yet allows two boys to ill-treat her, though her linen garment is falling

• into rags, and so forth. To repre- sent the obligation to poverty as a marriage with her is a metaphor, and a work of art ought never to be founded on a metaphor, that is,


an idea transferred to a new ficti- tious reality, which ^ves a neces- sarily false result m a picture. When later artists wished, for in- stance, to represent Truth come to Light through Time, an absurd picture was produced of a naked winged old man, with hour-glass and scythe, uncovering a veiled woman. As soon as the allegorical figures are to be put into action, nothing can be done without meta- phor, and with it arise simple ab- surdities. The remaining allegories also of the central dome of the Lower Church of Assisi, are in<^ themselves as quaint as those of the seventeenth century. There Pe- nitence drives away Profane Love with a scourge, and casts Impurity down over a cliff. Chastity sits well guarded in a tower; Purity washes naked people, and Strength reaches forth the cloth to dry them. Obedience, accompanied by double-headed Prudence and Hu- mility, lays a yoke upon a monk ; one of the angels present drives away a centaur which signifies wil- fulness, that is, fanciful caprice. But for the deep seriousness of Giotto, who expresses only what is necessary as clearly as possible, without any coquettish sweetness, these scenes would have a profane and wearisome effect.*

The insufficiency of all Allegory could not fail to be felt in art. Ajs a complement were produced the representations of abstract ideas mostly derived from antiquity, and used singly in connection with allego- ries, of which the Capella degli Spag- 1 nuoli forms the most perfect speci- men. (Dante also makes the greatest use of this mode of representation.) Such figures, particularly when they are not better in style than those of Taddeo di Bartolo (ante-room of the (7. del Palazzo pubblico in Siena), /

  • In the first parts of Vaaari many other

' allegories are mentioned in detail, taken from works uo longer in existence.


40


The Gothic Style.


remain mere curiosities ; they give the measure of the naive historical knowledge of the age, which set up new ideals taken from Valerius Mazimus and other sources of the same kind.

In Giotto's school the symbolic element was far more important and more independent than that of allegory. There are lofty sublime ideas, which cannot be embodied in any merely historical composi- tion, and yet look to art for their highest rendering. A work of art which attempts this will be impressive in proportion as it contains less allegory and more living distinct action. Symbolism in art is expressed partly by groups and series, partly by well-known historical characters. The great- est works in this kind least bear the mark of purely subjective in- vention; they rather express great conceptions proper to a special age, which almost force themselves upon art.

Everything connected with the world beyond the grave, though not without limitation, comes into this class of subjects. As far as the Gospel and the Apocalypse go in their prophecies, art still occu- pies an equal rank with histoiy. Pure symbolism begins with the motives which go beyond this. The Last Judgment in its three parts : the Judgment, Paradise, and Hell, has been represented three times with more or less suc- cess by this school ; the much in- jured picture by Giotto, * on the front a wall of the Arena at Padua, that

• Singularly enough, Giotto is in his arrangement freer than Orcagna ; he repre- sents moving groups of figures, divided from one another by different distances, Christ and the Apostles have not as yet the momentary expression which Orcagna bestowed on them. To judge from the neat, sharp, handling, the Last Judgment may be the eai-liest portion of the frescos of the arena. [Crowe and Cav. suggest that much was done by the hands of pupils.]


of the two Orcagnas in S. Maria No- & vella {Capella Strozzi\ and that in the Campo Santo (the lower parte of Hell quite changed by the infe- rior painter who has retouched it). The Hell is in both the latter places divided, with an obvious allusion to Dante, into Strata or Bolge, on which are arranged the various classes of sinners accord- ing to their merits. I leave it to each person to judge as he will of Dante's idea, of his arbitrary im- prisonment of the whole past and contemporary world in the differ- ent reservoirs of his three great divisions ; only one cannot but ask oneself privately, where would he have put me ? It is not difficult to point out the different circles of Hell in which most of the present worshippers of the poet would themselves find their place. Too often in the poem appears the spirit of inexorable, inextin^uish* able discord, which causea the misfortune of Italy. The symbolic meaning of the Divina Commedia, laboriously and skilfully as it is worked out, is only valuable as li- terature and history, not as poetry. The poetical value rests entirely on the lofty artistic representation of single incidents, on the measured srand style through which Dante became the father of later Western poetry.

Only a part of his characteristics could be expressed in painting ; many beautiful episodes were lof^t in pictures of hell, and the only artistically useful element lay in the grouping of nude figures in their separate divisions. In the picture m the Gampo SaTito, thed one group of souls cowering toge- ther, gnawing at each other, is of especial significance. The picture in S, Maria Novella, on the other c hand, which attempts a complet : representation of the circles of nel), and therefore contains only small figures, is artistically w^orthless.


Allegorical Pictures.


41


The Last JudgmeDt itself is obvi- ously not influenced by Bante. The art of the fourteenth century was here grand in its limitation ; it practically gave up the attempt to represent space pictorially, and to make the passive element physi- cally and dramatically interesting ; in regular layers of heads was expressed on one side, joy and blessedness ; on the other, grief and condemnation, in a collective manner ; the episodes are kept in the background, but excellently chosen ; in the picture in the Campo

a Santo there is a touch of the truest symbolism in the picture of women clutched by the hands of devils, who are carrying off other women with them, not involuntarily, but as companions and fellow sinners ; or the intense fervour of John the Baptist, who kneels on a cloud at the end of a long line of figures ; it is a true and beautiful thought that the forerunner of Christ should thus become a sharer in this high- est act of his power. Of the heavenly group we have already

& spoken. In S. Maria Novella there is a peculiar representation of Paradise which in the tender beauty of its heads surpasses in some ways the more powerful pic- ture in the Campo Santo. The contrast of the life of the Blessed with the terrible act of Judgment is expressed by placing the heads not in profile looking towards Christ, but turned full face towards the spectator. With such slight means has Art to work.

The Devils, wherever they ap- pear (they are especially numerous

cm the C. degli iSpagnuoIij where Christ appears in limbo, as well as in the pictures above mentioned) are pure caricatures ; Satan himself most of all. Through sheer devilish- ness they have nothing demoniacal about them.

Of the remaining symbolical compositions of the school, the


Trio7ifo delta Morte is far the most d important. It needs no farther explanation, because the symbolic thought comes out clearly in the picture. The contrasts are dis- tinctly enough expressed by the different groups. The author, as an artist also, was fully equal to the whole grand conception.

This is true, though certainly in a far less degree, of the great sym- bolical fresco by Ambrogio Lor en- c zetti in the F, Pubhlico {Sala delle Balcstre) at Siena, with the repre- sentation of the consequences of good and of tyrannical government ; the Allegory is at least interspersed with touches of true and beautiful symbolism.

The painters of the Cappellc f degli Spagniwli in S. Maria No- vella were not wanting in power to give form to the grandest subjects. Besides the great allegorical picture (left wall) where S. Thomas Aqui- nas is enthroned in the midst of all Sciences and Arts, they have pro- duced on the right wall a symbo- lical picture; the destination and power of the church upon earth (details in guide-books). A work only too rich in figures, carefully and beautifully executed, but pro- duced entirely out of literary not artistic fancy, for which reason it requires a book to explain it. With what a different clearness and force does the Trionfo delle Morte speak to the mind. How far more grand might the picture of the church too have been, given in a symbolic manner. It is true that in the cloister of S. Maria Novella, even an Orcagna might have felt himself constrained to accept a given Dominican pro- gramme without objection.

This theological tendency has more than once injured the genuine formative impulse of art. See in Pietro di Fuccio {Campo ff Santo) God represented as Creator and Lord of the World. It is a


42


The Gothic Style.


gigantic figure holding an immense shield with the concentric spheres of heaven in front of the oody; the feet appear below. Such a representation certainly destroys any idea of the immanence of God in the world. *

Or the Glory of S. Thomas Aqui- nas above an altar to the left in ^S^. a Cater ina at Pisa, by Franceaco Traini (in itself an inferior picture). Here the spiritual impression was to be represented symbolically, which the Saint had received from various sides, and exercised upon the faith- ful. The painter (or his patrons) contrived this by the simple ex- pedient of using golden rays. From the figure of Christ placed above one ray goes out to each of the six Apostles and three to St. Thomas enthroned in the midst ; a ray also goes to the head of Thomas from each Apostle, and from the heathens, Plato and Aristotle, standing far below ; from the book of Thomas (the Summa) many rays ^o to the monks assembled below ; m the midst, upon the earth, lies a convicted heretic. The essential idea in this whole picture might be expressed with a ruler.

♦ How rude this great period could still sometimes be appears from the repetition of the most absurd symbolic makeshifts of the earlier mediaval times. Even Spindlo ventured, in a fresco now destroyed, to paint the four Evangelists as draped human figures, but with the heads of their em- blems. (We find this, among other places, represented on the lintel of the side-door (of early romanesque architecture) of SS. Annunziata at Arezzo.) The too circum- , stantial connection of the Evangelist with the pen is an early mediaeval device, which Bartolo of Siena, for instance, again adopted (Academy of Siena, 1st Gallery, No. 91) : Hark cuts his x)en, Luke looks at it, Mat- thew dips it in the ink, only John writes. If any one can find a deeper meaning in this, I should be unwilling to destroy his pleasure in it. fVasari praises a St. Luke by Butfalmacco in the Badia di Settimo, who blows on the pen in the most natural manner to make the ink fiow. ] This passed along with other x)eculiaritie8 fh)ra Siena to the Perujrinesque painters and reappears in Piuturicchio.


Traini is not a painter of import- ance : but as to greater artists we cannot but lament that theology should have prescribed their course to them, whereas, left to their own powers, they would have expressed the given fundamental ideas in a far more noble and beautiful manner.

Happily Giotto himself had be- come more free, when he painted the Glory of S. Francis in his divi- sion of the above-mentioned roof of the Lmcer Church at Assisi; the& Saint glorified, in a gold in-woven deacon's robe, with a banner of the Cross, surrounded by choirs of angels. This is genuioe clearly ex- pressed symbolism. The Glory of S. Thomas Aquinas, on the other hand, had to be compounded of allegories, because the subject pre- scribed was the triumph of the learned Saint over all separate sciences and arts.

EASEL PICTURES, ALTAR-PIECES.

It is in frescos and dramatic action that the school of Giotto displays its full freedom and gran- deur. The altar-pieces of this school, which are almost entirely of a calm and devotional order, give a very limited conception of its character, but are usefiu in en- abling us to form a judgment as to the technical capacity and in- tention.

The pictures most important in art history have been mentioned before. Besides this, nearly every old church in Tuscany possesses some specimen, and also those brought together from many churches and cloisters in the Aca- demy at Florence, form a large and complete collection (chiefly in the Sala dei Quadri Grandi). * Any one who has the time and inclination may gradually classify them ac-

• Besides a number in the I^ledici chapel at S. Croce, at the end of the passage be- fore the Sacristy.


Altar-Pieces.


43


cordiDg to the manner and the spe- cial masters ; here we can only offer a few general observations.

The subject is almost invariably a Madonna enthroned with angels and saints ; next in frequency comes the Coronation of the Virgin by Christ.* The Saints stand sometimes singly, sometimes in rows one behind another at the sides ; usually each single figure divided from the rest by its own framing, pillars, or the like. The position, mostly a three-quarter view, so that the figure may be turned as much toward the pious beholder as towards the Virgin ; only those wlio kneel before her are represented quite in profile. There are no side glances for the sake of variety as yet. The position is usually one of repose ; only some- times we find John the Baptist with his arm raised, or pointing to the child. The expression of the Virgin is always simple, without any touch of especially elevated feeling: the child is now, for the first time, represented as occupied with some innocent pleasure, with- out which, in reality, no healthy child can sit quiet ; as, for instance, playing with a goldfinch. The co- louring, on the whole, light, as is required by tempera. The chief colours used are red, blue, and gold. (The circles of cherubs' heads are all blue or all red. ) In the drapery, tbe splendid patterns, represented as worked, are far less symmetrically employed than by the Sienese,'t while a noble and beautiful flow of line is more ob- viously the principal object. We can see how art works out with

• The assumption and coronation of the Virgin, who had been born a mere earthly woman, were a testimony and a symbol of blessed immortality to every individual. On this account this subject appears especially often on tombs, in pictures of family chapels, &c.

t For the characteristic difference of treatment, see p. 33, d.


effort a comparatively small num- ber of principal points : the mantle of the Madonna enthroned, that of the figures lying on one knee, the mantle of the standing figure caught up with one hand, the straight falling cowl of the Monks, the thickly embroidered Dalmatic of the Deacons, etc. In the heads the school expresses its meaning more clearly than in most frescos. If I do not err, much that is pecu- liarly Florentine comes out in the oval and in the form of the nose and the mouth. The expression of passing feeling is not yet to be looked for here.

The altar steps (Predellas) repeat in their histories very much the compositions of the frescos ; they are thus miniatures of the larger pictures. In Northern art, on the contrary, the larger pictures are often a magnifying of what had been conceived in miniature.

For the proper appreciation of the easel pictures by the followers of Giotto and the Sienese, we must represent to ourselves the altar- pieces as wholes, which now are met with in galleries, churches, and sacristies, usually split up into their separate parts, as ^ rule, be- cause, in some alteration of the church, they were found no longer to suit the baroque style of the modern altars, the width of the picture all'in one being too great. Examples in complete preservation, with all their appurtenances, are very rare : one, for instance, is found in the Acadany of Florence ^ (»Sala dei Quadri Grandi) ; another, more perfect, in S, Domcnico atj Cortona, on the left wall. This altar-piece by a not specially re- markable master, Lorc^izo, son of Niccolb di Pietro Gerinif possesses, besides the principal picture (Coro- nation of the Virgin), all its acces- sary pictures, the fillings of frieze and gables, the upper subjects,


44


The Gothic Style.


predellas, and on the surfaces of the little turrets at the sides all the small pictures with single saints ; also all the architectural part, as usual the effigy of a church, is well preserved. This first explains to us for what place and what part of a collective work Fiesole, for in- stance, painted all the pictures now scattered over the world. It is not to be expected that an altar- piece of this kind, with such a number of separate parts, should create a grand and quiet impres- sion.


CRUCIFIXES.

Lastly, there exist in Tuscany a number of painted Crucifixes of the 13th and 14th centuries, often of colossal size. Originally, according to the custom of the Catholic world, they hung high and free above the high mar ; but in the baroque period, they had to give place to the well-known pompous architectural decorations with pic- tures, and took up their position, perhaps, over the chief entrance, and later also in galleries. (Seversd a in the Academy at Siena.) In general we shall find that the older they are the less is their value ; the attitude is strained, and the colour of the body greenish. Giotto tot introduced something which can be called a Victory over Death ; although the Crucifix in the pas- sage to the Sacristy in S. Croce can hardly be his, yet but for him such a work could not have existed. (Two others in the Sacristy itself. ) On the four ends of the wood are commonly the four Evangelists, or, on the right and left, the Sun and Moon as Persons, veiling their heads ; the sinking of the nead of Christ is usually marked in a naive manner by the oblique direction of the upper transverse beam.


SCHOOL OF SIENA.

In the Sienese school, which had in the thirteenth century under Duccio (p. 23, b) developed such striking elements of beauty, the influence of Giotto in the four- teenth century ^oes hand in hand with the traditional national ten- dency. In the easel pictures, altar pieces and single frescos in- tended for purposes of devotion, this tendency takes a special deve- lopment, in which religious fervour and exclusiveness are as predomi- nant features as is a marked sense for flow and symmetry in the lines, richness of colour and delicate or- namentation in the architecture, the ]^atterns of the dresses, the nimbi and the gold grounds. The points which the Florentines ruth- lessly sacrificed to distinctness of expression, the solemn positions and turns of the body, the grace- ful type of the faces, the gently waving folds of drapery, the lines of which flow as it were melo- diously in harmony with the bendings of the limbs, are here by preference retained, and repre- sented by a careful miniature-like delicate method of colouring and modelling, which aims rather at a beautiful effect of colour and roundness than a naturalistic re- presentation of the contrasts of illuminated and shadowed surfaces. The most remarkable works of the Giottesque school, to which accord- ing to the latest investigations belong the pictures of the Last Judgment and the Triumph of Death, formerly ascribed to Orc-b gnttf show the special qualities of the Sienese school chiefly in the form of the face and in an attempt to modify the traditional manner- ism in position, gesture, and dra- pery, by the lively expression of action or emotion required by the new school.


School of Siena.


45


The most important master of the Sienese scnool in Giotto's time, Sirrume diMartino [bom 1283 ; died 1344], is best represented in Italy by his devotional pictures. The frescos formerly ascribed to him on Vasari's authority in the Campo Santo at Pisa aud the Cappella degli Spagnuoli are not his, but only dis- play Sienese subjects much akin to his in style. He worked, as is known, in the last years of his life at the Papal Court in A^vignon, and the Giottesque character of the wall paintings there appears to have given rise to the tradition, now contradicted on documentary evidence, of Giotto^s stay in this place. His Madonnas are by the splendour of their decoration, and their miniature-like delicacy, by the flow of their drapery and the peculiar beauty of the features, real jewels of mediaeval art ; although the conventional form of the eyes and mouth which does not strike us in Duccio, gives them a character of strangeness. Those of undoubted authenticity are very rare and mostly out of Italy ; by him and

<* Idppo Mcmrni is the great Annun- ciation at Florence, first gallery in the Uffizi, dated 1333 ; unpleasing on account of the attitude of the

^ Madonna. * At Pisa the remains of a very remarkable altar-piece ; six panels in the Seminario Vescovile, the seventh with a predella in the Academy. In Siena, Choir of S, Agostinoj the representation of the Blessed A^ostino Kovello, by him or lippo Memmi. At Orvieto,

<^ Opera del Dtumw^ a Madonna with

^ Saints ; at Naples, S, Lorenzo, seventh chapel to the right, S. Louis, of Toulouse, handing the crown to his brother, Robert of

  • The awkward drawing down of the

comers of the mouth gives a fretful ex- pression — "Smorfla," just like what we fiee in an old Byzantine picture of the Academy of Siena (No. 15, the little An- . uunciation on the right).— Mr.


Naples. Simone's great /re«x7 about e 1315, in the Palazzo pubblico at Siena (Sala del Consiglio, or Belle Balestre), the Madonna surrounded by many saints, some of whom hold a canopy over her, is as sym- metrical and unemotional as any altar-piece, but in special points it possesses a beauty which the Flo- rentines never even attempted. There, also, is an equestrian por- trait of Guidoriccio de' Fogliani. By his pupil, Lippo Memmi [in/ practice 1317 to 1356 ?], there is in the Palazzo pubblico of S. Gimi- gnano, a Majestas" of 1317; almost exactly copied from one7 by Simone, of the Madonna of the city, at a later period restored and finished by Benozzo Goszoli, in the Cathedral at Orvieto, aVirgin of Mercy. Siena possesses at least one other known picture of the Madonna in the Church della Con- ^ cezione or de' Servi (fresco in the right transept, over the door of the passage to the Sacristy) ; the large altar-piece in the Academy (first room, No. 94) is only conjecturally attributed to him. For the rest, the collection in the Academy of Siena (1st to 3rd room) gives a sur- vey of the painting of the school- drawing during the fourteenth cen- tury, which on the whole displays a remarkable stagnation, a narrow adherence to the form of face once adopted, and to special Byzantine mannerisms (high Ughts laid on, / splendid patterns in the drapery and grounds, green flesh shadows, perhaps become so only through the alteration of some mineral colours, &c.)t

We must leave the special cha- racteristics of artists to be studied by those who can do so on the spot, for we have to occupy our- selves not with those who remain behind, but with those who are

t We refer our readers to Crowe and Cavalcaselle for the exact analysis of tiie technical bieuese manner of painting.


46


The Gothic Style.


striving onwards. Giotto's manner of narration, now become the com- mon property of the nation, in- evitably spread from Florence and all the rest of Italy to Siena also. Anibrogio Lorenzetti [practised from 1324 to 1345] painted in the Sala della Pace of the Palazzo pubblico, 1337-39, the three great symbolical

a compositions in the Giottesque style, the "Rule" of Siena, with an artistic allegory concerning the duties of justice, the Procession of the dignitaries of the town, an in- teresting series of portraits, the consequences of Good and Bad Government, with numerous genre scenes (nearly effaced). He also painted a presentation in the* Temple (1342) in the Florentine Academy of Arts, and an annun- ciation (1344) in the Academy of Siena ; together with his brother Pietro ("laboured from 1329 to 1348]

h he produced the great fresco in the Campo Santo at Pisa, of the her- mits in the Thebaid, so rich in beautiful details; only that here, as in the easel pictures of the school, the historical and narrative element takes quite a secondary place in the composition and draw- ing. [If we attribute to them the authorship of the Last Judgment and the Triumph of Death at Pisa, in accordance with the latest in- vestigations, they certainly fully equal the Florentine pupils of Giotto, if they do not excel them.] We need not include the childish

c chronicle - liko Battle pictures, painted in brown on brown, in the Sala del Consiglio, which are, perhaps erroneously, ascribed to Ambro^o; they are nevertheless of much interest, owing to their subjects. [According to Crowe and Cavalcaselle, we must now ascribe the following pictures to the Loren-

d zetti ; in Assisi (part of which has already been mentioned), the Cru- cifixion (formerly attributed to Cavallini), as well as scenes of the


Passion and St. Francis receiving the Stigmata, in the northern tran- sept of the Lmver Chtcrch ; in Siena, e S. Francesco, some remains of frescos, among them a remarkable, very expressive Crucifixion, by Pietro himself, the ** most beautiful Madonna of the Sienese school " in the little church of S, Ansano^f before the Porta dj^ Pispini at Siena ; the Birth of the Virgin in g the Sacristy of the Cathedral ; in the Piece [now in the Public Gal- h lery], at Arezzo, a large altar-piece, a Madonna between saints [in the i Uffizi at Florence, a Virgin and child ; in S. Marco at Cortona, a Crucifix ; and in the cathedral of the same city, a Madonna. — Ed.]; a fine fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin, in the Misei'icordia atj Monte Pulciano.] Their best con- temporary, Bama da Siena, has nothing worthy of mention in his paternal city ; the much repainted frescos on the Tabernacle of the Lateran at Borne appear to haveyt- been formerly very graceful ; his works in the Cathedral of S. Oimig- 1 nano (right transept) already contain a number of genre touches and ac- cessary details, which we are used to consider as innovations of the Quattro-cento, especially in the work of Benozzo GozzoU at Pisa. In the works of this school we shall always prefer the purely de- votional pictures; thus, for in- stance, an assumption hy Pietro Lorenzetti [Academy, 1st room, No. m 63) gives at least the deep solem- nity, the splendid gold patterns, the symmetrical floating groups of angels, and so forth, in all their early perfection.

The influence of this style parti- ally impressed by the spirit of Giotto stretches on to Bartolo di Fredi da Siena [1330-1410], and his pupils Taddeo di Bartolo [1362- 1422] and Doinenico di Bartolo [in practice 1428-1444], till far into- the fifteenth century. Their devo*


The Hemaiinnff Italian Schools.


47


ational pictures {Academy) subsist on the inspiration of Pietro Loren- zetti and others, though they are apparently richer. Taddeo' s frescos in the upper chapel of the Palazzo

h 2nibblico are not superior to mode- rately good Giottesque productions ; those before the grating (the great men of antiquity, planet gods, &c.) are even less good. There is more merit in Bartolo's frescos in the left aisle of the Cathedral at S. Gixnig-

c nano, in Taddeo's wall pictures in the central nave of the same church and the remains of wall pictures in

d S. FraTicesco at Pisa, where is to be seen the singular composition of the Apostles floating down to visit the Virgin. With I)omenico the style ends, and the realism of the fifteenth century comes in, though sometimes only in parts, so that on the whole the old conception is still retained, and very much of the old forms in the details. The masters of this

e marvellous mongrel style {Academy, 3rd room), a certain Giovanni di Paolo, Pietro di Giovanni, Sana di Pietro, Pietro di Domenico are not worth mentioning by the side of their contemporaries in other schools. We shall shortly speak of those Sienese artists who embraced the new style more decidedly, such as Matteo di Giovanni and others. Ugolino di Prete Ilario, who covered

/ the Chapel del Corporale at Orvieto with feeble frescos of legends, is an offshoot from the Sienese school.

The splendid Siena, which in the year 1300 seemed to lead in Italian painting, lost that position which she only regained two centuries later, when her painters, secluded and almost unknown, raised aloft the standard of true art higher than any school in Italy except the Venetian,

THE REMAINING ITALIAN SCHOOLS.

After enumerating what was produced by Giotto himself, and


under his direct and indirect in- fluence, we pass on to observe the spreading waves which carried his influence over Italian art far beyond his own time. Very pro- bably there were other contempo- rary local schools following a course similar to his own, and the time which matured him, worked on them also, bringing them more or less under his dominion. From Padua to Naples he left important monuments behind him in so many places, that his innovations be- came everywhere known and fol- lowed ; and if the works of his school are to be also counted, there existed in all Italy no artistic power capable of standing asainst this great mass of grand and new ideas. Only the incapable re- mained apparently independent.

Among the Italians of the North, the Bolognese were necessarily most exposed to the fuU influence of the Florentine school. But their ar- tistic work and capacity was in the fourteenth century extraordinarily imperfect and insignificant. Here, early in the middle ages, the art of miniature had been brought to some celebrity by Oderisio di Guido, of Gubbio [living 1268-1271], whose skill was celebrated by Bante. He was followed at Gubbio and Fa- briano by Guido Palmerucci (1280- 1352), and Allegretto Nuzi (living 1346-1385), whose painting shows the decided influence of Sienese traditions in Umbrian art. (Ex- amples of Nuzi in the Museo g Cristiano at Borne, the Duomo of Macerata, and in the gallery of Fabriano.) At Bologna VitaUj a contemporary of Giotto, is, to judge from a picture in the Pinacotecah (1320, a Virgin enthroned with two angels), sweet and graceful, in the Sienese manner, so as to recall Buccio. The remaining semi- Giottesque painters are mostly so inferior m their easel-pictures that in Florence their names would not


48


The Gothic Style.


even be xnenidoDed. And this same mode of treatment and absence of talent characterise the school till after the middle of the fifteenth century. Among these painters of Madonnas and Crucifixes those principally known are —

[Aiidrca da Bologna, at Pausola, near Macerata, a Virgin and child, and a composite altar-piece with a Madonna, and gospel scenes in the hospital of Fermo.] Lippo di DalTnasiOf Servi, one of

a the end chapels behind the choir ; Madonna with S. Cosmas and Damian ; [a fresco above the gate of S. Procolo : a Madonna in S. Domenico ;] in the same church several old Madonnas by various hands.

h Simone d^ Crocefisai, In the fourth of the seven churches of S, Stefano (S. Pietro e Paolo), on the right, near the choir, a Crucifixion ; in the seventh (S. Trinity), on a pier, S. Ursula with her compa- nions. In the first of these churches, by the way, are frescos of the Bearing of the Cross, on the left of the choir, — and of the Crucifixion, on the High Altar, by a painter of unknown extraction of the fifteenth century. In a passage to the seventh church, a number of small old Bolognese pictures. In S.

c Oiaconio Maggiorey third chapel on the right, behind the choir, Simone's best Crucifix, dated 1370. Some pictures here and there in the

d Pinacoteca,

Jacoho dcgli Avanzi (not the one employed in Padua, who is men-

ctioned later,) a Crucifixion in the Colonna Gallery at Rome ; two Crucifixions and a large Altar-piece

/"with biblical scenes in the Pitia- coteca. No. 159-161.

Also a certain Jacopo di Paolo,

g Several pictures in the Piimcotcca ; over the great altar in S. Oiacomo

]i MaggiorCy third chapel, space behind the choir, on the right the Corona- tion of the Virgin.


The only church where any large number of frescos of this school are preserved stands before the Porta Castiglioue, on the way to the Villa A Idini ; it is the Madonna i of the Mezzaratta. Here are to be seen, now carefully cleaned and made accessible, paintings by YiJbalt (the Presepio) ; Jacobus (apparently Jac. Pauli, among others the Pool of Bethesda and the Story of Joseph), Simone (the sick man let down through the roof) ; Christo- foro or Lorenzo (History of Moses, &c.) The average is considerably above that of easel pictures.

In *S^. Petronio, the fourth chapel^ on the left contains unimportant wallfrescos (somewhereabout 1400), ascribed to Buffalmacco or Vitale, both chronologically impossible. The painter desired to be more distinct and more real than the Pisan master, as, for instance, in his Last Judgment ; his Saints sit upon twelve rows of benches on both sides of Christ, formins as it were a council. Latterly attributed to Sinwne or Giovanni da Modena. [Given by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to the Ferrarese Antonio Alberti.'] The two f7'escos in the first chapel on the /j left are insignificant, like whatever of this period is found in the church.

The painting in Bologna as late as 1452-1462 is seen in the Pina- coteca in the pictures of Pietro Lia- 1 nori, Miclicle di Matteo Lamhertini, and the Blessed Nun, Caterina Vigri. (There is also a better altar-piece by Matteo in the Aca- tn dcvuj at Venice, No. 2.)

In Modena I have never seen anything either by TJwvvas or Bar- nabaSj both painters named after the town. The first is interesting from his being sent for to Prague, and his paintings at the Karlstein, after 1357. An altar-piece in the galUvy at Modena (13.85), and wall«  pictures in the church and the chapter-house of S. Niccolb at Tte- o viio, show him to be a moderately


Tlie Remaining Italian Schools — Padua.


49


^good master. By Bamabcts [who painted from 1367 to 1380], there is a picture signed in the Academy at Pisa [another, a Virgin and chila,

b with aneels, in S. Gio. BaMista at Alba.— fid.]— Cr. and CavaL

c At Parma the frescos of that time in the Cathedral are some- what unimportant. (Fourth chapel on the right ; fifth chapel on the left ; rooms next the Crypt. ) The Baptistery (see p. 19 d)»

d At Ferrara S, Domenico contains (fifth chapel on tiie left) one of the more beautiful Madonnas of the fourteenth century ; uninfluenced by Giotto. Bavenna, see above (p. 25 d).

NORTH ITALY— PADUA.

By far the most important town for painting in North Italy at this period is Padua, where Giotto's great work (see above) must have awakened the feeling for monu- mental art. The decoration of the Santo, which lasted so long, and iihe love for art in the princely House of Carrara, were essential 4idvantages in fresco painting. Probably not nearly aU has been preserved.* The authentic chro- nological series begins in 1376 with ^ the Oappella S. Felice in the Santo (to the right, opposite the chapel of ^. Anthony). It appears from re- cords that the Veronese Altichieri <ia Zevio was commissioned to exe- cute, and received payment for, this very striking series of frescos, and, as the older local writers all name a Jacoho d^Avamo, pre- sumably from Verona, as a con- temporary of Altichieri, we must see in the difference of hand in these paintings the traces of a directing master aild his assistant. The seven first pictures, from the Legend of S. James, show an ori- ginal and spirited acceptance of the

• Or it may lie bid under the whitewash, for instance in the Santo.


principles of the style of Giotto. The master is one of the best nar- rators, draughtsmen, and painters of this period. The other pictures from the Legend, and the great Crucifixion on the wall at the back, are works, the painter of which has made a great advance beyond Giotto and his school. He elevates the physiognomical expres- sion of his mdividual figures as to character and action to the utmost intensity, so that the rhythm of the composition is quite secondary to it. In the year 1377, the two masters began the painting of the Cappella S. Giorgio in the Piazza in front of the Santo. (Best light at noon. ) The separate authorship of the two cannot here be entered upon. From documents we know nothing on this point. The oldest writers sometimes mention Alti- chieri alone, sometimes both mas- ters. Ernst Forster, to whom we are indebted for the re-discovery and restoration of the chapel, found '* Avancius," in an inscription now destroyed ; still it does not follow from this that the direction of the work belonged to him. In twenty- one large pictures are here repre- sented the youth of Christ, the Crucifixion, the Coronation of the Virgin, and the Legends of^ S. George, S. Lucy, and S. Catherine. The composition shows throughout the good qualities which distinguish the best followers of Giotto ; besides the telling clearness of the action, the grouping is beautiful in itself, but the principal point is that here, in hundreds of figures, the charac- ter of the individual, and of the moment, from the highest to the lowest of the whole great scale is. made real, yet without caricature, and in accordance with the type of the century. In the beauty of single heads, the masters surpass most Giottesque painters. Lastly, they excel them in their far more accurate modelling, in the grada*

£


50


The Gothic Style.


tion of tones,* eveD (in the last pic- ture of S. Lucy), and in remarkable attempts at illusion. (More accu- rate architectural perspective, di- minutionof the more distantfigures, and even aerial perspective. ) In the Capella S. Felice also, the effect of perspective is quite striking.

This great example remained for a time without any imitators in Padua itself. The very extensive frescos subsequently executed be- long principally to the weak, even to tne weakest, works of the style derived from Giotto. The frescos

a of the Baptistery in the Cathedral, by the two Paduans, Giovanni and Antonio (1380), or, according to other accounts, by Oiusto Padovano, son of Giovanni de' Menabuoi, a Florentine by birth, are only of value as a very complete and con- veniently arranged cycle of the sacred personages and scenes proper to the place. Also, in comparison, at any rate, with the mosaics of the ortiioaox Baptistery in Ravenna, the increase of materials in the world of church painting during 1000 years is to be observed. Probably by Giiisto ; the frescos

d of the Capella S, LucOy in the Santo (next to the chapel of S. Anthony), of the year 1382, with the histories of the Apostles Philip and James the Less, certainly rude, but yet with some happy and life-like mo- tives. Of the fifteenth century (probably painted over or copied from older paintings in the original building destroyed by fire), the frescos of the immense hall in the

c Palazzo della Ragioney by Giovanni Miretto and his companions (after 1420), a gigantic production of nearly 4Q0 pictures, representing the influence of the Constellations and the Seasons on human life (de- picted in true genre pictures) fuU of inexplicable afiusions of all kinds, but in artistic thought either feeble

" Their palette is twice as rich as that of the otiier Qiottcsq,ues.


and unskilful, or mere reminiscences of something better. (Formerly the Magician Pietro d'Abano was looked on as the inventor, Giotto as the painter of this work. ) Also the frescos in the choir of the Eremitani, related to these in age ^ and style, formerly ascribed (as now again by Crowe and Oavalca- selle) to a painter of the fourteenth century, Guariento [1338-64], are only remarkable on account of their subjects, especially the astrological accessory pictures in monochrome.

For the paintings on tombs at Padua, we refer to the vol. on Sculpture.

At Verona, there exists nothing by Altichieri and d'Avanzo. [But the primitive art of the place is well represented by Turone, whose idtar-piece of 1360 in the Museiun shows the influence of Umbro- Sienese tradition in Northern Italy; whiUt numerous frescos in Veronese churches (S. Fenno, S. Siro) prove the extent of the mas- ter's practice. — Ed. ] To the grace- ful Stefano da Zevio [bom 1393, and painter of an Epiphany dat^ 1435 m the Brera of Milan (No. 281), as well as of an altar-piece at Illasi near Verona, and a Madonna in the P. Colonna at Rome. — Ed.] were formerly ascribed the frescos over a side-door of S. Eufemia, and e in an outside niche of S. Fermo, as also, on the wall round the Chancel, a number of heads of Saints and Prophets, of which a certain Pra Martino is now said to be the author. The inferior lunette oyer the entrance of S, Pernio contaixis/ a good Crucifixion. S. Zerw isgr tolerably rich in single figures of Saints (p. 1 9 /. ) The greatest num- ber are in 8. AnasUma ; the lunette /e- over the door, with S. Zeno and S. Dominic, who are presenting the citizens and the monks of the Cloister to the Trinity, devoid of style, but touching from the sim- plicity of the intention ; also in the


The Bemaining Italian Schools.


51


second chapel, on the right of the choir, a really excellent votive picture (of the CavaUi family), along with smaller things ; in the first chapel, to the right of the choir, two monumental niches, with good Madonnas enthroned, &c.

In Milan, little or nothing has been preserved. The frescos of the chapel at the back, in S, Gio-

^ vanni a Carhonara at Naples (with the tomb of Caracciolo), are in part by a Milanese {LioTiardo de Bisuc- do, from Bisozzo, after 1433), still essentially of the Giottesque style. Kemains of genre wall paintings, by a painter called MicheliTW, in

^ Casa BorroTneo, second court.

Anything else that may exist scattered through Lombardy and Piedmont is either without interest in style qr unknown to the author. In Genoa hardly a single painting seems to have existed. [The ear- liest picture by the Genoese Bar- tolommeo de Camulio is a Madonna in the gallery of Palermo (1340). — Ed.] The two old pictures of the beginning of the fifteenth century

cin S. Maria di Castello (first and third chapel on the left) make it seem possible that a Grerman Justus de Alle7nag7iawas employed for the decoration of the adjoimng cloister in 1451.

For the country between Bologna and Ancona, I must refer to hand- books. [One or two Umbrian artists, however, deserve special mention. OUaviano Nclli [1403- 1444] displays the influence of Sienese art extending to Gubbio and Foligno, a Virgin with Saints in fresco (1403) in S. M. Niiova of Gub- bio ; frescos (1424) in the chapel of the government palace at Foligno. But the influence of this master is null compared with that of Gentile da Fabriano (1370-1450), whose principal masterpiece— Ed.] the Adoration of the Kings, in the


Academy at Florence, shows jxb &d change from Giotto's manner, which, as it were, introduces us to the fifteenth century. Instead of giving himself up without restraint to what is characteristic, real, in- dividual, the pure youthful fancy of Gentile takes hold of what is beautiful and charming, and creates a sort of realism heightened into the marvellous (also by external modes of ornament : for instance, laying on the lights in gold). There are few pictures which make us so en- tirely understand that the painter had in himself the conception of an ideal world ; few which give forth such an overpowering fragrance of poetry. Besides this picture, and a Coronation of the Virgin in thee Brera at Milan, next to four beau- tiful and delicately coloured single figures of Saints (Nos. 75, 102, sq. ), the few works to be found in Italy are either in out-of-the-way places, or hun^ up in bad lights. Side- wing of an Altar in the choir of S, Niccoh at Florence, and also an/ interesting little picture in the sacristy there, or, uncertain, (Coro- nation of the Virgin in the Academy at Pisa). The only wall-painting, .7 a Madonna, in the Caihedral of A Orvieto, with a peculiar play of the hands.

The Venetian style of art, re- stricted, with few exceptions, such as the Mosaics in the Cappella S. Isidoro, and the C. d£ Mascoli in S. Marco (antea), to altar-pieces, was the least influenced by Giotto. The splendour of the dress, the deep colours of the varnish, also the greenish shadows in the flesh, and the handling of the colours distinctly remind us of the long- continued predominance of the By- zantines; m the sweetness of cer- tain heads there seems to be an echo of the Sienese School. [The masters who represent this early phase of Venetian art are — FaolOj i

£ 2


62


The Gothic Styk.


whose shrine at S. Marco was ex- ecuted in 1345, but of whom we have altar-pieces, of 1323, in the gallery of Yicenza, and of 1358 in

a Germany. Lorenzo^ the painter of two Annunciations, of 1357 and 1371, in the Academy of Venice ; a Death of the Virgin, of 1366, in the Dtunno of Vicenza ; and Christ giv- ing the keys to Peter, of 1369, in

2> the Correr College at Venice. Ste- fano^ Madonnas, of 1379 and 1381, in the Academy and Correr Gal-

c lery at Venice. Semitecolo (1351 to 1400), whose chief works are a Co- ronation of the Virgin (1351) and a Madonna (1400) in the Venice Aca- demy, and an Altar-piece (1369) in

tithe Cathedral of Padua. Jacobcllo del Fiore (b. 1374, still living in 1439), whose most characteristic piece is a Coronation of the Virgin m the Duomo of Ceneda (1430).

« Negroponte and Donate^ Altar-pieces in San Francesco della Vigna and the Venice Academy, These local masters had rivals in Oentile da Fabriano and Vittore PisaiiOy who painted in the public palace at the opening of the fifteenth century. These were followed by artists who founded the school of Murano, from whose workshops then came, towards the middle of the century, those splendid altar-pieces which show, even in the Gothic frames which inclose them, the desire to produce the most brilliant effect of richness. — Ed.] The style of the Muranese was modified under the influence of two currents of art. There is a German influence recognizable in the beautiful calm of some of their figures; the tender flesh tints re- call Gentile da Fabriano, who lived a long time in Venice.* The deep

  • In the S. Ginstina of the Altarpiece of

1448, and the hedge of roses of 8. Habina, the influence of the Cologne school is un- mistakable; and that of Oentile in the youthful 8. Icerius and the cherubs on each side— a work by the same hand in the Brera, No. 114, there erroneously called Bcuola Fiorontina.— Mr.] j


transparent colour is to be observed as contrasted with the easel pic- tures of the old Florentines ; it is the transition from the Byzantine colouring to that of Giovanni Bel- lini. The drapery has the solemnity of the Gothic style ; but in the whole tendency to individualizing is felt the approach of the fifteenth century, which produces hard and gloomy heads and affected figures. [The partnership of Johannes^ doubtless a German, who calls him- self Alamannus, and Antonius, an Italian, both established at Mura- no, begins in 1440. Joint works : Glory of Christ (1440) at the Aca- demy; Altar-pieces of 1441, 1443, 1444, and 1446, in S. Stefano, S. Zaccarittf S, PantaleoJie, and the Academy at Venice. In 1450 An- tonio labours at Ferrara and Bolog- na. Here he is no longer associated with Johannes, but with Bartolom- meo (Vivarini). Altar-piece of 1450, in the Pinacoteca of Bologna,/ commingling the careful delicacy of Antonio with the classic of the rising school of Padua. Glory of S. Peter (1451) in the Gallery otSf Padua. After this Bartolommeo paints alone (see postca); but An- tonio continues in practice till 1470 (Glory of S. Anthony, in the Mic- scum of S. Gio Laterano at Borne, h 1464). His disciple, Quiricio of Murano, is known by a Glory of S. Lucy (1462) in the Palazzo Silvestri at BoYlgo, and aVirgiu in Adoration in the Academy of Venice. — £d.] i

Any remains existing in Naples of this period, besides the works already mentioned, are valuable only as a part of the history of art. By the mythical Simonc Na-j poletaTw there exists no work signed. The picture ascribed to hmi in S. Lwenzo (left transept), k a S. Anthony of Padua surrounded by angels, is of 1438 ; S. Louis of Toulouse, also there, is by Stmone di MartinOj see above. In S, Bo- 1


Fra Angelico.


53


TTienico Maggiore (aecond, Cappella Brancacci, on the right) are the legends of S. Magdalen, late Giot- t^que frescos of moderate merit, much painted over. Sixth chapel on the right (del Crocefisso), be- sides the Bearing of the Cross, a Madonna nursing the child; seventh chapel on the right, another in the niche of a tomb; in the furUier chapel towards the Strada

a delta Trinita, two old pictures (by Ste/anone?) according to Schulz, later than 1456, a combination of Sienese and Giottesque elements. ColmUonio del Fiore, once known among the famous artists at Na- ples, has no longer any importance in the school there. The only work [assigned to him is, as before observed (p. 31 h), by Niccolo Tom-

b masi] the Glory of 5. AntoniiLs Ah- bos, formerly in the choir of S. An- tonio. The lunette over the door

c of S. Angelo a Nilo, also ascribed

to him, is quite invisible from dust.

For the history of the type of

the Madonna, see the Madonna

deUa Kosa, in a chapel on the left

c^side of the cathedral of Capua; severely Gothic, and perhaps of the thirteenth century ; the re- maining Neapolitan Madonnas of that time are still Byzantine.

FRA ANQELICO.

Before we enter upon the style of the fifteenth century we must speak of a Florentine master in whose works the leading inspira- tion of Giotto and the Gothic style in general flames forth as in a glorious vision, and attains its highest and final eminence, the Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da FUsole, 1387—1456.

To the elements of beauty which Orcagna introduced into the school this master, unique of his kind, superadded that of celestial purity and intense devotional feeling. One of those elements which give


an ideal grandeur to the Art of the Middle Ages shows itself complete, full and glorious in his works. How the kingdom of heaven, the home of the angels, saints, and blessed ones was mirrored in the devout imagination of that early time, we learn most accurately and completely through him, so that to his pictures is for ever secured the position of records of the highest worth to religious history. For any one whom Fiesole altogether repels, mediaeval art can have no real attraction; we may acknow- ledge the narrow piety of the monk, and yet recognize in the heavenly beauty of many indivi- dual forms, and in the perpetually fresh and happy faith which ac- companied it, a revelation of the highest kind, which has no equal in the whole domain of the history of art. In the dramatic power of tell- ing a story Fiesole is always one of the best followers of Giotto; as he was from childhood a great artist, he strove his life long to keep up an even flow of inspiration in all his creations. On doser examina- tion we shall find that he is one of the first who, in the treatment of heads in place of mere general cha- racter, always gives a personal life of the most tender kind; only to his tone of mind the expression of passion or wickedness was impos- sible, and his embarrassment in such a case becomes comic in a strict aesthetic sense.

As his training was originally that of a miniaturist (illuminator), his smaller pictures executed in the miniature style give us the com- plete artist. In the first place come the Glories, as for instance the splendid picture in the Uffiai (No. «  1290), also the company around the Bedeemer, and the reception of the Blessed in the pictures of the Judgment (the most beautiful in the Palazzo Corsini at Eome,/ seventh room, 22, 23, 24 ; another


54


Th£ Gothic Style.


a in the Academy at Florence, Sala del ||iccoli quadri. No. 41), while the side of tne coDdemned is never at all satisfactory. Of the sacred histories the best, according to my feeling, are those founded on an- cient traditionid motives of the Florentine school, more especially the stories so often painted of the New Testament; in the Legends his original invention comes out sometimes in a fresh and beautiful manner, but at others has to con- tend with some strange difficulty of expression. (Life of Christ in thirty-five small pictures, Academy

h at Florence, Sala dei piccoli quadri, Nos. 11* and 24, where there are

c other pictures by Fiesole ; — Uffizif Nos. 1178,1184, 1294;— three smaU pictures, reliquaries, in a press in the wall of the sacristy of S. Maria

d Novella at Florence ; — church of the

e Gesii at Cortona ; two PredeUas with the Life of the Virgin, and the Miracles of St. Dominic ; —

/ Vatican Gallery, second room, No. 4, the Miracles of S. Nicolas of Bari, of his latest time and very remarkable ; — ^two pieces belonnng to this, and also the marvellous Annunciation from the sacristy of

g S, Domenico, now in the Pinacoteca at Pemgia, along with smaller things ; and others elsewhere.

The larger easel pictures are far less satisfactory. For a general in-

^ stance, take the great Altar-piece in the Uffizi, first passage, No. 17, with double painted sidewings, in which the small angels round the Madonna of life size are by far the best. It seems as if the painter in his large Altar-pieces could not overcome a pious stiffness, while in the Predellas, gable pictures, smsJl

  • side iiffures, &c., he was free and

beautiful; moreover, the effect is not good of the over-careful execu- tion combined with the generally incomplete knowledge of the human

  • [Three panels in the series numbered

11, are certainly not by Angelico.— Ed.]


figure. The creat Descent from the Cross in tne Academy at Flo-t rence (Quadri grandi. No. 34), ap- pears constrained, perhaps, pre- cisely on account of the amount of expression which is crowded into it : the body is well modelled, the sinking down of it happily given, the picture on the whole the best among the large ones. The Altar- piece in S. Doinenico at Cortonty (behind, to the right) is also among the best. We may likewise men- tion the Altar-piece in S, Dcynvenico k at Fiesole (the background painted over by Lorenzo di Credi); tne Pre- 1 dellas, the delight of Vasari, now in the National Gallery in London. An Annunciation in the Gesii a.tm Cortona. Two Madonnas in the Academy at Florence : (Quadri an- n tichi, No. 19 and No. 22.) Two graceful angels in the Turin Gal- o lertf. No. 553.

The imperfections above named were lost sight of in fresco, which required a certain moderation in the means of representation em- ploved, and did not distress the artist with the idea of being ob- liged to paint a picture which should be the object of adoration. The wall pictures preserved in S, Domenico at Fiesole apparently be-^ lon^ to the earlier works. In the ancient chapter house (now a green- house) there is a very beautiful and expressive Christ Crucified, with the Virgin and John, life size, in very good preservation ; — in a dwelling- room (entrance through the door No. 4, to the richt, next the church) a Madonna oetween Saints (painted over).

A perfectly unique effect is pro- duced by the paintings with which Fiesole decorated the Dominican convent of S. Marco at Florence, q his abode during many years. Here he is at home ; he can give expression to his ideas fresh as the spirit moves him ; in the modest passages of the cloisters, in the


Fra Angelico.


r,5


small cells of specially distinguished members of the order ; and there- fore one seems to feel the inspira- tion more clearly in the frescos of the cells than in the altar-pieces of the master. Seven cells, all in the upper story, were opened to me, and I may say that the wall paintings on them, as a whole, ap- proach the highest possible expres- sion of what they attempt, in spite of the stiffness and limitation im- posed by Fiesole's form of art. (Christ in limbo ; a Sermon on the Mount; the Temptation in the Desert ; Christ on the Cross, with his Disciples and the weepine S. Dominic ; another Christ Crucined, with the Disciples ; the Marys at the Tomb ; the Coronation of the Virgin ; and the Adoration of the Kings, a late and rich work which perhaps shows rivalry with Masac- cio. ) The superabundant richness in these most beautiful and naive heads is united with a spirit and depth in the conception of the events belonging only to the greatest masters.* There are in the cells, besides those above men- tioned, eighteen smaller pictures ; a in the passages, the Christ CrtLcified with S. Dominic, nearly corre- sponding to the picture in the further gallery; the greeting of the Angels, one of the most beau- tiful of this subject, and a Ma- donna enthroned.

How Fiesole painted for more public devotion is seen in the fres- cos of the further gallery on the ground floor. There are five lu- nettes with pointed arches with half-len^h figures, among which the Chnst with two Saints of the order is especially beautiful ; (the subject of the Disciples at Emmaus is a poetical and characteristic or- nament suitable for the Refuge for Pilgrims) ; farther on, Christ on the

  • Since 1867 the convent has been trans-

formed into the " Museo Florentino di S. Haico."


Cross, with S. Dominic, life-size ; lastly, the famous fresco of the& chapter-house adjoining ; the Christ Crucified with the two thieves, his Disciples and SS. Cosmas, Damian, Lawrence, Mark, John the Baptist, Dominic, Ambrose, Augustine, Je- rome, Francis, Benedict, Bernard, Bernardino of Siena, Bomuald, Peter Martyr, and Thomas Aqui- nas. It is a mournful lament of the whole Church, here assembled at the foot of the Cross in the persons of its ereat teachers and founders of orders. As long as paintinff exists, these figures will be admired for the unequalled intensity of the expression, the contrasts of devo- tion, of grief, of convulsed feeling and calm inward meditation (in 8. Benedict, who overlooks the ^up of the rest of the founders bke a father), have never been more finely combined for general effect than here.

It is a remarkable fact during theSe centuries never to be for- gotten in the history of art, that several of the greatest artists pro- duced most of their works and their best at a late period in life, at least after their 50th year. Lio- nardo was near this age when he painted his Last Supper at Milan ; Giovanni Bellini's noolest pictures dated from after his 80th year(?) Titian and Michael Angelo both pro- duced their most wonderful works when they were old men. There exists a well-known small engraving of the sixteenth century, represent- ing an old man in a child's wheel- chair, with the inscription, **An- chora imparo," I still learn. And this was no mere phrase. The inde- structible vital power of these men was really united with an equally continuous power of appropriation.

This was also in some degree the case with Fiesole; the quality in which he was so espedallv great, the deep, peaceful olessedness of the figures of holy personages is


56


The Gothic Style.


expressed in his later "works "with indescribable power and fulness, very different in this respect from Perugino, who became poor and conventional with years. Consider

a Fiesole's pyramidal-shaped group of the Prophets in the vaulting of the Chapel of the Madonna in the Ca- tliedral of Oryieto,*and ask whether any work of art on earth, Raphael not excepted, could so represent silent devout adoration. (The Judge of the World on the wall behind has indeed been taken from the Last Judgment in the Campo Santo, without equalling the original.) Still later, after his 60tb year (1447,

h he painted the Chapel of Nicolas V. in the Vatican and the four Evan- gelists on the vaulted roof, and one or more of the teachers of the Church, as, for instance, S. Bona- ventura, still appear quite in har- mony with these celestial forms. And not only did he develop with increasing power in his own special line, but also he kept his mind open to the advance of other con- temporaries. The legends of S. Stephen and S. Lawrence in the last-named chapel prove that the now elderly man strove with all his strength to keep up to whatever Masaccio and others had gained in the meantime, as far as was con- sistent with his own tendency. The graceful narrative manner of these frescos shows touches of real life and an external truth of colour- ing superior to any earlier works of the master. Violent actions, even merely long strides, never succeed with him ; but we find ample com- pensation for this in such figures as that of the young woman who listens with rapt devotion to the preaching of S. Stephen, and only

  • The designs of the four divisions of the

vault in tiie southern part of the chapel are by Fiesole, as we now know from docu- ments; only the Prophets and Fathers, however, are executed by his hand, while lAica SignoreUi painted the two other parts after Fiesole's sketches.


holds her restless child with her hand to keep it still. If we go through this work scene by scene, we shall find in it a treasure of beautiful lively touches of this kind. Independentiy of this, it is quite beyond price 'as a complete whole preserved nearly entire from the time of the great period of earl^ art.

Fiesole lies buried at Kome in S. Maria sopra Minerva. Perhaps c with a wish to do him honour, the vaulted roof of this church was painted in our time in his manner. We observe apostles and teachers of the Church on a blue ground starred with gold. But Fiesole would neither have approved these pictures nor been grateful even for the good intention which they dis- pky.

We may pass by the works of Angelico's brother Fra BcTiedetto, whose miniatures are still in exist- ence in the choral books of S. Marco and S. M. del Fiore at Florence. A contemporary and brother monk, the Camatdole friar Doii Loreivzo (in practice from 1390 to 1413), en- tered on the same line as Fiesole, but stopped at the first outset. We may believe that his very rare works cost him great labour and thought. In the Annunciation in the S. Trinitd. at Florence (fourth d chapel on the right) he finds his reward; the quiet grace and the thoughtful character of the two hap- pily-placed figures has given a sort of typical value to the picture, and caused a desire for numerous copies. The Adoration of the Kings ( Uffizi, c No. 20) is also excellent in arrange- ment, and likewise remarkable as one of the latest pictures in which the drapery of the Gothic style is given in its full sweep. His prin- cipal work, a Coronation of the Virgin, of 1413, from the Badia of/ Cerreto, is stiU (since 1867) in the magazine of the Uffizi. A triptych


" Tlie Benaiaaance."


57


a at MofUe Olivcto, Annunciation in in S. Trinitli, Nativity in S. Luca, at Florence, a more feeble Annun-

h ciatiou in the AcadcTnyj Qu. Grandi, No. 30, and several others in the collection there. A beautiful Ma-


donna, with Saints, in the Colleg- c giata at Empoli; a Coronation of the Virgin at Certaldo, [the wings of which are still erroneously as- signed to the school of TaddeoGad- di, in the National Gallery. — Ed.],


CHAPTER v.— PAINTING OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

  • 'the renaissance."


CHARACTER OF THE RENAISSANCE.

^ In the beginning of the fifteenth century a new spirit entered into

V the painting of the west. Though still employed in the service of the Church, its principles were hence- forward developed without refer- ence to merely ecclesiastical pur- poses. A work of art now gives more than the church requires ; over and above religious associa- tions, it presents a copy of the real world; the artist is absorbed in the examination and the representation of^ the outward appearance of things, and by de^ees learns to express aU the vanous manifesta- tions of the human form as well as of its surroundings (realism). Instead of general types of face, we have individuals ; the tradi- tional system of expression, of ges- tures and draperies is replaced by the endless variety of real life, which has a special expression for each occasion. Simple beauty, which hitherto has been sought for and often found as the highest at- tribute of the Saints, now jgives place to the distinctness ana ful- ness in detail which is the prin- cipal idea of modem art ; and wnerever it does appear it is a different and sensuous beauty, which must not be stinted of its share in the real and earthly, be-


cause else it would find no place in the modem world of art.

In this sense a work of art gives ^ less than the church require^ or might (require. For a simple rea- son, to which few people give a thought, the religious element can only assert itself by claiming abso- lute sway. In itself a negative quantity, it shrinks to nothiiig when brought into contact with the profane ; and when profane elements are purposely introduced into art the picture necessarily ceases to be religious.

If we but think of it for a mo- ment, art has but scant means of expressing devoutness. It may suggest in a head or a gesture, re- pose and tenderness, resignation and longing, or humility and mourning. All these are essen- tially human, and not exclusively Christian dements. But they are not capable of awaking Christian devotion in the Christian mind unless we keep them free from disturbing causes, by suppressing all but the indication of tnose sur- roundings or parts of the human shape which are unfitted for this frame of mind. For this purpose the general solemnity of drapery is very important, which precisely, by its contrast with the costume of the time, by its want of definiteness in the materials (which do not distinguish silk from velvet), and


58


" The Renaissance.^^ Florentine School.


still more by a secret association of ideas, which we cannot pursue fur- ther, helps to strengthen the im- pression of something beyond what 18 temporal and earthly. Now, on the other hand, begins - an enthusiastic study of the nude, and, in general, of the human figure and its action ; in the flow of the garments also we note the attempt to give the character of the indivi- dual and the given moment ; actual materials are represented, in easel

Sictures especially, with inimitable elicacy: the richest possible variety of colours and the pictu- resque contrasts of the personages in action become the essential principle, so that apart from the religious even the dramatic im- pression suffers from superabund- ' ance. Lastly, quite a new feeling for space grows up ; whereas the painters of the fourteenth century filled up given waU surfaces as much as possible with human . figures, now the action, and the incident is properly developed on large surfaces, so that nearness and distance, motion backwards and forwards, may serve as essential means of illustration ; and instead of simply indicatiDg the localities, as far as is necessary to be intel- ligible, we now find a real lands- cape and a real architecture given more or less in perspective.

This attention to individual forms could not fail before long to be followed by the division of paint- ing into different kinds : accord- ingly, profane painting, chiefly taking its subjects from mythology, allegory, and ancient history, quickly assumes an important po- sition.

In the north this great transition is marked by the immortal brothers Van Eyck, who cast their solitary shining light far over the century over aU German, French, and Spa- nish art. They extended the scope of painting to such an extent that


their successors could not keep pace with them, and contented themselves with a much narrower circle of forms. Not for nearly a "^ hundred years after them did por- traiture, genre pictures, and Isuid- / scape in the north again reach the point where the Van Eycks had left them, and then continue to ad- vance by their own stren^h. No siogle painter for several genera- tions, north of the Alps, not even their best Flemish disciples, under- stood the human form even ap- proximately so well as they, or handled it in so living a manner ; a sort of paralysis seems to have fallen on them ; and when, too late, appeared Diirer, Metsys, and Hol- bein, they had first to throw off the burden of a mass of worn-out forms, the product of the fifteenth century.

Art in the south early adopted what was harmonious with it in the widely known works of the great Flemings; no Italian school (with the exception of a few Nea- politan masters) was essentially afliected hj them, but neither did any remain entirely uninfluenced by them. The treatment of materials in drapery and orna- ments, but especially of landscape, shows much of the Flemish man- ner; still more important was painting in oil, confessedly learnt from the Flemings (?), that is, the new treatment of colours and var- nishes, which render possible a transparency and depth of tone hitherto unthoucht oi, and a most enviable durability.

The influence of antique sculp- ture is often regarded as an essen- tial advantage possessed by Italian painting over that of the north. But the evidence of our eyes shows us that every advance was gained from nature, and with infinite ef- fort, which was not the case in the north. This is distinctly seen in the Faduan school, which alone of


Ihrentine Frescos.


59


all the Bchools chiefly occupied it- self with the antique, aud yet, as we shall see, hardly derived from it anything beyond the omamenta- \ tion. It was not natural to an art ^ striving onward with such vast powers, to accept its ideal from without ; it must itself discover the beautiful, which was to become - its own.

it possessed, as an original gift from heaven, the tact to follow out external reality not into every detail, but only so far as that the higher poetic truth might not suffer fiom it. Where it is. too rich in details it is superabundant in architecture and decoration, and in beautiful draperies, not in the prosaic acci- dents of external life. The impres- sion, therefore, is not of weariness, but of splendour. Few give the essential parts grandly and nobly ; many lose themselves in fanciful- ness, which is the general tendency of the fifteenth century, yet the general grandeur of the forms gives to their fancies a tasteful and even pleasing character.

FLORENCE.— FRESCOS.

' The great advance of the new period, Tike that formerly made by the school of Giotto, would have been impossible if painters had been restricted to devotional and to easel pictures. Florence, again, is the point whence the new Hght of a grand historical school of painting streams forth, covering the walls of churches, cloisters, and town halls with frescos.* No other school can claim equal merit with this ; the Lombard remained con- fined within the narrow circle of ideas of miraculous pictures and

  • Till Giotto's time, according to the

present view, they only painted in tempera on the walls ; after Giotto, they painted in fresco, and painted over al secco ; not till the end of the fourteenth century did fresco painting proper begin in the special sense.


pictures of the Passion ; the Vene- tian was never reallv at home in fresco, and long connned itself to altar pictures and mosaics ; if we count the great Andrea Mantegna as a Venetian, he, in his wall- paintings, (to their detriment) went beyond pure fresco, the really solid treatment of which is a special merit of the Florentines. Rome det>ended almost entirely on foreign artists ; Perugia drew ber inspira- tions first from Florence and Siena, and at her highest point did but little for the dramatic historical element. Naples does not enter into consideration. Tuscany alone \ presents a grand style of historical painting, carried on in healthy un- interrupted development, always exercising an indirect influence on easel-paintinff, which else would prematurely have degenerated into over-refined prettiness.

With the exception of the addi- tion of profane painting, the sub- jects remained the same ; the calm symmetrical Holy Family, the his- tories of the Bible, and the legends of the Saints, and, lastly, the pic- tures intended for private devotion. Only they are all changed in cha- racter. Of the single figures, the Christ at the age of mazmood pre- serves most of the traditional type ; the Christ Crucified sometimes is very noble and refined in form, and hai9 an expression which the schools of the seventeenth century vainly endeavour to surpass in depth. The greatest chaa^e is in the Ma- * donna; she does, indeed, in some solemn representifttions remain the Queen of Heaven, but otherwise becomes the tender or calmly re- joicing mother, and replaces her antique ideal costume by the bodice and hood of the Italian renaissance ; the family picture is completed by giving the lively, even restless Child-Christ his lone wished-for playfellow in the little John. In this earthly interpretation of life


60


  • ^ The Renaissance.^* Fhrentine School.


the foster-father Joseph for the first time finds his right place; a do- mestic yet not Vulgar tone begins to prevaQ in all the scenes hitherto so^ solemn : the Annunciation, the Visitation, the Adoration of the Shepherds, the Birth of the Vir- gin, the Birth of John, etc. Un- doubtedly the story was brought nearer and more present to the oe- holder ; whether devotional feeling gained or lost bv it, is another question. The celestial region also is filled with expressive individusd heads and figures, beginning with God the Father, in a robe bordered with fur ; the crowd of tiie blessed and the angels are no longer em- ployed to give general effect to the grand symmetrical glory of the whole, but each figure is interesting in itself. The grown-up angels (often quite Florentine in costume) are now divided from the troops of little naked winged children (Putti), who enliven the works of art of this period, as companions of the Ohila-Christ, as sinffers and musi- cians, and useful fimng up and de- corative figures.

It was the highest joy of Italian artists to take from nature some speaking action, some passing event full of life, and express it in a beautiful manner ; they aimed pre- cisely at what the northerners avoided. There is as yet but little investigation of the anatomy of the human form ; but the constant un- tiring contemplation of daily ac- tions enlightened the artists as to the cause of every motion and every expression ; the study of the nude, and of perspective, which had to be created out of nothing, did the rest.

Thus arose a school of painting no longer restricted to suggestions and indications, but capable of re- presenting any kind of action, any sensuous form, or intellectual emo- tion.

In Florence this great innovation


is connected with the name of Masaceio (1401-1428). [But Ma- saccio was preceded by Masolino da Panicale, a master of no mean capacity, who first conmiingled the devout feeling of Angelico with the realism of Angelico's successors. Masolino painted between 1428 and 1435 the frescos of the Church and Baptistery of Castiglione cPOlona, in a the earlier series of which (vault- ing of the choir of the church) the tenderness of Fiesole is com- bined with the energy of the earlier Giottesques, whilst in the Baptistery we note the chance produced by increased study of detail in the human form, without increase of skill in composition or advance on the old methods of contrasting light and shade. According to the testimony of Yasari, MasoHno also painted m the Cappella Brancacci, at the Carmine of Florence; and& some judffcs still assign to him a part of tne pictures of that cele- brated chapel. But others acain think (and I am of this number) that if Vasari's statement is correct, it can only apply to wall paintings which have since been destroyed or obliterated. It is most desirable that some fresh light should be thrown upon the history of this great artist, whose life wUl remain obscure so long as we cannot dis- tinctly prove that he is identical with Tommaso di Gristoforo di Fino, who was born in 1383, em- ployed at Florence in 1425, in the pay of Pippo Spano, at Stuhlweis- senburg, m Hungary, about 1427, and is supposed to have died in Oct., 1447.— Ed.]*

Masaceio was Masolino's pupil, but chiefly formed his style under the influence of G hiberti, Donatello,


  • We should note as of Masolino's time,

a Virgin and Saints (1426) in S. Miniate, a Crucifixion (1440), and Christ in the Tomb, frescos in the rooms of the first floor above the cloisters in S. A.ppoIlonia at Florence, all by Paolo di St^ano.


Masaecio — MasoUno.


61


and Brunellesco, who represented the new principle in sculpture. [At an early a^e he went to Kome, where, according to Yasari, he painted a chapel in San Clementey with a series of frescos represent^ ing the Crucifixioa, and scenes from the legend of St. Catherine.] In spite of over-painting, these remark- able pictures show how closely Masaecio followed the manner of his master, and asserted his supe- riority over the Giottesques.

In some of the better preserved heads, life and character are very powerfully expressed. * [Equally remarkable as art is that other work which Vasari ascribes to Masaecio, the Virgin in a Mandorla and Pope Liberius tracing the ground plan of S. M. Maggiore at

a Kome, a diptych in the Museum of Kaples, erroneously catalogued as by GentUe de Fabriano. It shows in a striking manner how deeply imbued Masaecio was in his youth with the tenderness of Angelico's creations. — Ed. ]

Masaecio' s genius is fully dis-

b played in the Carmine at Florence (Brancacci chapel at the end of the r. transept), where he continued the series of frescos begun (and since obliterated) by Masaecio. As Eve in the fall of man is one of the first really beautiful nude female figures of modern art,t so in the Baptism of Peter, we see the first resJly life-like action of male figures ; the two nude figuries in motion (in the Expulsion from Paradise) are also perfect in treatment of lines. The remaining pictures also are enriched by an amount of free and noble traits hitherto quite unknown in art. Giotto and his school were

• [The theory of Dr. Von Zahn that these frescos are byMasolino, and not by Masae- cio, is shared by some critics, but rejected by others, amongst whom the writer of these lines ventures to take rank. — Ed.]

t [Dr. Burekhardt thought the Eve a work of Masolino, an opinion which no one now upholds. — Ed.]


fond of enlivening their dramatic scenes with numerous and sym- pathising spectators ; but now Ma- saecio introduces the whole of con- temporary Florence into the midst of the story as actors or spectators (Raising of the King's Son, part of which IS the work of Filippino Lippi) : he divides and combines the scenes, groups, and persons no longer according to architectonic laws, but for pictorial efifect, and with a naturalistic representation of the localities (Finding the Penny in the Fish's mouth ; Healing the Cripples ; the Giving Alms). But in his great success as to pictorial effect Masaecio did not overlook the principal object ; his chief cha- racter, the Apostl^ Peter, is always represented with a dignity and force, and his attitude and move- ments rendered in a manner only possible to a really great historical painter. None but a great artist fully takes in the single idea of the whole action ; all his followers up to lionardo revel in their posses- sion of vast new opportunities in art ; Masaecio alone knows how to be moderate^ and thus attains the impression of a harmonious whole. How simply has he given the dra- pety wUcli combin4 the highest nobleness of style with the most life-like flow. He does not court the difficulties of modelling and foreshortening; but where they meet him, he masters them com- pletely. (Best light, afternoon at four o'clock.) In the parts com- pleted hy FilvppinOj very easily to be recognized, the exceedingly beau- tiful composition is due apparently^ to Masaccio's design.

The simple grand picture of S. Anna with Mary and the Child, in the Academy at Florence (Quadrie grandi. No. 34), clearly shows the realistic painter developed out of the ideal idealizing school. The remains of a fresco painting of the Trinity, much injured, now on the right of


62


'^ Tlie Renaissance. Florentine School,


tbe entrance porch in 8, Maria a Novella, Tlie heads ascribed to Masaccio in the Uffizi are not his. The lunettes in the little church ^ of S. Martino {Fratemita de* Brw- tKymini) at Florence, are justly re- garded as the work of an excellent scholar of Masaccio: they give a grand richness of life without the overladen and quaint character of the later Florentines of the fifteenth century. I cannot look on them as youthful works of Filippino Lippi, as there Ib in them no remi- niscence of his master Sandro. Crowe and Cavalcaselle assign them a later date, and consider them as worlui of the school of Filippino.

FILIPPO LIPPI.

The advance made by Masaccio Ib carried still further by Pra Fir lippo Lippi (1406—1469), under the guidance of a less high and severe mind but a rich and playful fancy. Ue lets himself go, but not through laziness, but rather in au- dacious eiroeriments in what may be allowed to art. With what freedom and openness he reveals to us in the figures with which he fills up his scenes, the deepest nature of those whom he conceived, with what feeling he represents — the first to do so— the sensuous loveli- ness and exuberant, even wild, play- fulness of youth ! He is the first who heartily enjoyed the fulness of life, even in its chance manifestations.

His greatest works in fresco, the histories of John the Baptist and S. Stephen in the choir of the e Cathedral oi Prate (1452—6; best light 10-12 ; in winter ahnost in- visible, on account of the low roof of the choir — a sort of temporary roof of planks, only used m the winter months), would already have made an epoch in art through their method and their colouring. The scenes are not all lofty in concep- tion ; the artist has so much that is


new to say in aU possible directions that the deeper purpose suffers under the crowd of often beau- tiful, purely pictorial ideas. None of his predecessors express attitude and motion so beautifully as he does in his grand and lifelike draperies, several of which {e.g., in the Lamentation over the body of Stephen) hardly find an equal be- fore the time of Raphael. In the four Evangelists in the segments of the ceiling, Filippo did not adhere to the symmetrical arrangement; Fiesole's Evangelists, for instance, on the ceiling of the Chapel of Nicolas v., will always be pre- ferred

Towards the end of his life (1466), Filippo painted the apse of the choir of the Cathedral of Spoleto. d His Coronation of the Virgin in this church is one of the first semi-dome

Sictures that is arranged with free- om ; yet the severe symmetry of the earlier style is still felt agree- ably. The Virgin and Child are not equal in earnestness to the Giottesques ; but there is compen- sation in the lifelike expression of accessory groups. Of the three lower pictures in the hemicy cle, the Death of the Virgin is very impres- sive, though the result is reached by quite different methods from those employed by the Giottesques. In his easel pictures the predomi- nant sentiment is that of pleasure in natural beauty, healthy and play- ful youth ; the Madonna, a figure out of Florentine domestic life, the Child-Christ always very beautifully formed. [Remark the peculiar form of the head often resembling that of a bull, which g^ves a stubborn look to many of his figures, often even to those of the Child-Christ. —Mr.] At Prate, in the Refectory c ofS. jbomcnico, a Birth of Christ, with S. Michael and S. Thomas Aquinas ; — in the Finacoteca of the/ Palazzo del Commune, a Madonna della Cintola, a poor feeble Ma-


Filippo Lippi — Sandro Botticelli.


63


doDDa, and a Predella. At

a Florence, in the Academy (Quadri ^randi, No. 49), a beautiful Ma- donna with four Saints, all under an architectural building, the most beautiful of his easel pictures as re- gards drapery ; — there also (Quadri grandi. No. 41) the large Corona- tion of the Virgin — late, as is shown by his own portrait as an old man, and the low toned, but quite clear, colouring; it gives an impression of over-fulness, because the subject, a Glory, is represented in a definite earthly spot ; but along with this it is also rich in essentially new life ; also the beautiful Predella,

h Uffik, No. 1307 ; two angels lift towards the Madonna the child that Jongs for her ; she lingers praying [there also. No. 1167| the wonderful head of an old man, ascribed to Masaccio, fresco. — Mr.] Pal. Pitti, No. 338, large circular

c picture of the Madonna seated (half length).; behind, the Birth of the Baptist and the Visitation, a subject which naturally led to the union of the incidents formerly divided into separate scenes by gold Hues in one picture, converting the family altar

d into a family picture. San Lorenzo, in a chapel of the left transept, a fine Annunciation of the Virgin

« (damaged). Pal. Corsini, several pictures. [Fra Filippo's ordinary assistants should not be forgotten. Fra Diaman^te (b. 1430 at Terra Nova, died after 1492, ) was jour- neyman at Prato and Spoleto, and guardian to Filippino Lippi. Jacopo del Sellaio (b. 1442, d. 1493), prac- tised at Florence. Crucifixion in the church of Cestcllo, PeseUino ; (see postea).]

SANDRO BOTTICELLI.

Sandro Botticelli (1447—1510) the pupil of Filippo, never tho- roughly accomplished what he intended. He loved to express life and emotion sometimes in even


vehement movement, and often painted with a great deal of hurry. He strove after an ideal beauty, but remained chained to a type of head, always recurring and recog- nizable from afar, which he repro- duced occasionally in a most lovely manner, but which often was rude and lifeless. (It is not the head of the Bella Simonetta, if the doubtful profile picture in the PaL Pitti, Sala di Prometeo, No. 353, resJly represents this maiden.) Sandro is one of the first of the Florentines who showed a constant attachment to profane mythological and alle- goncal subjects, painted according to the feeling of theEenaissance.*

His most oeautif ul work is one of the two circular pictures (Ma- donnas with Angels) in the Uflfizi (No. 25), t with wonderful aneels' heads, a real jewel in execution ; there also is his best composed his- torical picture, an Adoration of the Kings (No. 1286), which rivals in its noble cast of drapery the best works of his master, an interesting parallel with Flemish pictures of the same subject; then two little Stories of Judith (Nos. 1231 and 36) and the well-known, so often painted Allegory of Appelles of Calumny (No. 1288), subjects whose grand and ideal significance was not adequately expressed by his here strangely mannered rei^sm; also "Strength" (No. 1299) is not a happy conception; but at last came the Venus floating on a shell on the ocean (No. 39) ; for this Sandro studied and produced not only a really beautiful nude, but a most charming, fairy like impression, which unconsciously takes the place of the mythological one. In the Academy (Quadn antichi, No. 24), /

  • Very remarkable symbolical composi-

tions are found among his engravings for the edition of Dante of 1481.

t Perhaps only a repetition of the still more beautiful specimen in the possession of Count Alessandri.


64


" The Renaissance. Florentine School.


the Garden of Venus, or whatever the picture may be called; again realistically imperfect in the forms of the nude figures; also (in the lar^e room, No. 47), a large Coro- nation of the Virgin with four Saints, in parts insignificant, and harsh in colour, and even rude ; much better the Madonna with four Angels and six Saints (No. 52), one of the splendid lar^e pictures in which the fifteenth century transforms the heavenly sphere into a real, earthly, but still solemn and dignified court ; the angels not only lift up the curtain, but they also hang it carefully on the posts of the architectural edifice. Other « works of his in P. Pitti, P. Corsini, i and elsewhere. In the Ognissanti, on the right S. Augustine, counter- part to Ghirlandajo's Jerome. The c battle-piece in the TiCrin Gallery is more in the style of Uccello.

FILIPPINO LIPPI.

Filippino Lippi (1461 — 1504), son of Filippo and pupil of Sandro, whom he much excels in spuit, fancy, and feeling for beauty. How he naturally succeeded Sandro is best seen in the large Madonna enthroned with the four Saints, in

c^the Uffld, No. 1268 (1485). There also, an Adoration of the Kings — full of figures (No. 1257), certainly inferior to the perhaps contempo- rary one by Lionardo, and not devoid of the faults of the later works of Filippino (too bright colouring, overcrowding, and heavy, puffed- out drapery), but unusually beau- tiful in its expression of timid approach, of adoring devotion. The little S. Jerome sitting in the niche, named as "Filippo L." is certainly by Filippino. His best

e easel picture, in the Badia, left of the door, S. Bernard visited by the Madonna and Angels, a work full of naive beauty, is certainly of an early date (1480); also early, the


beautiful Altar-piece in S. Michele, f at Lucca, first altar on the right ; the Descent from the Cross, on the other hand, in the Academy at^ Florence (Qu. gr.. No. 57), of which Perugino painted the lower group, as well as the Marriage of St. Catherine with Saints in S. Do- menico at Bologna (small chapel im- h mediately to right of choir), dated 1501, belong to his later works, in which, with much that is beautiful, one misses the harmonious flow of inspiration. A few long, narrow pictures, with many small figures, such as that with the Death of Lucretia (P. PiUi, No. 388) and* the story of Esther (P. Torrigiani, j at Florence), are evidence of the manner of various contemj^orary Florentine artists, representing profane history in theatrical scenes full of figures. The splendid pic- ture in S. Spirito (coming from the nave, the fifth altar of the right transept) is attributed also to Fiup- pino's pupil, Hajffaellino del Garbo ; ^ it is a Madonna with Saints and Donators under a porch, with a beautiful view over a city ; some of the heads have a melancholy grace, like the most beautiful pictures of Lorenzo di Credi. Probably by him, the fine panel picture with four Saints in S, Felice in Piazza. I [In S. Teodoro, at Genoa, a large Altar-piece of 1503 ; there also, m f^ P, Palbi, a small communion of^^ S. Jerome, of which what is per- haps the original belongs to the Marchese Gino Capponi at Florence. In Venice {Pinacoteca Manfredini, o in the Seminary of the Salute), two tender little pictures, Christ with the Magdalen, and the Woman of Samaria, there called D. Crespi. — Mr.] The frescos of Filippino in the Carmiiie at Florence, which areP probably the earliest, are also the best ; they form a worthy and harmonious continuation to the work of Masaccio, whose composi- tion he may be supposed to have


Cosimo Hosselli — Paoh Doni Uccello.


63


followed. There are two groups easily to be recognized as his in the representation of the King's Son Raised from the Dead ; also Peter and Paul before the Pro-consul (here the last head to the right is the portrait of the painter by him- self, with which compare the por-

<]( trait in the IJffizi, wrongly named Masaccio in the collection of por- trait painters); and Peter visited in the dungeon by Paul, and bis deli- verance by the angel. But also in the Miracles of the Apostles John and Philip, with which he

I decorated the Cappella Strozz% in S. M. Novella (the first on the right of the choir), I can perceive nothing like any diminution in his .artistic capacity, only that here he narrates more in his own manner 4ihan one of the great dramatic jsainters of the fifteenth century would have done. At the same time the faults are very obvious, Buch as overloaded and complicated composition, heavy, lumpy, wide spread out draperies and conven- tional heads, which, however, are outweighed by casual traits of the greatest beauty. There is a decided inferiority in the frescos in

c the Minerva at Rome {Gap, Carafa^ 1488—91), in which he certainly attempted a subject no longer in harmony with the fifteenth cen- tury; the Glory of S. Thomas, as an allegorical ceremonial picture.

  • i A. beautiful tabernacle at Frato,

corner of the Strada di S. Mar- gherita (1488).

Parallel with Sandro and Filip- pino is Cosiiiw Rossclli (born 1439, died 1507), whose best fresco at

<; Florence, in S. Ambrogio^ in the chapel left of the choir, represents a procession with a miraculous cup. The heads are beautiful and full of life, the composition overcrowded and somewhat wanting in dignity.

/In the entrance court of the Aii- numiata at Florence, the Investi-


ture of S. Filippo Benizzi. In S, M, MaddaUna de^ Pazzi (second (j chapel on the left), the Coronation of the Virgin, formerly ascribed to Fiesole ; in S. Ambrogio, an As- sumption of the Virgin. In general, Cosimo worked on the inspiration of others, which, at this time of greater individual freedom, was no longer so allowable as it had been one hundred years earlier.

PUro di Cosiytio (bom 1462) was Rosselli's pupil, and, though he lived till 1521, and was at a later period influenced by Lionardo, yet he still belongs in his style of conception to the mteenth century. His best picture, the Conception ^t. with six Saints ( Ujizif No. 1250), is remarkably solid in composition and character, really a model picture of the school. [His next best is the Virgin and Saints in the church of the Innocenti.] Of the four mytho- logical long, narrow pictures, Nos. 21, 28, 32, 1246, at the Ujffizi, the last, Perseus and Andromeda^ is exquisite in some of its details. [The want of proportion in some of his heavy, awkward figures is striking. — Mr.]

Paolo Doni Uccello (born in 1397, died 1475) should here be interca- lated as a precursor of Benozzo. The paintings in the Chiostro verde i of S, M. Novella, begun, whether by him or some one else, in the obso- lete Giottesque style, were com- pleted by him in two scenes (Flood, Sacrifice of Noah), which show a very cultivated realism in progress towards discoveries in perspective. The equestrian portrait painted monochrome, of the famous Cap- J tain Sir John Hawkwood, in the Catliedral of Florenoe, is, like the fellow picture painted by Castagno (the military leader, Niccol6 Mau- ruzzo da Tolentino), much restored, but better conceived than the latter, which represents only a stiff-legged

F


66


" The Renaissance,^^ Florentine School.


cavalry soldier on a plough horse. Besides this, there is by Uccello a a very lively battle piece in the Ufi&zi (No. 29).

BENOZZO GOZZOLI.

Benozzo Oozzoli (bom 1424, died about 1498), a pupil of Fiesole, shows few traces of his master's

J spirit. In the Cathedral of Orvieto, where he was Fiesole's assistant, he was not allowed to complete the unfinished work, and his first in- dependent productions are found in the little Umbrian town of Montefalco (S. Francesco, chapel of

cthe choir, the life of S, Francis^ 1452, and some wall pictures; S.

d Fortimato outside the town, seve- ral paintings). The best things here are some graceful figures, .apparently portraits, and genre incidents. In 1463 he painted in the

« chapel of the Palazzo Riccardi at Florence (by lamplight) the Pro- cession of the Three Kings, which extends over three walls, and ends at the place for the altar — a won- derful work, full of individual Iteauty and tasteful splendour in the rich cavalcade moving through the fine woody landscape, with two fairy-like, ^aceful choirs of angels (reflected hght moderately good at 2). Between 1463—1467 he com-

/pleted the rich series of frescos in the choir of S. Agostino at S. (rimignano, the Life of S. Augus- tine, the wall picture over the Altar of S. Sebastian, in the same church, an easel picture in the

U choir of the Collegiate, and a Cru-

/(cifixion at Moiite Oliveto, near the town. A series of frescos, now

?' fast disappearing, in S. Chiara, at Castel-Fiorentino, appears to have been executed by pupils after his drawings. But in the Campo

j isanto at Pisa, almost the whole of tiie northern wall (twenty-three pictures), containing the stories of the Old Testament, painted 1469-


85, is his work. Benozzo shows complete enjoyment of the simple, beautiful motives of life in them- selves ; his chief aim is to repre- sent figures in repose, or carrying, stooping, runnine, falling, often of great beauty and youthful charm, with the full force of the action of the moment ; on the other hand, the story itself interests him com- paratively but little. The spec- tator feels the charm of this new species of life-pictures, and desires nothing beyond this endlessly rich variety. Benozzo lavishes orna- ment on his architectural buildings^ gardens, landscapes, with fabulous splendour ; here, too, he is an en- thusiastic discoverer of new sub- jects for representation. The two bad paintings on the west wall, ascribed to Jtondiiwssi, 1666, are evidently overpainted compositions of Benozzo.

His easel pictures give no idea of his excellence. There are seve- ral in the Academy at Pisa ; a h Mad&iina della Cintola is in the I Lateran at Eome. * [By Benozzo's assistant at Pisa, Zanobi Macchia- velli, a Madonna and Family, in the Acad, of Pisa.]

[Contemporary with Benozzo, but a follower of Fra FUippo, Francesco di StefanOy commonly 7» called Pesellino (bom 1428, died 1457) gives an impulse to the realistic school of Florence, and competes with Baldovinetti in the effort to introduce oil painting into Tuscany. (Annunciation in the Spirito Santo ; Predellas in the Buonarotti, Allessandri, and Tor-


  • Here should be classed the fresco of

Lorenzo da Viterbo in a chapel of S. Maria della Verity, in that place ; a Marriage of the Virgin, ver>' rich in figures, of the year 1469. [In the cathedral, in the sacristy, is a beautiful picture of the Madonna robed in vrhite, with four saints, certainly by him. — Mr.] By the same artist are tlie weak l^^ndnry pictures, showing the in- fluence of Piero della Francesca, in 8. Francesco at Mont«falco. Cr. and C.


Benozzo Gozzoli — Ghirlandajo.


67


rigiani collections, and a predella at the Academy, Quadri Grandi, No. 48, at Florence, also two fine pieces of predellas, with scenes from the legend of St. Sylvester, in the P. Doria at Home.) Ed.] a AUssio Baldoviiietli [bom 1427, died 1499] is the painter of the h Adoration of the Shepherds, in the <; entrance Court of the Anmi7vzi4)Ua dsX Plorence; of. a Madonna delta Cintola over the doors of the sa- cristy of S. Niccolo; of an easel picture of a Madonna enthroned, e Uffizi (No. 31). The remains of /frescos in the G. Alvaro in S, MinicUo are probably his. A care- ful, not unintelligent realist, chiefly known as the master of


DOMENICO GHIRLANDAJO.

Dominica Ghirlandajo (1449- 1494), the greatest of this series. He opposes the realism which threatens to lose itself in following oat its own principles in the name of the permanent principles of art. He, too, feels the charms of living beauty, and is fully capable of reproducing it, but he makes this subordinate to the lofty serious character of the holy perso- nages, and the higher meaning of the moment represented. The beautiful figures taken from living personages, collected in excellently arranged groups, introduced as spectators of the incidents, take part in the noble and grand con- ception of the whole. Of all his predecessors, Filippo Lippi, espe- 9 cially in his paintmgs in the Cathe- dral of Prato, seems to have most impressed Ghirlandajo ; and al- though he has not equalled him in the light and noble flow of the drapery, nor rivalled either him or some others in the representation of various materials, or the har- mony of colour, yet he surpasses them all, both in the lines of the


composition and in the technical execution of the fresco.

In the church of Ognissanti will be seen on the left his fresco of 8, h Jerome (1480), in which he follows the Flemish method in the render- ing of the place and the accessories ; in the Refectory his Last Supper, of which the arrangement is still the antique Giotte»^ne. In the Jtefectory of S. Marco is a repeti- i tion, not so good. The wall- pictures of the Gliapel of S, Fina, j in the CoUegiata of the little town of S. Gimignano, are attractive and very beautiful decorative works. Of the year 1845 are the frescos of the G, S&ssetti in S. Trinitd, (the k farthest back in the right tran- sept), representing the Legend of S. Francis, alr^idy a mature master-piece. (Best light, 9 a.m.) Lastly, the frescos* in the Choir of 5. Maria Naoella (1490) with the I life of the Virgin, the Baptist, and other saints. The most striking thing here is not any remarkable dramatic motive, but the dignified, loftily impressive picture of life, which we know to be the glorifi- cation of actual life in Florence. These graceful, noble, and power- ful creations elevate us the more in that they approach us so nearly, f

Among the easel pictures in Plorence must be named the Ado- w» ration of the Kings at the back of the Choir in the Church of the Innocenti [1488; inferior to the circular picture of 1487 in the Uffizi; the execution somewhat wanting in charm, and indeed, in general, Ghirlandajo's easel pic- tures are not equal in beauty to his wall paintings. — ^Mr.] ; then, in

  • They are always badly lighted. The

tolerably good moments, both before and after noon, depend on the position of the sun, according to the seasons of the year.

t Is it possible that the fresco of a Pieta, with John and Magdalen, in a corner of the town wall by the Arno, near the Porta S. Frediano, can be by Do- menico ? In spite of decay and restoration it is still a grand work.

F 2



^' The Renaissance,^' Florentine School,


a the Academy, the Madonna with four Saints, Quadri Antichi, No. 17, and the splendid Adoration of the Shepherds (1486), Quadri gr., No. 50, a masterpiece of the time in

grace of form and beautiful and appy arrangement. Two pictures

"b in the Uffisi, the brilliant Madonna enthroned (No. 1295), and the circular picture of an Adoration of the Kings (No. 1297) ; — one in the

c P, Corsini, — In the Sacristy of the

d Cathedral of Lucca, an (early) Ma- donna with four Saints. — [A (jhrist in glory with Saints, formerly in

ethe Badia at Volterra, now in S. Francesco in the same town (Crowe and C). — ^A very important easel

/picture in the town-hall of Simini m excellent preservation. — I con-

g sider the beautiful altar-piece in S. Spirito, Florence, as a youthful work of Ghirlandajo, the Trinity with S. Mary Magdalene and S, Catherine (Transept on the left, fourth altar. ) — Mr. ]

Domenico's brothers, Davide and Benedetto, have left no independent works of any name ; his brother-in- law, Bastiano Mainardi (p. 26), has

Ji some frescos at S, CHmignano, His pupil, Francesco Gh^ancuxi, painted, among other things, an Assump- tion of the Virgin with four Sainte,

i Academy, Qu. gr.. No. 75 ; and in the Uffizi, No. 1280, a Madonna reaching down the girdle to S. Thomas, good pictures without any very special character.

CASTAQNO— POLLAJUOLO.

Along with these great efforts to depict a high and beautiful life in a realistic spirit, there arose also an exaggerated attempt to repre- sent character. The pictures of Andrea del CastagTW [bom about 1390, died 1457] are like painted Bonatellos, only with less sense of proportion, and at times full of coarse swagger. Academy ; S.


Croce, after the fifth altar on the right, figures in fresco of S. Francis and John the Baptist; Cathedral k comp. p. 65^). His important fresco of heroic male and female figures, poets, heroes, sibyls, etc., formerly in Casa Pandolfini. at Legnaia, now I transferred to canvas in the Museo Nazionale (Bargello), at Florence. A Last Supper, in fresco, in the ex-Convent of St. Apollonia, real- ^^i- istic and grand, and remarkable as showing that Castagno was a thorough master of linear per- spective.

Antonio [born 1429, died 1498] Pietro [bom 1441, died before 1496] Pollajuolo at least combine similar clearness with splendid execution. {Uffizi; Frudentia, No. n 1306 ; small combats of Hercules, No. 1153 ; an altar-piece with SS. James, Eustace, and Vicentius, No. 1301 ;) Pal, PiU% a S. Sebastian, o No. 384 ; Pietro's Coronation of the Virgin, in the Choir of the Gol-p legiata at S. Gimignano [1483], is not important. Antonio's master- piece of the Martyrdom of S. Se- bastian, from the Annunziata, isq now in the National Gallery in London. A set of thirty pieces of tapestry, after the compositions of the Poflajuoli, in the treasury of the Battistero at Florence. Herer should be mentioned : Doufvenico Veneziano, Castagno's partner in S. Maria Nuova, whose only exist- ing picture, formerly in S. Ltceias c?e Bardi, Madonna with four Saints, is now in the Uffizi, No. 1305. Domenico was the master of Piero delta Francesca, from Borgo San Sepolcro, who afterwards taught Signorelli. His frescos in the choir of S. Fraivcesco at Areiio t (best light towards evening), repre- senting the story of Constantino and of the True Cross, show in the parts that are preserved such energy of character, such move- ment, and such luminous colour, that one completely forgets the


Andrea Verrocchio — Lorenzo di Credi.


69


want of a higher conception of the facts. A Magdalen, near the door

a of the sacristy in the Cathedral of Arezzo is excellent, and in good preservation. A little St. Jerome

^ in a landscape, Academy at Venice, much injured. Portraits of Fre- derick of Montefeltro. and his wife (No. 1300) at the Uffizi. This interesting master must be also studied in his birthplace, where

c the Resurrection of Christ, a wall- painting in the Conununitft, an

e2 altar-piece in the Clmpel of the Hospital, and other things, are very remarkable. At Biimni {S,

e Francesco) the fresco of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta kneeling before S. Sigismund. At Vrbino (sacristy

/of the CatJbedral) the precious miniature-like little picture of the

g Flaeellation. In the Town Oallery at this place (taken from S. Chiara) an architectural picture, of the ideal kind, formerly much liked in intarsiatura.

ANDREA VERROCCHIO.

Andrea Verrocchio also, the teacher of Lionardo, in almost the only picture by him now eating, the Baptism of Christ, in the h Academy, No. 43, has fallen into really poverty-stricken forms and character, only he finishes them most carefully : his modelling is conscientious, and endeavours to sound all the secrets of anatomy as well as chiaroscuro ; but with all this it is remarkable how lifeless the drapery still remains. The angel painted in by Lionardo shows a sweeter type of head, which, in- deed, was not unfamiliar to us in Verrocchio's bronzes.*

LORENZO DI CREDI.

Lorenzo di Credi must here be

  • [The author is unjust to Verrocchio,

-who is realistic and searching, yet tender and graceful, and carries the system of painting in oil to perfection.— £cL


mentioned among Yerrocchio's pupils, though ultimately he fell under the iiSuenoe of his greater fellow-pupil. Hiseamestendeavour to master a correct representation of objects in perspective was, how- ever, first excited by his tei^her. Every one of his pidiures aims at accomplishing thu in a different way : nc tries it with the highest light, and the most delicate transi- tions, as well as with deep shadows. His male characters have, as, for instance, in the beautiful picture of the Madonna with two Saints i {Cathedral of Pistoja, chapel near the choir on the left), the nervous uneasy exp!ression of the Baptism of Christ by Verrocchio. On the other hand, in his Madonnas, some- times (not always ;), and also in the child, we find the most delicate feeling for beauty, so that they must everywhere be regarded as treasures of art {Academy of Flo- rence; Uffizi; Oalleria Borghescj at Borne, and elsewhere). HisAr only large composition, an Adora- tion of the Child {Academy of Flo- rence, Qu. gr.. No. 51), shows in a remarkable way how a persevering artist, even without the highest gifts, could at that time prince most excellent things, because his sense of grace in form and expres- sion was as yet unbiassed by fixed theories and types ; because that period did not yet aim at the pathetic and emotional, in which those who are only moderately gifted must fail ; because, lastly, the essential realistic impulse of the time is a safeguard against what is tedious, tlutt is to say, commonplace and conventional. In the picture above named there is something of the superfluous senti- ment so prominent in the Perugi- nesque school (see the youth with the lamb), only that one forgets this as well as the slightly artificial arrangement of the group in the enchanting beauty of most of the


70


" The Benaissance" Florentine School.


fiffores. The small pictures with

a biblicaL scenes in the Uffizi (Scaola Toscana, first room) give no idea of Lorenzo's artistic capability. (Can

hth.e Madonna with two Saints in S. SpirUOf at the back of the choir, the last altar on the right, be by him— it is pat down School of Sandro ?) [It is too weak for him ;

c his masterpieces are : a Madonna bettoeen Saints, in the Cathedral

d at Pistoja, one of the most perfect ; in S. DomenicOj at Tiesole, the Baptism of Christ, very good ; Pal.

e Cohmnaj Borne, a charming little picture, from which KaphaeT might nave borrowed the idea of his Ma- donna with the pink. — ^Mr.]


LUCA SIGNORELLI.

Unattached to this series stands the great Ltuxu da Cortona, -pvo- perly ^tgr/ioreWt (1441 ?— 1623). He was a pupil of Piero della Fran- cesca, and had received his strongest impressions from Flo- rence. The equal of Ghirlandajo in the grandeur of his conception of actions and personages, ne is nevertheless less selective in his individual forms, and occasionidly produces very coarse things ; on the other hand, the strong feeling for the nude is first seen in him as an essential point in the representa- tion, even in the choice of subjects. In this sense he is the most im- mediate predecessor of Michel- angelo. / His frescos in the Cmivent of Konte Oliveto (south of Siena), scenes from the life of S. Benedict, eight frescos on the west wall, are especially interesting on account of particular powerful traits, which distinctly recaU lionardo ; the "Early German " (!!), inSignoreUi, comes out in the characteristic figures of the warriors, while along with this there are also other youthful forms of truly Rafaelesque


beauty. But his creat work is the fresco series in the Chapel of the g Madonna, in the Cathedral of Orvieto (after 1499), which, to- gether with those of Fiesole (from whose design Signorelli painted on the south side of the vaulted roof the Apostles and Angels, with the signs of the Passion), form a (^de of subjects belonging to the Last Jud^ent, Antichrist, the Resur- rection of the Dead, Hell, and Para- dise ; below, as a decoration, on a breast high skirting, are represented the poets both of classical and bibli- cal antiquity in circular pictures, surroundiedby numerous allegorical, mythological and decorative paint- ings in monochrome. Though very far from being the most adequate or the most striking and real re- presentation of these subjects,

    • Paradise" and **Hell" are his-

torically most valuable, as being the first really grand expression of the delight of having mastered the creation of nude form. This is here set before us, not ideally con- ceived, but in the fulness of youth- ful heroic strength, with most energetic modelling and colour.

Amoflg his easel pictures the finest is the one in the Caihedral of h Perugia [1484] (side chapel in the right transept), the Maidonna en- throned with four Saints, and an angel playing the lute ; in that place a real relief to the eye that has been satiated with Perugino's sweet ecstacies. The very inte- resting pictures at Cortona are un- i fortunately hung, for the most

Sart, in an extremely unfavourable ght. Three (?) powerful pictures adorn the choir of the Catnedral ; the famous Institution of the Com- munion [1512] : Luca boldly aban- doned the conventional mode of representation,* removed the table, and allows us to see Christ moving

  • Justus van Gent however had given a

previous example of this arrangement in his Last Supper at Urbino. See postea.


Luca Signorelli — Sistine Chapel.


71


among tlie group of his disciples, all in perfect action ; the Descent from the Gross [1502], with a great number of most beautiful heads, especially females, reeular oval, with almost Greek profiles ; the power of colouring and chiaros- curo remind us of Seb. del Piombo : the Gonversiou of Thomas is the least important ; in the Sacristy is a Lunette with a beautiful Ma- donna, almost of the type of Lion-

^ardo. In the Gesii^ opposite the Caihedral, is a (late) Adoration of the Shepherds ; and the fellow to it a Miraculous Gonception, more probably by his nephew Francesco.

b [In the Compagnia di S, Niccolo a panel painted on both sides : the dead body of Ghrist at the tomb supported by angels, and a Madonna between S. Peter and S. Paul B. ] —

c In S. Domenico, third altar, right, a Madonna with Saints, 1515. — In S.

dMedardo at Arcevia the Virgin -with Saints, an altarpiece in 31

« parts (1507).— In S, Domenico, at Siena, an Adoration of the Ghild, said to be begun by Matteo di 6fio- vanni (last altar to the right in the nave), might be a sweet youthful

y work of Luca (??). — In the Academy ot Siena, the Escape from the Burning of Troy, and the Bansom of Prisoners, the latter an excel- lent composition of nude figures [but clearly by one of Signorelli's

^scholars]. — At Florence the Aca- demy contains (Qu. gr., No. 54) a large very much mannered picture of his later years, a Madonna with two Archangels and two Saints. — In

7i P, Corsini are several works of his.

i — In the Uffizi, lastly [a predella, &c.], two remarkable circular pic- tures. No. 1291, which fully re- presents the serious, unadorned, manly style of the master, and No. 36, Madonna, in the back- ground, undraped shepherds, and above the round, figures in relief in monochrome. The nude and the sculpturesque, the beginning of


another epoch in art, are here combined. Even the excellent head of an old man in the Torri-j giani Gallery has figures in action intheback^ound. — The Scourging, k No. 306, m the Brera at Milan, appears to be an early picture. — In the gallery at Arezso, a larger altar-piece from the Convent of H. SpirUOf somewhat crowded, but full of beauties ; [a Madonna with Saints from S. Margarita]. — At Borgo S. Sepoloro, Ghurch of S. m Antonio Abbate the [Grucifixion and S. Anthony, a procession standard] of striking beauty, truly grand in feeling. At Urbino, in Spiriton Santo, Ghrist on the Gross, with the wonderfully beautiful group of women round the fainting Virgin, only to be compared with the altar-piece at Perugia, and the Descent of the Holy Spirit. For the rest, all the towns of this district, Borgo, Gittil di Gastello, San DoTnenico : a Martyrdom of S. o Sebastian, 1496 ; S. Cecilia : a Ma- ]* donna with Saints ; in the town gallery, from S. Giovanni Decollato : a Baptizing of Ghrist, fresco, and a q Madonna enthroned, 1495 ; Palaxsso Mandni : an Adoration of the Shepherds, 1494, and a Goronation r of the Madonna, 1515— aU of them large and important works. — [At Volterra, in the Gathedral, the Annunciation (1491), and in the Tovm Gallery from S. Francesco a large Madonna with Saints. — ^At Loretto — and recently admirably restored — splendid frescos of the Evangelists and Doctors of the Ghurch, in the vaulting, 12 Apostles, and the Conversion of S. Paul, on the walls, of the Sacristy of the great Ghurch. — Ed.]

TUSCAN PAINTERS IN THE SISTINE CHAPEL.

A splendid collective memorial of Tuscan painting of the fifteenth century exists in the twelve frescos


^' The Renaissaiice*^ Paduan School


from the life of Moses and of Christ ^ on the walls of the Sistinc Chapel. 8ixtii8 IV. (1471-84) had them executed by the painters already named, Sandro Botticelli, CosiTno Itosaelli, Domenico Ohirkmdajo and Liica Signorelli, to whom must be added also Pietro Pcrugino, Three pictures by the last-named artist, on the wail of the altar, the Find- ing of Moses and the Adoration of the Kin£s, as well as the Corona- tion of uie Viicin, which formerly helped to render the connection more distinct, were removed to make room for the Last Judgment ; the two on the wall by the door are by late and inferior artists. The series begins from the altar on the wall to the left — 1. Journey of Moses and Zipporah, by Perugino (not Signorelli); 2. Moses's Mira- cles in Egypt, by Botticelli ; 3 and 4. Drowning of Pharaoh, and Destruction of the Golden Calf, b^ Bosselli ; 5. Fall of Korah and his FoUowers, by Botticelli ; 6. Publi- cation of the Ten Conmiandments, by Signorelli.* On the wall to the right— 1. The Baptism of Christ, by Perugino ; 2. The Temptation, by Botticelli ; 3. The Calling of the Apostles Peter and Andrew, by (Tuirlandajo ; 4. The Sermon on the Mount, by Bosselli ; 5. The Investiture of Peter, by Perusino ; G. The Xast Supper, by Kossedli.

These works are of great merit, and deserve a closer examination than is usually accorded them.+ Those of Sandro, Cosimo, and Pietro are among the best works of these artists. Pietro moves with a Flo-

  • Apparently assisted by Don Barto-

loinmeo della Gatta.

t The light is never favourable for those on the south side. On sunny mornings between 10 and 12 they have at least a strong reflected light. Any one who de- sires to en.ioy the works of art in the Vatican, will do well to spare his eyes on the way, that is, on and beyond the Ponte S. Angelo, and on the Piazza of S. Peter, and rather choose the circoitous way behind the Ck)lonnade8.


rentine liveliness not characteristic of his later work; the Fall of Korah and his Followers is Sandro's most important composition ; in the one ascribed to Signorelli there are at least some motives of marvellous vigour,* which could be the work of no one but him. But the narrative manner of the time, so rich in figures, which takes here a broad style, more than once so crowds ihe principal action that the eye quite attaches itself to the lively details, to the pleasing copiousness, for in- stance, to the landscape and archi- tectural backgrounds. Here, along- side the Prophets and Sibyls, close to the Stanze and the Tapestiy, we understand how Baphael and Mi- chelangelo were needed, and how greatly art, which was losine itself m simple delineation of life and character, needed to be. recalled to its highest ideal.

And yet this highest ideal is found realized here and there in these paintings. In Ghirlandajo's Calling of Peter and Andrew he has given the most striking and solemn side of the incident, and made it the principal idea ; it is like an anticipation of BaphaeVs Miraculous Draught of Fishes and Feed my Sheep.

The splendour of decoration in these paintings was quite in har- mony with the taste of Sixtus V., who loved gilding and the glow of colour beyond measure.

NORTH ITALY. SQUARCIONE AND MANTEGNA.

In North Italy, meantime, the Paduan School had attained a real- istic development in a manner pe- culiar to itself, and quite indepen- dent of the Florentines.*— Its foun-

• [Dr. Burokhardt forgot when he wrote this sentence that the school of Sqnar- cione, of which Mantegna was the chief ornament, was influenced by the Floren- tine Douatello and by Jacopo Bellini, a Venetian who studied at Florence.— Ed- 1


Squarcione.


73


der, Francesco Squarcione (1423- 1474), had collected in Italy and Greece antique statues, reliefs, fra^ents of ornament, from which artists studied in his atelier with great industry, but in a narrow and exclusive way. No one at this time thought of entering into the living principle of ancient sculpture, which might have been instructive, and in some degree might have cultivated the sense of proportion in painting. Not to the simplicity of the general conception, nor the ideal so at- tained, was value attached, but to the richness of details of form, which, perhaps, was the quality most admired in later over-refined sculpture. To render in painting the definiteness of the human form which they found in sculpture, was the object of this school : hence its sculpturesque sharpness and hard- ness. This most ornament-loving school also borrowed a number of decorative features from the an- tique remains above mentioned, and others, especially Roman buildings.

But at the same time the real- istic tendency of the age was espe- cially strong here, and combined in a very remarkable way with the study of the antique. The first gave the spirit, the latter only partly influenced the mode of ex- pression. In the drapery especially is seen the combination of the two tendencies ; the whole cast and arrangement aim at representing someuung antique, but it is -made real by jewel-like lights, deep sha- dows, and somewhat over-detailed execution of particular motives. Besides this, the deep juicy colour, and the much developed chiar- joseuro, and the sharp and power- ful modelling, are qualities always found in the schooL

By Squarcwiie himself there are

two genuine pictures formerly be-

a longing to the Laazara family ; an

altar-piece with St. Jerome study-


ing in the centre, with the antique delicacy of execution, and some- what wanting in character, in the Town, Oallery at Padua; and a Madonna, signed, a half-length figure under festoons of fruit, more resembling the usual character of Squarcione's works,* still in the possession of the Lazzara family, b [Contemporary with Squarcione, Jacopo Bellini settled at Padua, c taking thither some of the Tuscan principles which he had acquired as a journeyman in the workshop of Gentile du Fabriano at Florence (1423). His early works, Madonna in the Tadini Collection at Lovere, are still reminiscent of Gentile. But later ones already foreshadow the style which was held in com- mon by Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini in their earliest days. Cru- cifixion from the Vescovado, now in the Oallery at Verona, frescos in Cappella S. TeraMo at S. Zac- caria of Venice. — Ed.] By one of Squarcione's immediate pupils, Marco Zoppo, altar-pieces m thed sacristy of San Giuseppe de' Capuo- cinif outside Bologna ; another in e the Collegia di Spagna; others in S, Giovanni at Pesaro, and in the NatioTud Gallery in London. Zop]^ is full of character and delicate m execution ; though with certain traits that are unbeautifiil and strange. Oregorio Schiavone has much of the same character. His best works in England, in the Na- tional Gallery and Maitland Col- lection. [As we write this collection is being sold. — Ed. ]

[Dario da Treviso, another dis- ciple of Squarcione, is better known for house decorations in Serravalle and Treviso than for pictures. Madonna in the Gallery of Bsssano.

♦ Crowe and Cavalc. believe both pic- tures to be the work of pupils in Squar- cione's schooL A Madonna, with a white monk, praying, in the P. Manfrin at Venice (1447), and the 'Sibyl with Augustus,' in the Pinacoteca at Verona, are not considered genuine.


74


^^ The RenaissameJ^ Paduan School.


Oirolamo da Trevico develops the same style. Altar-pieoes at Seriate, near Bergamo, Id the Cathedral of ttTreviso (1487), and in S, Salvadare of Colalto (1494). At Padua, Pa- rentino cultivates Squarcionesque art. Allegory in the Gallery of Modena, and frescos in S. Giustiim of Padna ; and is surpassed by Jacopo Montagnana, frescos in JSpis- copal Palace at Padna and ^S^^ 3f. di Mont-Ortone. The Canozzi (Lorenzo and Christopher) illustrate the same style in tiuvias — Library of S. Antonio of Padua, and Ca- thedrals of Parma and Luoca. —Ed. ]

THE FERRARESE.

At Perrara, Squarcione's influ- ence was felt through Cosimo Tura [in practice 1451-1494, and Gaiasso GalasH (1450-73), Trinity in the Gallery and altar-pieces in the Cos- tabili Coll. of Ferrara.--Ed.] In b the Paloizzo Schifanoja or Scandiano there, the large upper hall was painted by Gaiasso, Tura, and Lo- renzo Costa soon after the year 1470. The paintings were exe- cuted between 1471-93, after the desiffn of one master, by different hands. [The months, March, April, and May, lively, clear, and natu- ral works of one of the best pupils of Piero di Francesca, perhaps the elder Ercole da Ferrara, are easily distinguished from the puffed-up forms by Cosirrvo Twra'shand. — Mr. ] A most valuable monument of the history of civilization of that age ! It is tne life of a petty Italian sove- reign, Borsod'Este, Dukeof Ferrara, illustrated in the way which har- monized with the feeling of the century. Another series, below, represents various actions of Borso, verv unimportaDt in themselves, witn splendid scenery of architec- ture, and city life, and rich cos- tumes. A second series contains the Signs of the Zodiac, with un- intelligible allegorical accessory figures on a blue ground ; a third.


gods and allegorical groups on triumphal cars drawn by emble- matic animals, along with scenes from common life, representing all kinds of arts and occupations. The whole is one of the astrological emblematical encyclopaedias (like that of Miretto at Padua, p. 50 c), of which the cultivated men of that time delighted to be in the secret. The brilliant execution is so minia- ture-like in its delicacy, even up to a great height, that one requires a movable stage to inspect it with. Half of it is lost. There is by Tura, in the choir of the Cathedral otr Perrara (formerly the panels of the organ), an Annunciation and a S. Creorge, with very beautiful youth- ful heads ; in the Public Gallery, d two figures of S. Jerome standing, one of them from S. Girolamo.

Another pupil of Squarcioue was Stefano da Ferrara [ (not to be con- founded with a younger Stefano Falzagalloni), by whom there are several pictures in the Ferrara Gal- e lery .^Fr.] At this place one sees late "ii^ks in which, among others, he appears to rival Garofalo ( Ateneo ; Madonna with two Saints ; twelve/* heads of Apostles). Earlier works in the energetic Paduan style ; two Madonnas with Saints in the Brera at Milan [No. 172 is by an imitator of Rondinello of Ravenna, if not by Rondinello himself ; No. 175 is a fine old picture of the Ferrarese school. — ^Ed.].

[Of the Paduan school, but more distinctly Mantegnesque than Tura, is also Ercole Koberti Grand! (Id practice 1480, died 1513) ; examples in the Gallery of Bavenna in the lower Gallery at Venice — Ed.].

The remaining Ferrarese of the fifteenth century are all more or less Paduan in style. Like all the elder Lombards, they were unable to cope with the Florentines, were it only because they had not mas- tered the lively expression of inci- dent, so that their feeling for




Lorenzo Costa.


75


space remained imperfectly deve- loped. But the seriousness of their realism, the distinctness of their forms, the precision of their model- ling, and the chiaroscuro that they attain even in temperapictures, give to their works a permanent value. This is the case with Francesco Coasa, His Madonna with S. Petro- nius and S. John the Evangelist a (in the Pinacotcca of Bologna, 1474) is in the heads rustic and wanting in charm, and yet an excellent work, on accoimt of the qualities before mentioned. His great mar- tyrdom of S. Sebastian (in ^S'. Petro- nio at Bologna, fifth chapel on the left) [hy Lorenzo Oosta. — Ed.], displays the same qualities, with hannonious, even dignified, and beautiful characters. The Italian realism only for moments 'sinks down to baseness ; it always re- turns to its attraction for the beautiful

LORENZO COSTA.

Lorenzo Costa (1461-1535), whose principal works are all in Bologna, went through a singular inter- change of character with F. Fran- cia, whose pupil be called himself, but not with entire justice. He entered into this connection already a confirmed realist, and with much greater knowledge than Francia then possessed; ne bowed before the sense of beauty and the expres- sion of feeling in Francia, but pre- served a more healthy tone. The

b altar-piece in S, Petrmxio (Cappella Baciocchi, the seventh chapel on the left) a Madonna enthroned with four saints, and a splendid Lunette of Angels performing on musical instruments (1492), is worthy to be compared with any Francia. There also, fifth chapel on the left,

cthe Twelve Apostles (1495), figures without any grandeur of idea, with large, well-drawn hands and feet, very solenmly conceived. In the

d Choir of S, Qwvanni in Monte, at


the back, the Coronation of the Virgin with six Saints (1497), who here, as usual in the Bologna-Fer- rara school, are grouped and not merely arranged in a row, as by the Peruginesques. In the same church, in the seventh chapel on the right, is another large picture, a Madonna enthroned, with Saints and exqui- sitely naive angels performing music. The picture in the choir is also one of the most excellent speci- mens as to treatment of landscape, in which Costa first develops a feeling for regular lines, in har- mony with the figures, and a re- markable mastery over tones of colour. The subjects are chiefly beautifid rich valleys, and views over a smooth, not romantic dis- tance. Of the frescos by him in ^S'. Cecilia (fourth picture on thee left and fourth on the right), the landscape is perhaps the best. The large tempera pictures painted on linen in the C. Bentivoglio at S.f Giacomo Maggiore appear partly quite painted over, partly con- strained on account of the subject, which was beyond Costa's capacity (the two incomprehensible allegori- cal triumphs (1490), partly painted apparently unwillingly (the Ma- donna with the ugfy Bentivoglio family in their strange costumes (1488). The Assumption of the Virgin in S, Martino (fifth altar to g the left) remains uncertain between Costa and some Peruginesque. At Ferrara, besides a picture of no great importance in the Ateneo, h there is a celebrated work from the Church alle Esposte, much injured, in the possession of the Marchese Strozzi. At Mantua, where he died, a Madonna in S. Andrea (1525), a picture related in style to the Court of the Muses by the same hand at the Louvre. By his pupil Ercole di Qinlio Oratidi, several single figures in the Sacristy of S. Maria in Vado : a S. Sebas- i tian with two other Saints and the


76


" The Itenaisaance. Paduan School.


a family of the fouader io S. Paolo, on the ri^bt near the choir. A genuine little picture, signed, S.

5 George in a landscape in P. Cor- sini at Borne, Eoom VIII., No. 12. The feeble Doinenico Panetti re- minds us both of Costa and of Francia. No. 82 and 84 in the

c MvLseum of Ferrara, a Visitation, and a S. Andrew [from the church of S. Maria in Vado. In the Sa- cristy of the same church] : the passage of the Holy Family across the Nile, a pleasing fresco-picture.

d Choir of ;S^. Andrea : the ancient altar — or organ— panels, with the Angel's Salutation and two Saints, already in the manner of Garofalo. MicJiele Cortellini appears as a mere imitator of Francia ; in his Madonna enthroned with four Saints (1506), formerly in S. Andrea, now No. 25

«in the Ferrara Gallery. Costa's most important pupil, Mazzolino, will be mentioned under the six- teenth century.

ANDREA MANTEGNA. ^

The most distinguished repre- sentative of the movement in art which arose at Padua [under the influence of Squarcione, Jacopo Bellini, and Donatello] is the great Paduan, Andrea Mantegna (1431- 1506).

His most important works are the paintings of the legends of S. James and S. Christo^mer in the /chapel of these saints in the Ere- mitani at Padua. (Executed with the assistance of BonOf Aiis^dnOj and Pizzolo. ) In the higher conception of the evcDt, he does not surpass the Florentines ; the entreaty of James to be received is not digni- fied ; in the Baptism of Hermo- genes the grouping is very scat- tered ; the carrying of the dead body of S. Christopher is a Goliath- l)ke scene, painted for the sake of the foreshortening. But in liveli- ness of action and perfect truth of character hardly any Florentine


can rival him. Observe, for in- stance, the confused rushing toge- ther of the opponents of S. James, when he calls up the demons against them; or how in the '* march to the place of judg- ment," the simple stopping of the procession is expressed; or the group of people aiming at S. Chris- topher, who turn round in lively astonishment to gaze at the pre- fect struck in the eye by an arrow ; or that of the converted soldiers. In the endeavour to attain the most exact, even sharply cut execution, Mantegna, like the Paduan school in general, as, for instance, the painter of the P. Schifanoia, was not satisiied with fresco, but in one picture after another attempted different me- thods' of painting. Notice the richness of distant groups, of archi- tectural and landscape backgrounds, of drapery overloaded with folds, bright lights, reflections, and so forth. 'Die perspective is more or less completely carried out ; the ad- herence to one point of sight is quite new and special to Manteena. He is, with Melozzo, the only North Italian of this period, in whom the feeling for space is well cultivated. Many of the Florentines already named must have learnt from him, even though only indirectly(?). In general he reminds us much of Benozzo, only compared with him Benozzo seems like a grace- ful improvisatore alongside of an artistic poet.

There are other frescos in Kan- tna, Castello di Corte, in the so- g called Camera de' Sposi, or Stanza di Mantegna, now the Archivio notarile ; scenes from the life of Lodovico Gonzaga, in graceful landscapes, on the ceiling mytholo- ncal subjects, painted grey on grey. On the same story the charming vaultings of a loggia ; Putti, with the attributes ot hunting, which seem to have suggested Correggio's


Andrea Mantegna — Melozzo da ForlL


medallions in S. Paolo. Among his easel pictures, the much re- stored figure of S. Eufemia, in the

a Museum of Naples (1454), is the earliest and perhaps grandest con- ception of ideal beauty ever at- tained by him. In smaUer pictures his execution becomes exquisite miniature. The tripartite small

h altar-piece in the Uffizi (Tribune), and a small Madonna in a rocky landscape (1025), are in this respect perfect jewels, although none of the characters are gi*and, and, except- ing the head of the Madonna, are hardly even pleasing. Of larger altar-pieces one above the high

c altar of S. Zenone at Verona (Ma- donna with Saints) has remained in Italy ; a masterpiece as to the whole feeling ana capacity of the school. Another is the St. Luke and other Saints, a picture in 12 parts. No. 187, at the Brera. At Tnrln, a Madonna with five Saints, half-length figures. [The so-called

d mortuary chapel of Mantegna in S. Andrea at Mantua possesses an altar-piece of a Holy Family by

^him. — ^Mr.]* In the Brcra at Mi- lan, No. 1591, the large picture in tempera of S. Bernardino with angels (1460?) remarkable, also, as A splendid piece of decoration [more probably by Do7n/*- Morcyne. — ^Ed.]. An altar-piece on linen of large dimensions (1497) in the P.

yTrivulzi at Milan ; a small, beauti- fully conceived and executed Ma-

^ donna in the Bergamo Gallery. — In emotional scenes Mantegna is sometimes coarse and unbeautiful, as, for instance, is shown in the

/^Pietd. in the Vatican Gallery^ a very vigorous and perhaps genuine picture, t

Many works, imdoubtedly, have received his name erroneously. Three little fanciful pictures of

  • [This is rather by Francesco Mantegna.

—Ed.]

t [An early picture of Oiovanni BelliiiL —Mr.]


legends in the P. Doria at Rome appear rather to be the work of a Ferrarese artist [probably of An- 8ui7iOf more probably of Parentino. £d.]. Four miniature pictures in the P. Adamo at Genoa are ati least highly characteristic examples of the antique and allegorical ten- dency of his school, which here turns into an agreeable rococo ; the Triumph of Judith; the Triumph over Jugurtha ; Love chained by the Nymphs ; Love led away cap- tive. [More probably Florentine, between Botticelli and Ghirlan- dajo, a fifth picture belonging to these, the Triumph of Chastity in the Turin Gallery (No. 687).— Mr.]/

At this time also lived another painter who surpassed even Man- tegna in his representations of per- spective ; Melozzo da Foi'lij a pupil perhaps of Squarcione [??], certainly of Piero della Francesca. There is to be seen in Borne, in the staircase- porch of the Quirinaly a Christ sur- k rounded by Angels, and in the Stanza Capitolare of the Sacristy £ of S. Peter, some portion of figures of angels, very insufi&cient frag- ments of a production of wonder- ful beauty, the fresco of the As- cension in the semi-dome of the choir of the SS. Apostoli ; de- stroyed in the last century. The foreshortened view from below, then regarded with wonder as a great novelty, was, after Correcgio's time, many times surpassea by third-rate artists, and has now only a historical interest ; a far greater quality in Melozzo is his perfectly free, nobly sensuous feeling for youthful beauty which he gives manifold with the ease of inspi- ration. The fresco in the Vatican ni Gallery, of Sixtus IV. with his nephews, among whom it is hard to make out the future Julius II., and, kneeling in the centre, the learned Platma, painted in the more severe Paduan style, is very interesting on account of the dis-




78


" The Renamancey Paduan ScfwoL


tinctly marked portraits, the rich architecture in perspective, and the masterly clear colouring.

lu dose . connection with Hero della Francf sea and Melozzo are the artists of the Mark of Ancona and the Duchy bf Urbino, whose works are to be sought beyond the less visited localities of their original district, especially in the Brera at

aMUan. Fra Carnevale, properly Bartolomviio Corradin% from Ur- bino (died 1484) appears to be a follower oji Piero della Francesca.

ft Brcra (No, 183), a Madonna with Angels and Saints, and, kneeling before her, Duke Federigo of Ur- bino, in sieel armour ; Gallery of

c Perugia, a- tall picture in several Darts, with the Annunciation, a Madonna etithroned and Saints [by Piero della Francesca. Ed.] ; in the church of S, M. delle Grazie at

d Sinigaglia, an Annunciation. The father of Raphael, Giovanni Santi (born before 1446, died 1494), had been impressed by similar influ- ences. The frescos of the Dmni-

e nican church at Gagli are known as his principal work. [But many altar-pieces from his hand have been preserved : S. Jerome, in the Gallery of the Lateran at Borne ; Madonna and Saints in Santa Croce ; Visitation in S. M. Nuova of Fano ; Virgin and Child, with Saints and Angels (1484) at Gra- dara ; Buffi votive altar-piece in the Gallery of Urbino; Madonn^l and Saints in Moniefiorentino (1489), and MmUefioret and an An- nunciation, No. 184, at the ^rera.]

f Marco PalirvezzanOy from Forli, is Melozzo's especial pupil, though far from equal to him. [Fine frescos in the Capella del Tesoro at Loretto, and in S. Biagio of Forli. Ed.] There are at Forli numerous examples [14 altar-pieces. — £d.] of — his figures of Saints, with their prosaic faces and timid expression ; one of the best is at Matellca, S. Francesco de' ZoccolantL In the


Brera, No. 193, a Nativity (1492) \g No. 181, a Madonna with four Saints (1493), and No. 174, a Coro- nation of the Virgin. Just the same in style are the very late pictures (1537) in the Uffizi, No. 1095, the picture of Christ Crucified in a remarkably rocky landscape ; in the Museum of the Lateran at Borne, a Madonna enthroned with four Saints. [In various European galleries, some score of Palmez- zano's pictures. — Ed.] €Hrola7rvoh Genga, from Urbino (1476-1551), also a sciilptor and architect, pupil of Signorelli and Perugino, is badly represented in a later picture in the Brera, No. 198, Company of Saints, with a glory above them on a black ground [the predella of which, with Christ and the Samaritan at the well, is in the Carrara Gallery at Bergamo.— Ed.]

Timotco della Vite, whose youth- * ful works should here find their place, must be looked for among the pupils of Raphael.

VICENZA AND VERONA.

The painters of Vicenza and Verona, 1450-1500, are also essen- tially Paduan in their training, al- though in a few of them something is seen of Giovanni Bellini's in- fluence ; they do not much attempt the splendid colouring and character of the Venetians.

In Vicenza we must mention the morose, but honest and thorough, Bartolommeo Movtagna [in practice/ in 1480, died 1523.— Ed.]. Three pictures in the Pinacoteca ; in S. Corona, the large picture in tem-

Sera on linen to the left near the oor ; in the cathedral, perhaps the paintings of the fourth chapel on the left ; in the fifth chapel on the right, the two Apostles, and per- haps also the Adoration of the Child. Large altar-pieces in the Academy at Venice, and in the Brera at Milan. Excellent frescos


Pisanello — laberak — Morone.


79


by him in SS. Nazaro c Celso at

a Verona, cap. di S. Biagio, 1493 ; four pictures in the choir of the same church. In the same church, first chapel on the left, fcwo panels, each with two very beautiful Hgures of Saints. Large picture of 1500, in the church of M(yiUe Bcrico, at

b Vieensa. A large altar-piece in S. Giovanni Ilarioncj between Verona and ViceDza. A similar one in S. Maria in Vanzo by the Seminario at Padua. The Sacnsty of the Certosa at Pavia possesses a good picture. [Contemporary with Montagna,

c Giovanni BvmiconsigUo labours al- ternately at Venice and Vicenza; he combines the searching cha- racters of Paduan art with the glow of colour of Antonello da Messina. Altar-pieces in the gcUlery and churchM of Yicenia, Carrara QaX- lery at Bergamo, Academy and S. Spirito at Venice, and Montag- nana.— Ed.]

Of the contemporary painters of Vicenza, the chief are Francesco

d Verlas, an imitator of Perugino, altar-pieces, No. 269, at the^r^ra ; and others at Schio, Sarcedo, Velo, and Trent; Giovanni Speranzaj pictures in S. Giorgio of Vfelo, the gallery and churches of Vicenza, and private collections at Padua and Belluno, and Marcello Fogolino; pictures in the Finxicoteca and good frescos in S. Lorenzo, chapel on the left near the choir ; Martyrdom of S. Peter, very interesting, but nearly destroyed [altar-pieces and frescos at Trent. — Ed.]

e At Verona there remain some works of Fisanello, properly Vit- tore Pisano (died about 1455), who was one of the originators of the etyle of the fifteenth century. (Damaged fresco of an Annuncia- tion in S. Fermo, wall over the choir.) [Other works in S. Anas- 4asia; on the right, above the vault of the choir, a S. George killing the dragon. In the Gailery of Verona, a Madonna with birds


and flowers. His pupil Orioli — whose portrait of Lionel d' Este ia in the National Gallery, had a good practice at Faenza between 1449 and 1461 .—Ed.] Aljl the other painters were entirely formed under Mantegna's influence. In S. Anas- tasia there are some anonymous frescos, in the chapels right and left of the choir.

Francesco Bonsignori, much re-/' sembling Montagna in character; Madonnas with Saints in the Fina- coteca at Verona (1488) and in ^S^. Ferino, chapel near the left tran- sept (1484). Girolamo Benaglio (1487) has pictures in the Fina- coteca.

Several of the churches have pictures by Liberate da Verona g (b. 1451, living 1515); among others, in the Cathedral, an Adoration of the Kings, with a rich landscape. Frescos in S. Aoiastasia, over the third altar to the right, a large S. Sebastian in the Brera at Milan, hard and sharp, a capital picture of action in the Paduan style ; also three small panel pictures in the chapel of the archbishop's palace. [G. F. FaZtmetto (b. 1458, d. 1534), h a follower of Liberale but imitator of Melozzo, painted largely in Ve- ronese churcnes. Frescos in the Cathedral, SS. Nazaro e Celso, and >S'. Fermo of Verona.— Ed.] By Girolamo dai Libri [b. 1474, d. 1656] i there is, among others in S. Jf. in Organo, on the right of the entrance, a beautiful Madonna with Saints under laurels [by Mocetto. — Ed.] [a great picture in the church of S, Giorgio in Braida. — Mr.]; in the Finacoteca, a splendid Adoration of the (boldly designed) Child with Saints, and two Madonnas en- throned with Saints, from 5. Maria delta Vittoria and from S. Andrea, Domenico Morone (born 1442) painted J in 1503 the refectory of the ancient convent of S. Bernardino. His celebrated son, Francesco Morone (1473—1529), teacher [?contempo-


80


" The Renaissance.'^^ Brescians,


rary. — Ed.] of Girol. dai Libri, from whom it is often difficult to distinguish him, greatly resembles Giov. Bellird in two beautiful pic- tures in the Pinacoteca, a Christ in Glory standing upon clouds, with Mary and John the Baptist, (accord- ing to Crowe and Cav., probably "by Morando,) and a Christ Cruci- fied (1498) ; in the noble frescos of the sacristy of S. M. in Organo, (half-length figures of Saints, and, in a central division of the roof the Saviour floating with Saints, much foreshortened) ; he appears as a fully -developed master of the six- teenth century; For Caroto and MocettOf see below.

BRESCIA, BERGAMO, AND MILAN.

The farther we move towards the west, the more we lose the ac- •curate knowledge of the human form, and the enjoyment in sharply delineating it which characterise the Paduans ; in some Piedmontese painters it is really altogether lost.

<i Even the Brescian Vincenzo Foppa the elder [practised 1456 to 1492], in his fr€8co of the Martyrdom of S. Sebastian (Brera) no longer at- tains the thorough correctness of form of the Veronese painters. Many of his works are in the churches of Brescia ; a rich series of frescos in the former chapter- house of S. BamabaSj now a printing-office. His best picture in the Carrara Academy at Ber- gmao is the Crucifixion, painted in monochrome in a greenish tone (1456). [But of more importance is the Madonna with Saints, dated 1489, in the Cathedral of Savona. —Ed.]

b [Foppa's pupils were Bernardino Jacohi, conmionly called BxUtinone (1454—1607) and Bernardino Mar- tini^ called Zeivale (b. 1435, d. 1526), both natives of Trevi^lio. Buttinone, a Paduan in style, is seen to less


advantage in single pieces [Madonna of the Castelbarco coll. sold in 1870, Virgin and Child with 2 Saints in the Borromeo Palace at Isola Bella] than in the works which he exe- cuted in partnership with Zenale : frescos in S. M. delle Grazie and S. Pietro in Gessate at Milan, altar- pieces of 1485 in S. Martino of Treviglio. Zenale shows more affi- nity at first to the pure Lombards than his partner. He afterwards imitates da Vinci : Annunciation and Christ crowned with thorns in the Borromeo Coll., Madonna at the Ambrosiana, Madonna with Ludovico and Beatrix Sforza, and other panels in the Brera, and frescos in S. Ambrogio, at Milan.

BraTnantiTW, more properly Bar- c tolommeo Suardi (alive between 1491 and 1529), assistant to Bra- mante at Milan, then painter with an independent practice at Milan and Rome, starts with local pecu- liarities. Crucifixion in the Muni- cipiOf Christ of pity at ^S'. Sepolcro at Milan; then takes something of the Umbrian from Bramante ; Martyrdom of S. Sebastian in S. Sebastiano ; and finally commingles the Umbrian with the Lionardesque; Madonna and Saints from S. Mi- chele in the Ambrosiana; Flight into Egypt at Locarno ; frescos in S. M. delle Orazie, and various pieces in the Brera at Milan.

Vincenzo CivereJdo, who succeeded d Foppa as town painter of Brescia, offers a variety of the Veronese style cultivated by Liberale. His earliest work is an altar-piece (1495) in S. Barnaba of Brescia; his latest the Baptism of Christ (dated 1539) in the Tadini coll. at Lovere, dated 1539. Contemporary with him are Montorfano, whose Crucifixion of 1495 faces the Last Supper of da Vinci in the refectory of the Grazie at Milan, and Bernardo de Conti, by whom we have a Madonna in the Carrara Gallery (1501) at Bergamo. —Ed.]


Piedmont.


81


Borgognone (properly Amhrogio FossaTw, died after 1524), whose paintiDgs were in very creat de- mand, was very successful in some little fresco scenes (paintings at the

a back in S. Amhrogio : Christ among the Doctors ; Christ Kisen, with Angels ; a Piet^, all painted over) ; but in large undertakings (the

& choir of S. Simpliciano (1524)) the attempt to transfer the ideas of the sixteenth century to somewhat inanimate forms of the fifteenth produces a very insipid result. A

c great Assumption of the Virgin (Brera) reminds us of vapid Peru- ginesques. Special Madonnas, on the other hand, which are met with here and there, possess a very great charm. Remarkable pictures in

dth% Certosa at Pavia [where are also bis earliest and most important pictures, the Crucifixion of 1490, fourth chapel to the ri^ht ; Am- brose, with four Saints, sixth chapel to the left. Various pictures be- longing to the Duca Scotti at Mi&n; his great picture in the

^ Ambrosiana betrays in its pale flesh tones its connection with Zenale. — Mr.]. There are many pictures of this old school, also in the manner of Borgognone, in the /Madonna dclle Orazie, at Locarno. [Also a fresco in San Satiro (1494), and frescos in S. M. delle Fasidone, at Milan, predellas (1487) at the JticoroncUa of Lodi, and an altar- piece in S. Spirito of Bergamo (1508),

GENOA. [The earliest local form of art in the Genoese territory is found in

gthe works of Qwvanni Mazwie of Alexandria, by whom a Nativity and Crucifixion with Saints in the

h hospital of Savona recalls the rude works of the Byzantines of Venice, whilst a later Nativity in the Louvre displays the subsequent influence of Foppa. After Mazone, Lodovico Brea takes an important place


amongst Genoese painters : St. John Evangelist and other Saints (1490) in the hospital; Assumption (1495) in the leit transept of the Cathedral oi Savona ; Coronation of i the Virgin (1613) in S. M. di Cas- tello at Genoa. Brea seems to oscillate between the Flemish style of the school of Bruges and that of the Peruginesques. Feebler and coarser was Antonio Semino: 'N&-J tivities in the town-house and in S. Boinenico (1535) of Savona; and Teratrw Piaggia : Virgin of the Rosary in S. Bomenico of Savona, k St. Peter and St. Paul in S. Fan- crazio at Genoa. Lorenzo de^ Fa^oli I follows in the steps of Brea : Christ taken from the Cross (1508) in S. Chiara of Chiavari, and the family of Mary (1513) at the Louvre. Fier. Francesco Sacchi (1512—27) takes to G«noa a mixture of the Flemish and Peruginesque style which for a moment captivates the eye : St. John leaving Joachim (1512) in S. Maria of Genoa ; Glory of the Virgin with Saints (1526) in S. M. di Castello ; Christ taken from the Cross (1527), in S, Nazaro of Mul- tedo near Genoa. Terarno Fiaggia imitates SacchL — Ed. ]

PIEDMONT.

[In Piedmont no artist of anym talent shewed himself till Macrino d'AVba came into repute at the close of the 15th century. Early frescos at Banverso^ pointing to Siennese or Umbrian mfluence, are better than the rude local work of Gio- vanni Gaifux/oesi, or Oandolfiniy in altar-pieces, at the Turin Museum ( 1491 and 1493). Macrino (in prac- n tice 1496—1508), though a native of Alba, seems not to have been locally taught. He reminds us at different times of Signorelli, Mon- tagna, Boigognone, and Lionardo. His s^le is a mixture of the Umbro- Florentine and Lombard, powerful and realistic in some measure ;

o


82


" The Renamancey Venetian ScIwoL


surfaces unadorned with gay colour or graceful outHne, though deep ton^ and blended to* a nicety; iiffures unselect but strong. Of Macrino*s niuuerous altar-pieces the following deserve mention : Virgin and Chifi and Resurrection (1496),

a in the Certom of Pavia; Virgin and Child in glory with Saints and Angels (1498) ; from the Certom of Astl, in tiie Turin Galleiy, nu- merous fragments of altar-pieces in the same museum, and in the churches and gallery of Crea, Asti, and Alba (1501—8). Con- temporary with Macrino, but on a

Slower level, DifendenUe Ferrari of Chivasso, is a painter of numerous pictures, chief of which are a Piet^ m the Cathedral of Chivasso, altar- pieces in the Cathedral of Ivrea (1619—21), and a Nativity with Saints (1531) in the church of

cBianverso. Oirolamo Giovenone of Vercdli, by whom there are pic- tures of 1513—1514 and 1527 in the galleries of Vercelli, Turin, and Bergamo ; and his relatives Joseph

(2 and Battista (Turin Gall. No. 60, and Vercelli Casa Gattinara). Crowe and Cav.]

MODENA.

At Modena I have, to my regret, not met with any works by Cor- reggio's master, Francesco Bianchi- Ferrari. [One picture, the An- nunciation (1606 — 10) in the Gall, of Modena, No. 36, is, by him, and reminds us of Tura. — Ed.] Of the old local painters in the Ducal Gallery, Bartolommeo Bonasia (a e Dead Christ lying in the tomb, with Marv and John, 1485} is interesting by hiB powerful colouring, and Marco Meloni (a Madonna entnroned between two Saints, 1504) by his expression, rather in Francia's manner. Bemardirio Losco [b. 1489, d. 1540], the son of Jacopo Loschi, of Car^i (Madonna enthroned with two Samts, 1515) is one of the best of the old Lombards ; the so-called


"Gherardo di Harlem, on the other hand (a large Crucifixion, full of figures), one of the hard old (West Lombaid?) masters [Ferra- rese, a late work of Stefano, or an early one of Costa. — ^Mr.].

PARMA.

In Faima Correggio had no rivals in predecessors like Jacobtis de J^usci- niis {Jacobo de Laachis^ 1459 — 1504), Cristofano Casellif surnamed Tern- perellOf* Lodovico da Parma^ and Alessandro AraMi (practising be- tween 1500 and 1528). There are pictures by these painters in the Gallery there ; by the latter also/ small scenes in fresco in the Camera g di S. PaMo, and a Madonna with two Saints in S, Cfiovanni, first chapel k on the right. Of the artist family of Mazzola, who, later on, quite attached themselves to Correggio, Pierilario was living at this time, by whom there is in the Gallery a Madonna enthroned with three Saints, and the more celebrated FUippo Mazzola [his pictures, 1491 to 1504], one of the hardest and least graceful of all the artists pro- duced by the Faduan influence, but, nevertheless, no mean draughts- man. There is by him a very black wooden Depositian, of 1500, in the i Naples Museum; the altar-piece in/ the Baptistery at Parma; a Conver- Is sion of Faul in the Gallery, [A, I powerfully modelled portrait of a man in the Brera, No. 178; am similar one in the P. Doria atti Some.— Mr.] The picture which is perhaps the most pleasing of this

  • In the sacristy of the Salute at Venice

is a Madonna enthroned, by this, by no means contemptible, pupU of Bellini ; an- other excellent Madonna with 8. Ilario and John the Baptist, signed, 1499, in the Sala del Consorzio at Parma, an Adoration resembling Cima in softness and charm of colour, on the third altar to the ri^t in 8. Giovanni Evangelista. In the Biera, I think No. 172 and No. 78 should bo ascribed to him.— Mr. [But see lliat No. 172 is by a pupil of Rondinello, and 78 by Zenale.— Ed.]


The Vivarini.



school is without a name ; a Madonna enthroned with three singing Angels a and two Saints, in the StecccUa (front corner chapel on liie left).

VENICE.

We distinguish at Venice two generations of painters during the second half of the fifteenth century. The first is altojo^ether derived from Padua : the principles of style of the painters of Murano are en- tirely changed in accordance with it. We have already mentioned BartoUnnmeo Vivarini (painting from 1450 to 1499), in connection with Johannes and Antonius of Murano. This painter is essentially Paduan in his more chaiacteristic works ; in his splendid and accu- rate execution he often resembles Mantegna, but is colder in colour. The personages of his altar-pieces are always solenm, sometimes ex- ceedin|;ly dignified, sometimes al- most nerce, seldom gracefuL The decorative parts, as is usual with the Venetians formed under the Paduan influence, are especially rich. (Thrones, sarlands of fruit, leaf-covered espiQiers, numbers of Putti, Ac.) A Madonna enthroned with four Saints standing and four half-len^ figures floatm^r (1405^

^ ? 1469), m the Museum at Naples ;

^ at Venice, altar-pieces in the Accu- demy (No. 1 of 1464^ No. 14 of

<^1490); in S, Qiomnni e Paolo, St. Vincent on the second altar on the right (much resemblijoyg Mantegna, perhaps in great part the work or Laigi Vivarini* of whom we shall speak later) ; in the right transept a S. Augustine en-

< throned (1473) ; in S. Giovanni in Bragora, a Madonna enthroned, with side panels (by the first chapel to the left, dated 1478) ; in tiie

f Prari a later, softer altar-piece

  • This conjectnre appears to me correct.

— Mr. [Probably by several hands, amongst which Caxpaccio doubtless took the lead. —Ed.]


(ri^^t transept, dated 1482), and, perhaps quite a late picture, St. Mark enthroned with Angels and Saints (transept to the left); an inferior work, in S, M. Pormosag (second altar on the right); Ma- donna, with suppliants under her mantle.

Tbe hardness and severity of Bartolommeo is mellowed, partly through the influence of Bellmi, in his younger brother or relation, Luigi Vivarini, into a really noble jprace and fulness. Several pictures m the Academy — a Resurrection in h S, Giovanni in Bragora (entrance i to the choir on the left, date 1498), [two single figures of Saints ascribed to him in S. Giov. Crisostomo (second altar on the left) I consider to be by Qirolamo da Santa Croce, — Mr.] The splendid large altar-/ piece in the Frari (third chapel left of the choir), the S. Ambrose eu- k throned between other Saints, wns completed hy Basaiti (see below), and belongs properly to the next generation. On the other hand, a Madonna with two barefooted iT Saints, in the Museum of Naples, is an early picture (1485). A finom Adoration in Montefiorentino sa- cristy. [Bartolommeo and Luici bequeathed their art to two second- rate masters, Jaxxpo da Valentia (1485-1509), pictures at Venice, Belluno, and Ceneda ; and Andrea da MuranOy altar-pieces (1501) at Trebaseleghe, (1502) at Mussolone. Ed.]

Of the works of Carlo Cri-n, vein the greatest number are in the Brera at Milan. Hard and severe, like Bartolommeo, splen- dour-loving beyond measure, yet not without taste, in some special characters resembling Johannes Alamannus, he attains, at least in a Madonna enthroned (1482), a very high degree of grace. By him is perhaps the Pope, St. Mark in S. Marco at Borne (chapel right of the o choir). [The figures by this master,

G 2


84


" The Renaissame.^^ Venetian School,


often ugly, but never expressionless, full of a strong inward life, are distin^ished by peculiarly clear colouring, as if produced by the most transparent vegetable juices ; the beautiful garlands of flowers and fruit, in which he takes especial pleasure, are remarkably ^ood. Orivelli is at home properly in the March of Ancona and the small places along the coast down

a to Ascoli. A beautiful Madonna in the Zoccolanti of S. Francesco at Ancona. — Mr.] A lovely and ex-

<^>pressive Madonna in tihe Museo Oristiano of the Vatican at Borne ; a rich Coronation of the Virgin of

c 1493 in the Brera^ Oggionc Gallery,

THE BELLINI.

The second generation of Vene- tian painters begins with Gentile Bellini {142^^ to 1507) and Giovanni Bellini (1427 ? to 1516), sons of Ja- copo Bellini, The youth and middle age of both brothers appear to have been passed in a position of dependence ; but little exists by Gentile ; Giovanni's early pictures are mostly lost under other names, and his numerous authentic works, in the manner peculiar to him, only began with his sixtieth year. Of his numerous pupils or follow- ers we name only the following : — Pierfrancesco Bissolo, Piermaria Pennacchif Martino da Udine, Giro- lanw da Santa Grace* (whp worked

  • Here we may mention, in passing, the

Bei^masque iminter, Ghvkaao da Santa c'roce, who formed himself in Venice, but ohiefly worked at Padua. Best known by his ear lier pictures with small figures (Martyrdom of St Laurence, in tiie Museum of Naples), he did not succeed later in gaining the freedom of the great masters. Glor}' of St Thomas k Becket, in S. Silvestro at Venice, first altar on the left ; laige Cenacolo Q^^^) in S. Martino, over the door; in 8. Francesco at Padua, the frescos of the second chapel on the right [Burckhardt here confounds Giro- larao Santa Croce with Girolamo del Santa -*^]. His colouring always has the Vftuetian glow. By a fellow-couutryman, J^tnnoesoo, proi)erly Rizzo da Santa Ooce,


chiefly in Padua), Vincenzo Catena^ of Treviso, Aoidrea Previtali^ Giam- battista Cima da Coiicgliano, Gio- vanni Matisiuiti^ and others. Not belonging to his school, yet in various ways affected by it, Marco Basaitif Vittore Carpa^do^ Lazzaro SebaMianiy Bocacciiw da Crenwnay, Marco Marzialc, and others.

The grandeur of this school, along- with ite narrowness, is so uniformly marked in aU the individuals (in spite of great differences) that it may be discussed as a whole. Once more in this [century of unshackled sub- i ecti vity the individual subordinates himself to the all-prevaiLing type. Clearly the patrons of art, on the whole, determine the course of the school

Above all, the school did not deal in narrative painting ; and when it did so, in spite of all glow of colour and truth of detail, it is immensely inferior in idea to the Florentines. Even in the great "Preaching of St. Mark at Alex- c? andria" of Gentile Bellini (Brera^ Milan) we have a crowd of figures indifferently collected together, of a certain doll-like sharpness; and it is the same in his "Miracle of ^ the Holy Cross," and in the " Pro- cession " with the relic (Academy at Venice. )t Carpaacio, with Man- sucti and Sebastiani, carried on this history of the Cross : he may hef said to be the only narrator in this school ; in the same collectioB there are by him eight large his- tories of S. Ursula, full of figures ; and in the Scuola di S, Giorgio

a Last Supper in S. Francesco della vigna, second chapel on the left [eariy pictures of 1513 in the Academy at Venice ; later on he imitated Girolamo da S. Croce in small pictures with many figures ; among others in the Museo Correr and elsewhere. — Mr.]. Earliest work, the Annunciation, once at Spino, now in the Carrara GalL at Bergamo, 1504. Latest, Madonna at Chingnago, near Mestre, 1541.— Ed.

t TixiB is undeserved criticism of a great master, whose pictures on the organ shutters at S. Marco, Dr. Burckhardt appears not to have seen.— Ed.


Carpaccio — A. da Messina.


85


a degli Schiavmiif two series of smaller histories of S. George and S. Jerome. If iimveU in details, picturesque and easy arran^;emeDt, with much beautiful architecture and landscape, heads full of life and even exquisite in their yoi\th- f ulness, lastly, an often remarkable power of luminousness in colour, could form a historical picture, Carpaccio would have succeeded. The most interesting point in these miracle pictures is always the piotley delineation of mediaeval i Venice. In the Ujffizi, No. 80 — Majisucifs Christ amon^^ the Doctors. Many historical pictures, indeed, were destroyed in the con- flagrations of the Ducal Palace. No frescos or series of frescos are to be found.

The Biblical events which these Venetian painters represent, are mostly exquisitely peaceful scenes, of which the essential parts could be expressed in half-length figures. It is not without reason that the Supper at Emmaus, for instance, is BO much in favour ; of which more later.

It was in this school that the Venetian colouring first was formed. Possibly something was due to AiUonello da Messina [in prac- tice 1465-93], who lived long in Venice.

[The most valuable pictures of this very remarkable master are, as is well known, to be found in foreign countries (London, Glasgow, Pans, Berlin, Vienna, Antwerp). In Italy are a Virgin and Child with Saints, in S. Ghxgorio, of Messina, <;the portrait of a man with black hair in a fur coat, in the l/ffizi; d another in the Academy at Venice, No. 255; there also the Ecce Homo, No. 264, both from the Pal. Manfrin. Undoubtedly by him, and probablji a portrait of him- self, the speaking-head in the c Borghcse Gallery at Borne, eleventh


room. No. 27; a good portrait, again, that in the Giovanelli Collec- tion at Venice.] [A portrait, quite corresponding with this, is in the Carrara CoUectiou at Bergamo : another belongs to the Marcheaaf Trivulzi at Milan ; in the Stabil- g mento Malaspina at Favia is a very h interesting picture of a man's faoe, spare in feature, signed, unfortu- nately much injured. — Mr.] [It is desirable not to forget Antonello's pupil Pictro da Messiiia^ whose pictures (S. M. Formosa, Venice, Gallery of Padua, and Ilospigliosi i Palace at Home), are a mixture of the styles of Antondlo and Cima. Salvo d^Antoiiio, in a Death of/ Mary at Messina (Duomo), proves himself a painter of the Tuscan, not of the Venetian school. Other artists of the Sicilian school con- temporary with Antonello are : Tommaso de* Vigilia (Madonna of k 1488, in the Convent of the Verg-ini^ at Palermo), Pietro Jiuztdoiie, of Palermo (Crucifix in the Chapel of Termini), Aidonio Crescenzio (Triumph of Death in the hospital of Palermo), an Umbrian in style. AnUmdlo de Saliba, often con- 1 founded with Antonello himself (altar-pieces of 1497 to 1531, in the churches of Catania, Palermo, Mes- sina, and| Milazzo.) — Ed.] The painters of Murano, however, were the founders of the school. Without anywhere losing themselves in re- finement of deteil, the school now discovers the secrets of harmony and of transitions, as well as the mode of employing single colours with the greatest effect of beauty. It did not aim at producing illusion by the representation of materials ; in the drapery it gives a luminous transparency, but in the nude it achieves that indescribably soft and nobly life-like substance which is produced by the finest modelling, working not in dark shadows but only in tones of colour, partly by secrets of glazing, and, indeed, in a


86


    • The Renaissance.^* Venetian School.


hundred different ways.* By the side of these productions everything Paduan seems left very far behind. The greatest of this school, Gio- vanni Bellini, is greatest likewise in colouring and in rendering; others retain certain hardnesses (Carpaccio, even Cima), or incline towards a weak scumbling. (Bel- lini himself sometimes amis at a hazy transparency. )

In richness of incident this school is naturally far inferior to the Flo- i-entine ; but the fifinires are, as a lule, easy, even noble in form and action. The representation of S. Sebastian as a standing figure keeps tip the drawing of the nude to a lemarkable height. The drapery indeed follows more the general laws of colour than a higher feeling for lines ; yet it is freer m>m triviu motives and overcrowding than is the case, for instance, with Filip- pino Lippi. The characters are the principal object with the Venetian painter. He puts them together, not for the sake of sharp ana there- fore effective contrasts, but as tones of one and the same chord ; neither supersensual longing nor sudden giief, but the expression of calm bappiness pervades them : it is this which, expressed iu energetic and well-formed figures, fills the mind of the spectator with that inward satisfaction which no other school produces in the same manner. This type of the human race is so near reality, that one feels it possible to meet such characters and live with them. Raphael does not lead us to expect anything of the sort ; inde- pendently of their ideal form, his hgnres seem also removed from us by their lofty relations and actions.

Giovanni Bellini^ though occasion- ally equalled by most (S those we

  • In the Uffizi is a remarkable drawing

on a geaso-gronnd, aacril)ed to Bellini, re- presenting the dead body of Christ sor- xoondnl by seven persons.


have named, in their best moments, even in the characters, always re- mains far the greatest of all. Pro- bably to him is owing (in Venice) the new arrangement of the altar- pieces; instead of being set in separate panels, the single Saints are collected in a group round the Madonna enthroned, in a Santa Conversazione, " which is beautif ally framed architecturally by a porch either open or closed by a niche in mosaic ; he constructs his group almost with the same severe, beau- tifully formed symmetry as Era Bartolommeo. Since the ill-omened fire in S. Giovanni e Paolo, which destroyed Bellini's greatest altar- piece along with the Peter Martyr of Titian, there stUl remain two large altsff-pieces, of the first rank, by him in Venice— in S. Zaccaria, a, (second altar on the left, of the year 1505) and in the Academy. The& mere juxtaposition of the saintly figures, without definite emotion, or even distinct devotion, gives an effect of something supersensual by the harmonious union of so many free and beautiful characters in a blessed state of existence. The wonderful angels on the stepa of the throne, with their singing, their lutes and violins, are but the outward symbol of this truly musical meaning. As this meaning could make itseu felt even in half- length figures, hundreds of these were produced, chiefly for private devotion.

But not only in his arrangement of the characters for a picture, but also in his conception of mdividuals, Giovanni Bellim was the model of all the rest, and their deliverer from old trammels. The scale on which he moved was by far the grandest of any. He could be bur- Msque in his representation of the danical mythological world: the priceless (so-callea) Bacchanalia in the Camucdni collection finished by Titian (now in England, in the


CHomnni Bellini.


87


possession of the Duke of Kortbnm- Derland) trayesties the Carouse of Gods into a Festa'* of Italian peasants. When he fell into the allegorising of the time, he was capable of being as absurd as any one; five very delicate little pic-

atures in the Academy of Yexuce, somewhat to be compared to Pin- turicchio*s Allegories m the P. Tor- rigiani at Florence. The religious pictures, on the other hand, are pervaded by a harmonious dimity and sweetness. The picture in S. Giovanni e Paolo displayed in the female Saints a splendid race of full-grown maidens, who yet recall Mantegna's S. Eufemia. The angels by the throne were here, as in all his pictures, eagerly devoted to their music, and peifectly simple, which is not always so, for in- stance, in Francia and Perugino.

h His late picture in S, Giovanni Cn'sostovw, first altar on the rieht (1513), almost as &ee and broad as a Palma, contains some of his best male characters (in the great altar- piece of the Academy some of his most beautiful nude forms). In the Madonna is seen an advance from a severe and somewhat in- animate type (for instance, the one picture in the Brera at Milan, several in Venice) fco one of a grand beauty, but still always serious and ideal even in costmne. This perhaps is, for the first time, well

c carried out in the Madonna of 1487 (in the Academy), and in the splendid picture m the Sacristy of

dtlie Frari (1488). An important picture, of the same year, in S. Pietro e Paolo at Murano, near the second altar on the risht, has been unfortunately injured by the damp, and ** restored" in Yemce. Among several works in the Academy un- fortunately hardly one has been untouched, in the Brera at Milan (signed, 1510), and elsewhere. The

^ two pictures in the sacristy of the Bedentore, of which one was for-


merly a perfect jewel, are nearly/ destroyed. Amons the Saints, the females are generaUy the best.

But in B^lini the subUme con- ception of the form of Christ is the most important thing, which through his mfluence was retained also through the next generation of Venetians. His infant Christ is not only well formed, but as sublime and impressive in action and position as is possible without destroying the expression of child- hood. In the picture in S. Gio- vanni e Paolo, the by no means ideal Madonna possessed a solemn charm in the repose of her sitting figure, and the calm standing po- sition of the child eiving the bene- diction. Also in vie altar-piece of the Academy the child is serious^ and grand, in marked contrast with tiie angels playing on musical instruments.* Bellini also ven- tured to represent the mature Christ giving the benediction as a sinsle figure, with a background of landscape or tapestry, with the dignified manliness, the same type of head which one finds recurring in certain pictures [? ascribed toj Giorgione and Titian (gallery at Parma). And now follows *' Christ h at Emmaus" (S. Salvadore at Venice, chapel on left of choir), one of the first pictures of Italy [certainly not by Bellini, but by Carpaccio],t perhaps the most sublime head of Christ in modem art, only excepting Lionardo. i Lastly, the master seems to have had in his mind the highest eleva-

  • Bellini certainly also painted the

always insupportable scene of the Cir- cumcision (S. Zaccaria, second chapel on the left, in the space round the choir), and many others followed him.

t Here and in similar pictures of the Supper at Emmaus, by Palma Vtcckio Titian^ etc, the surroundings are quite earthly and apparently commonplace, but one has only to compare the insolent pic- ture of Hontharst (Manfrini Galleiy) to understand tliat there are two kinds of realism.


88


" The JRenaissance" Venetian School.


tion, a Transfiguration on Mount Tabor. The pid;ure of this subject

a in the Naples Museum, painted with the most sincere endeavour after a deeper conception of the picture, was perhaps an early at- tempt of this kind (a copy in JS, M.

b Mater Domini at Venice, first altar on the left). It is possible that the sketch of a head of Christ looking a little upwards, in the Academy, was the first idea of a

c Transfiguration that was never ac- complished ? (A beautiful Baptism

d of Cnrist, in S. Corona at Vinoenza, fifth altar on the left. ) A splendid fresco of Bellini's

c adorns the church of S. Niccolo at Treviso (in the choir on the left), a painted monument of tlie senator Onigo, with two youthful warriors standmg at the sides, medallions, ornaments; also the large picture at the high altar.*

/ [In the Tovm-Tudl at Bimini th ere is an early and severe Pietd., similar to the one in the Brera (by Zaga- nelli. Cr. and Cav. ). On the altar

g of the left aisle of S. Fraiuxsco at Pesaro stands forth a grand im- portant work of the master (much mjured by splits and restoring).

h Palazzo Oiovanelli, the only re- maining art coUection in Venice, possesses a precious little picture, signed. The gallery belonging to

  • the town in the Palazzo Correr

must not be passed over. In the churches of Venice also much that is delightful will meet the visitor.

^ The great Boman collections in the

3 Borghese and Doria palaces idso exhibit the master. — Mr.]

The pupib and contemporaries of Giovanni Bellini above named are, as a rule, excellent, just in propor- tion as they approach the master.


  • [The picture at the high Altar, now

attributed to Fra Marco Pensaben, is bv Savoldo.— Ed.] See in the same church the unbelieving Thomas in the early style ot S. Dd PUmJdo.


On the whole, Cima has the supe- riority. His Baptism of Christ in S. Giovanni in Bragora (at their back of the choir) is, in the dignity of the head of Christ, in the beauty of the Angels, and the solemn ges- ture of the Baptist, incomparable ; also the Constantine and Helena (at the entrance of the choir to the right) are beautiful in expression. In the Abbazia (chapel behind the sa^sty), Tobias with the Angel, I where the donors are iotroduced as shepherds; in the Carmine m (second altar on the risht), the wonderful Adoration of me Shep- herds and Saints. His Madonna is less charming and less life-like than that of his master ; but the Saints surrounding her, especially the old men, are of great spiritual beauty. Excellent pictures of this kind : Piimcoteca at Vicenza [Tern- n pera, a very early, pleasing picture of this master, of 1489, a Madonna under a canopy of vines. — Mr.] ; Brcra (and Ambrosiana 1) at Milan; o the gallery at Parma, some of thei? finest pictures of the master, etc. The Madonna with Saints, life size, q in the Academy of Venice, shows, on the other hand, alongside of the masterpiece of Bellini, an extra- ordinary stiffness in arrangement, as also in some of the figures. There also is S. Thomas touching the wound of Christ. [One of his masterpieces, an altar-piece of nearly twelve feet high, very much injured, has remained in the cathe- r dral of his native place. Any one who will undertake the remunera- tive journey by Treviso, Conefidiano, and that neighbourhood, to Friuli, will find excellent works of the master in various little places ; for instance, S. Fior di Sopra^ threes miles from Con^gliauo. — Mr.]

Carpa,cM8 merit comes out chiefly in the paintings mentioned above of the Life of S. Ursula, and those of S. Giorgio dei Schiajjoni.


Sebastiani — Catena, etc.


89


In his smaller pictures he is exqui- sitely full of life, yet he does not eqn£^ Cima in beauty. Besides the pictures already mentioned, which

a are more glowing in colour, I men- tion that of the chief altar in S. Vitale (1514), a lively conversation of saints, who appear partly under and partly above a balustrade ; [the saint OD horseback quite corre-

^ spends with the GaUiwielcUa of Donatello. — ^Mr.] ; the Coronation

€oi the Virgin in S. Giovanni and Paolo (left of the entrance into the sacristy) ; the Death of the Virgin

d (1508) in the Atetieo at Ferrara : in these two works he approaches most nearly to Cima. His great

e Presentation in the Temple (1510) and the Apotheosis of S. Ursula, both in the Academy at Venice, show, indeed, that he did not pos- sess the capacity for giving full life to such forms. In the Presen- tation the child is conceived in Bellini's manner.

J ^ Lazzaro Sebaatiani has a picture in S. Bonato at Murano (over the side door on the right), a reaXLy beautiful lively scene of the Ma- donna with two Saints, who are introducing adoring angels and a donor. [By the same weak fol-

</ lower of the Vivarini is a Piet^, signed, in S. Antonino at Venice. —Mr.]

Andrea Previtali, of Bergamo : [Madonna of 1502 in the CavaZli Collection at Padua, Annunciation in . S. M, del Mesco at Ceneda, Virgin and Child with Saints in the Carrara Gallery at Bergamo, Christ on the Mount (1512) at the JBrera, and numerous works with dates up to 1525, in the ch. and private collections of Bergamo.— Ed.]

h Catena's masterpiece, in 5. if. Ma- ter Domini (end altar to the ri^ht), represents a martyrdom of S. Chris- tina, who was drowned with a


millstone round her neck. Ob- serve how the honest old Venetian treats this, and reflect a moment on the emotional martyrdoms of the seventeenth century. The heads are most lovely. [Trinity in S. Sinicone, Madonna and Dose Loredano in the Public Pakice, tne Flagellation in the Academy at Venice.— Ed.]

Baaaiti is in drawing, colour, and characters more slight than Cima and Capaccio : his male type often repeats itself ; but the whole e£fect is usually more lively. His Calling of the Apostles James and Philips (Academy) is certainly distin- guished by spirit and decision (1510) ; the S. Peter enthroned with four Saints in S. Pietro di Caa-j tello (third altar on the right) is ex- cellent ; the S. George on horseback (1520), end of the left aisle) is lovely even in its injured condition. — ^Mr. ] And sometimes this master rises to lofty efforts. In the Assumption of the Virgin {S. Pietro and Paolo at k Mnrano, left, near the door of the sacristy, injured, but not irredeem- ably) he depicted the most beauti- ful ecstacy; his S. Sebastian (^Sa-l lute, chapel on the right in the Sagrestia Magffiore, in a wide land- scape with a Darren tree) is only one degree removed from Titian. [The Glory of S. Ambrose, begun by Luigi Vivarini (p. 83 A;, Frariy third chapel left of the choir), was appa- rently not essentially improved by him. — Mr.].

Benedetto Diana only acquires the Bellinesque form after giving up that of the Paduans. Virgin and Child and Transfiguration in the Academy of Venice, Virgin and S. Thomas in 8. M. della Croce atm Crema.

Vittor Belli di Maiteo, altar- pieces at Spinea (1^24), and Gallery of Bergamo, follows the style of Carpaccio.


90


" The JRenaissance" Venetian School.


Pier Francesco Biesolo imitates, bnt does not thoroughly acquire, the Belliuesque manner. He some- times signs Petrus de Ingannati. Best works in the Venice Aca- demjr, S. Zaccaria, and Oath, of Treviso.

Bartolonimeo da Venezia (1505 to 1530) paints portraits chiefly; GaQery of Bergamo and Ferego CoU. at Milan.

Pier Maria Pennacchi from Tre- viso is author of the hali-length figures, nearly destroyed, in the

a soQits of the waggon roof of S. M, dci Miracoli, and the roof paintings in the vault in the AngeU at

hMwrano, thirty-four divisions in all, tolerably restored. A Ma-

c donna in the principal church at Treviso.

Qirolamo da Treviso the Youngei', apparently his son, is perhaps the d author of a S. Each in a landscape, sacristy of the Salute, at Venice.

Marco Marziale, a pupil of Bel- lini's, little known, also painted e the Supper at Eminaiis with a venr pleasing conscientiousness, and wiui somethmg of the genre-like manner of Carpaccio (1503, Academy).

Lastly, Boccacino da Cremona (1467-1525),. who, in a Madonna enthroned with four Saints, in S.

fGiuliano (first altar on the left), most resembles Cima, shows rather the previous influence of L. Viva- rini, in a most finished and valu-

pable picture, in the Academy. It is a Madonna with four Saints seated in the open air ; one of the earliest and most beautiful exam- ples of this type of Sante conversa- zioni with kneeling and sitting flgnres in a landscape round them, for which, later on, Palma and Titian showed such strong predilec- tion. [This master is littk under-


stood, and must be visited in his own native town ; in the Cathedral there, the chmr and the nave were h painted by him and his son Camillo, with some other assistants. There is, by Camillo, a Madonna in the» Brera, with Saints (1532).

The insignificant Marco Belloj seems aU his life to have repeated but two compositions — ^the Mar- riage of S. Catherine and the Cir- cumcision (example in the town collection at Kovigo). To Bellini's school belongs also Niecolo Bondi-h nelli of Baveiina (two pictures in the Palazzo Dona, Kome). — ^Mr.]

SIENA.

Besides these great art centres in Florence and North Italy, no other school comes to the front in the fifteenth century in which the en- joyment of character and living form, and the riches of human figures, had expressed itself quite freely and grandly. The inspira- tions issuing from Florence and Padua attracted all schools to them, but the foundation was wanting — the deep and severe studies of form. f Thus, for instance, the school of Siena, from Bomenico di Bartolo onwards, thinking it possible to follow the new manner without this preparation, ended by merely copying the external specialities of the Florentines on this faulty foun- dation with unavoidable exaggera- tion. Domenico's frescos in a hall of the hospital of the Scalaat Siena l (histories of the foimdation and works of mercy) are indeed free from coarse awkwardness, but only interesting for the sake of costumes and architecture. Of the rest, those who partially adhered to the old way have been mentioned before. Among the more decided realists, Vecchietta {Lorenzo di Pietro) is quite unpleasing as a painter : Fraruxsco di Giorgio {Academy atwi Siena ; Adoration of the Child, and


Pieiro Perugino.


91


Coronation of the Virgin) ; perhaps the most cultivated is Matteo di iriovanni (M. da Siena), but un- iloubtedly the most repulsive. His three treatments of the Slaughter a of the Innocents {S. Agostiiw, side chapel to the right, 1482, Con- /) cezione, or Servi di Maria, on the € right, 1491, and the Micseum of Naples, with a falsified date) are among the most ludicrous excesses uf the fifteenth centuiy ; Matteo appears as the Italian Michel Wol- gemuth. (Other pictures in the Academy, and in S. Domenico, second chapel left of choir.) [A decidedly graceful picture of this master in the (usually closed)


little church of Madonna ddla^ Neve will probably brinff about a milder judgment than we fore- going in favour of the attempt at expression and character evident also in the compositions of the Murder of the Innocents. — ^Mr.1 Some also of the marble " Sgraffiti ^ ^ on the floor of the Cathedral are by his hand. A Christ in a ^lory of Ancels among many Saints m a rich landscape (1491, Academy), by/ Benvenuto di Giovanni, is at least painted without the affectation of nis fellow-pupil, Matteo.

Of Fungai, Pacchiarotto, &c, we shall spe^Jic in considering the six- teenth century.


PERUQINO AND THE PERUQINESQUE.


Moving southwards, we come to the precipitous town of Perugia, enthroned above the valley of the Tiber, Assisi and Spello higher still <»n its mountain steeps, Foligno in the plain, Spoleto looking down on the vale of the Clitumnus. These districts were the home of the Umbnan school ; its influence ]*eached eastward to the mountain towns of the Upper Apennines, and beyond them mto the March of Ancona.

In this, the native country of St. Francis, a stronger spirit of devo- tion seems to have been kept up than elsewhere in the profane Italy of the Renaissance. The extraordinary intensity of expres- sion in painting found here is ]mrtly explained by the distance from the proper home of the Re- naissance; the distributing of ta- lents in various places (before Pe- rugino all painting has a local cha- racter) ; the more coimtrified, sim- ple feeling of the patrons, whether they were inhabitants of the steep villages in the wine and oil dis- tricts, or of retired convents ;


lastly, the influence of Siena, whose latest idealists, like Taddeo di Bar- tolo, worked in Perugia i|self. [But painting, if intensely tender and devotional, was also feeble at first, and very partially developed even when it was aflected by ex- ternal influences, ex gr., the works and example of Gozz^, Piero della Francesca, or the Vivarini. There is little indeed to attract in the Sanseverini (pictures and frescos at 9 S. Severino, S. Gio. Battista of Urbino, church of Pausola, Sar- nano, and Matellica) ; in Giovanni Boccati (Virgin and Child with Saints (1447)' in the GaUery of Peruffia) ; Oirolamo di Giovanni (Madonna with Saints at Monte S. Martino, near Fermo) or BarUh^ loinmeo di Tommaso of Foligno (practising 1430-1452) ; Madonna in S. Salvadore, Martyrdom of S. Catherine, and other frescos in the Comune of Foligno ; Matteo da Gualdo, who chiefly laboured at Assisi (1460-1503), was on a lower level in art than even Bartolommeo (altar-pieces at S. Pietro, and Nasciano near Assisi, S. Francesco,


92


^' The Renaissance,^ Umbrian School.


S. Niccolo, and S. Margarita, of Gualdo, and frescos at Sigillo). His wall paintings (1468) at S. An- tonio e Jacopo of Assisi are but part of a series continued by Fieran- tonio, a pupil of Gozzoli, whose frescos at S. M. in Campis near Eoligno are imitations of older Giottesques and Umbriaus (frescos in S. i^nna, wall paintings from S. Lucia, S. Francesco, and S. Domenico in the Comune of Fo- ligno.

Niccolo di Liberatore^ better known as Alunno of Foligno (born circa 1430, died 1502), is the pupil of B. di Tonmiaso. — Ed.] He is one of those who strikes the chord which echoes so powerfully in Perugino : it is the expression of soul carried to enthusiastic ecstatic devotion, in heads of the tenderest, purest youthful beauty [??]. Nic- colo's drawing of form was in- ferior, his paintings sometimes coarse, his arrangement awkward ; but %ven now sometimes a painter succeeds with as limited external means in attaining a high though only provincial importance, through simple force of expression. Amongst his works to be seen in public collections (for instance, in the

fiPalazza Colowia at Borne, in the

^ Brera at Milan, where there is a re- markable Madonna with Angels, of the year 1485), the most important is an Annunciation with a Glory and a Eeligious Community (from tS. MaHa Niiova) in the Piimcoteca

cat Perugia (No. 75, Tempera^ 1466) ; the form of the heads of Gabriel and the Madonna is won- derful ; the devotion of the Angels

^ thoroughly naive. In Foligno : S. Maria infra portas ; some ruined

^ frescos ; S, Niccolo : large rich altar-piece of several panels, his best executed masterpiece ; also a Coronation of the Virgin with two

/kneeling Saints. In the CatJiedral of Assisi, unimportant fragments of an altar-piece let into the wall. Other


pictures at Diruta, S. Severino^ GiKildOf Nocera, and La Bastia^ g near Assisi. [At La Bastia is one % of his latest pictures, a Madonna with Angels and Saints, of 1499. A remarkable picture in the Pina- i coteca at Bologna (No. 3G0), a church standard, painted on both sides ; in front the Madonna be- tween Saints ; on the back the An- nunciation. The painter has here employed a gold ground as an under-painting for the whole pic- ture. — Mr. ] On the whole, Alunno employs passionate intensity of ex- pression with great moderation, and, in some instances, rather re- sembles the Paduans.

[The most important combination of the Florentine and Umbrian manner, that indeed to which we mainly owe the expansion of Peru- gino' s style is to be found in the works of Bciicdetto Buonjigli (1453- 1496), whose education appears to have been finished under the joint influence of Domenico Veneziano and Piero della Francesca. Though at first Buonfigli showed affinity to Matteo da Gualdo^and Boccati (An- nunciation and Epiphany in the Gallery of Perugia), he displays ay more decided Florentine style in the frescos of the Palazzo, where he illustrated the legends of St. Louis and Ercolanus in a series of finished compositions, and numerous altar-pieces m the Gallery of Peru- gia which exhibit a ^adual expan- sion of his powers, till close on the opening of the 16th century. He was followed at Perugia by Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, whose paintings ]^ at times so much resemble those of Perueino that they might be con- founded with them. We note several pictures in the Gallery of Perugia, amongst others eight; panek with scenes from the legend of S. Bernardino.— Ed.] No. 29, from the sacristy of S. Frances- co de' Conventuali, Peter, Paul, and a lunette of a Madonna of


Pietro Perugino.


93


1487, showine tbe diminished energy of N. ^unno, almost a pro- totype of Perugino in the grace of the movement and forms of the faces. The Adoration of the Kings, wrongly ascribed to Ghirlandajo, No. 39, quite like an early Peru- gino. [virgin and Child with Saints and twelve members of the Tribunal of the Kota in the Quirinul ; frescos of the legend of the Cross in S. Croce in Gerusa- lemme at Borne.— Ed.]

[The art which Fiorenzo thus took from Umbria to Rome, he bequeathed to A7itonio di Benedetto, commonly known as Aiitoniasso (1460-1517), whose altar-pieces, in S. Antonio of Rieti, the cathedral of Yelletri, and museum of Capua, are curious illustrations of a style which combines the tenderness of Benozzo with that of the XJmbrians. — Ei]

Pietro Perugitio {de Castro PlebiSf as he calls himself from his native city, Citta della Pieve, properly Vannucci (1446-1524), is in his earlier time essentially Florentine. How far Alunno or Piero della

Francesca, or in Florence Verroc-

chio and L. di Credi, individually affected him, need not be seriously considered ; the chief thing was the impression of the artistic world then as a whole, which altogether decided his course. To this first period belong his frescos in the

a^istine chapel, the Childhood of Moses, the Baptism of Christ, and the Giving the Keys ; perhaps also the Adoration of the Kings, from

h S. Maria Nuova in the Pinacoteca at Peru^a (No. 39), works which, alone with great merit and beauty, iianfly show any ti'ace of what gave life to his later pictures. From the best period of his life

c comes the Adoration of the Child- <Jhrist in the picture-gallery of the Villa Albani (1491), and the beau- tiful' fresco in the Chapter-house of

d S. M. Maddalena dci Pazzi at Flo-


rence.* The life-size Crucifixion, assigned to him by Vasari, in the church of La Calza at Florence, c near the Porta Romana, reminds us of SigQorelU. Even before 1495 Pietro settled himself in Perugia, and opened his school. From this point we date the great series of pictures in which he seems to carry to their deepest depths the expression of devotion, of self-sacri- fice, of holy grief.

How much in his works can one now look on as pure coin ? In Perueia clearly he fell in with the alreadv ruling tendency, which he carried out with so new a sense of beauty, and with far greater art- istic talent than his predecessors, that even the most mechanical re- petition could not destroy it. When he discovered that people took an inexhaustible pleasure in the peculiar expression of his faces, and became aware of what they exclusively admired in him, he abandoned all the rest that he knew and could do ; above all, the incessant study of life, so remark- able in the Florentine school. He left to Pinturicchio subjects rich in movement and contrast, instead of keeping himself fresh by means of them. To the affected heads^ which people required of him, be- long bodies and positions which, in re^dity, look only like appendages, and which the spectator very soon knows by heart, because it was obvious that the painter already did so. Yet the same man drew capitally as soon as he pleased, for instance, in his nude figures. He charmed his public also further by clear bright colouring and easy rich ornamented drapery. The power of light in the colouring, and the delicate rendering of detail

• The permesso (gratis) to be had in the Palazzo del Ministero dell' Instruzione ) Publica, Piazza Firenze. The entrance to the Chapter-house is from the Via della Colonna.


94


" The Renaissance. Umhrian School.


in many pictures, again show what he could do whenever he pleased. He places his Saints below side by aide without any further arrange- ment, while all other schools group them, and arranges his Glories, Co- ronations, and .fssumptions above, accorcUng to one ]}lan. On the other hand, the detail, whenever he pleased, showed the most delicate leelii^ for lines. In the turn of the drapery he seldom rises above mechamcflJ conventionality. In the Sistine one sees what at an earlier time he was capable of producing.

Of flJl artists who buried their talent and sank into handicrafts- men, Pietro is, perhaps, the greatest and the most lamentable example. He did, it is true, mve clearly, solidly, completely, \niat was re- quired of him, even in a late time when his powers had diminished, «nd no new idea could any longer %)e expected of hiuL

As regards the heads, we must recognize that Perugino ado^jted just the most beautiful motives from the Florentine school of art, then in a state of fermentation. It must have been a heavenly moment in his life when, for the first time, he filled the loveliest form with the expression of the sweetest enthu- siasm, lonjring, and the deepest de- Totion. This moment was again re- peated ; even in later pictures spe- cial heads came out as strikingly true, among others which onlv render a similar expression with the usual stereotyped means. In order to feel distinctiy about this, one must analyse some of his heads closely in type and expression, and ask oneself how this peculiar oval, these melancholy gazmg dove-like eves, those small lips trembling almost to tears, have been pro- duced, and whether in the especial place there is any necessity or jus- tification for them. Sometimes he satisfies us, but in most cases he deceives us with an emotion quite


objecUess and aimless. ** Why does Fiesole affect us quite differentiy ? Because there comes in a strong personal conviction, which con- strains him always to repeat tho highest expression as powerfully as it IS possible to him, ^^y is the impression in the Delia Kobbias always fresh and pleasing? Be- cause they do not attempt to ex- Sress emotion, and remam in the omain of a beautiful tone of feel- ing. What is it that connects Perugino with Carlo Dolce ? That both commemorate an expression which is essentially subjective and momentary, and therefore belong- insonly to one time.

We shall mention only the more important of his later pictures.

In Borne, Vatican Gallery^ fourth a room. No. 28, the Madonna with the four Saints (14d6) ; fourth room. No. 24, the Eesurrection, executed in jgreat part by Raphael. [In the Sciarra Gallery, a beautiful llfe-siza St. Sebastian : in the Borghese Pa- lace, under the name Holbein, a remarkably beautiful portrait of himself, seventh room, No. 35. — Mr.]

In the Cathedral of Spello, on the b

  • We leave ont the qaestion altogether,

whether Pietro himself ever felt as his creations feel. It is quite out of place, and infringes on the eternal rights of poetry. Even as an atheist, as Vasarl gives him out to he, in spite of the in- scription with "Timete Deura" on hia portrait^ in the Uffizi, Pietro might have painted his Ecstacies, and they might nave been grand and true ; only he mast have followed therein an inner poetical necessitv. Many confused ideas prevail concerning the "profession of faith" of the artist and the poet, according to which it would be required that he should constantly carry his heart on his tongue, and in every work give out as complete a programme as may be of his individual thought and feeling. But as artist and poet ne needs no other seniivMnt than the very strong one which is needed to give his work the greatest possible perfecnoo. His religious, moral, and political convic- tions are personal to himself. Here and there they will be felt in his works, but will not constitute the foundation of ^eau


Pietro Perugino,


95


left, a HeU (signed) of 1521 ; [tbe heads strikingly beautiful and full of soul, considerinff the lateness of the date. — Mr.], the expression in John pure and beautifully inspired. a In Perugia : the frescos in the two roonw of the so-called Cambio, painted about 1500, by Perugino, -with the assistance of dell' In- gegno (? ?), a beautiful and careful work, which thorouffhlv illustrates Perugino's views of the taste of the Perugians ; isolated figures, placed alongside, in the same line, aimilarity of character in antique heroes, law-givers, and prophets, want of true power compensated by sentimental!^. [The pictures out of the churcnes of Perugia are almost all collected in the Hnaoo- teca, where the whole school is represented. Here is, (extremely injured) the ruined fresco of an

5 Adoration of the Shepherds, from S. Francesco del Monte, a compo- sition in a lunette, not of great importance, and many others.] In

c S. Agostino, the eight small panels with half-lengths of saints (m the sacristy), are more naive than the

d other pictures. In S, Pietro there is a dignified Piet^ (by the first altar in the left side aisle) ; in the sacristy, a series of small panel pic- tures with half-length figures, to vrhich also the three in the Vatican Gallery once belonged; in the church, several copies, by Sasso- ferrato, after similar half-len^^

< figures. In S, Severo, Perugino had the courage, after Baphael's death, in the year 1521, to paint saints on the walls undemeatn his fresco picture. [The great fresco

foi the Adoration of the Kings, in S. Maria di Bianchi, in the neigh- bouring Citt^ della Pieve, of 1^4, is a good composition, with excel- lent special qualities, but dull colourinff. Other works also there

^are in tne Cathedral, S, Agostitio, Servi di Maria, near the town.^ Mr.]


In Tlorenoe, the Piiti contains^ the famous Deposition (1495), a collection of heads in a state of passive emotion, the effect of whidi IS heightened by the absence of other contrasts ; the head of Christ, most unworthy, the whole distin- guished more for evenness of exe- cution than real depth ; there also. No. 219, Madonna adoring the Child, one of the truly felt pic- tures, unfortunately much painted over. — Uffizi: Madonna enthroned with two Saints (1493), abeady conventional ; two portraits. Aca^j demy. Great Assumption of the Virgin, below, four Saints, of 1500, nearly related to the frescos of the Cambio, partly conventional, but with single heads of the greatest excellence ; also a Geth- semane (early ?) ; the remaining pictures there, even the group be- neath, in Filippino's Descent from the Cross, late, and quite fade in parts.

In the Pinacoteca at Bologna : a k Madonna floating above four Saints, a show picture of the rank of the Assumption first named.

[One of the most faultless of Perugino's works is found in S, I Agostino, at Cremona — a Madonna, between Saints, of 1494. — tsfo highly important altar pictures, in S. Maria Nuova of Fane, Annuneia- m tion and Madonna enthroned be- tween Saints, of 1497 and 1498.— Mr.]

Among Pietro's assistants, lit- gegno is mentioned by ancient writers with especial emphasis. However, the more accessible of the works attributed to him are doubtful, e.g,, the ezcelleat frtaco n Madonna, in the chapel of the Palace of the Oonservatori on the Capitol, with its restrained expres- sion in the manner of Alunna [A beautiful youthful Archangel Mi-o chael, a fresco picture in tiie Pa- lazzo Gualterio, at Orvieto, appears to me decidedly a work of Signo'


96


" The Henaissance.^' Umbnan School.


reUi, — Mr.*] We may mention also some early anonymous frescos of the Umbrian school in Rome : in aSS. Vito e Modesto, 1483, S. Cosi- mato in Trastevere, &c.

liTow comes PinturicchiOy 1454 (?) — 1513. He was early connected with Pietro {e.g., as assistant in the works in the Sistine), and in the end he became, and continued to be, the one painter of that school who, by preference, under- took to execute oy contract great histories in fresco. At first the Florentine manner affected him to some extent ; afterwards he adopted Perugino's style of stereotyped expression. He never studied thoroughly; he collects subject and incident wherever he finds them, repeats them even to the tenth time, and often uses the help of others. Confessedly a busi- ness man and entrepreneur, we may be sure with very small pro- fits, he has at least this advantage, that we exx>ect but little from 1dm, and are then surprised, b^ traits of exquisite natveU, beauti- fol heads, and remarkable cos- tnmes, and delighted bv the simple way in which he uses his histories as fillings up of a splendid locality (buildings, gay landscapes, in the Flemish style). He, too, produces what was acceptable to his time, especially in the society that sur- round^ the Popes.

Under Innocent VIII. and Alex- ander YI. he and others painted the lunettes and vaulted roof in 2>five halls of the AppartaiivenUo Borgia (Vatican). There we have prophets, sibyls, apostles, sciences enthroned, with attendants, legends of various saints ; lastly, stories from the New Testament, the greater part without any special expenditure of ideas. So, too, the

^ ♦ Note this fresco, which is probably by Enscbio di S. Giorgio, is now in the Unseuin of L'?ii»zig.


frescos in S. Maria del Popoloc (chapels one, three, and four on the right, and the dome of the choir) show only the general style of the school. The remains in S. Pietro d in Montorio, and in S. Onofrio e (lower paintings of the niches in the choir) appear to be by still inferior Perusinesque hands ; [Crowe and Cavalcaselle ascribe the latter to Feruzzi, who executed the upper part] ; the four evangelists on the dome of the sacristy of S. Cecilia more probably belong to PiiUuric- chio. — In the Ara Celi (firsts/ chapel on the right), the Miracles and the Glory of S. Bernardino are painted with far greater feel- ing ; here the master, though with insufficient power, strives after Florentine liveliness. In the year 1501, he painted a whole chapel (on the left) in the Cathedral at^ Spello; the Annunciation, the Adoration of the Shepherds and Pilgrims, and Christ among the Doctors ; on the ceiling are Sibyls. Here, in a little country town, he laboured quite naturally, and, amidst much that is conventional and mechanical, he produced a few most charming things ; as, for in- stance, the reverential approach of the Shepherds and Pilgrims, Joseph and Mary in the Temple, £c. Eich, lofty backgrounds ; gold or- naments laid on. Also, in S. An-i drea (side aisle on the right), the gigantic large altar-piece of the Madonna enthroned, the child- like John writing at her feet, of 1504. In the years 1503-1507 he painted, with the help of several others, the Libreria (that is, the/ room where the books of the choir were kept) in the cathedral of Siena. (Best light in the after- noon.) The early supposition that Saphael gave him all the skeletons for this, even, indeed, made the drawings, or worked with his own hand on it. has been quite aban- doned. I have only seen one of


Pinturicchio.


97


the very beautiful drawings for two of those compositions— the Landing in Libya, and the Recep- tion of Eleonora of Portugal, in the collection of original drawings in a the Uffizi ; the other is in the Casa Baldeschi, at Perugia. I do not regard the former as Baphael's work, and by no means consider that a sketch, however superior it may be to the completed work, must therefore necessarily be by ■another artist. [The very beautiful drawing in Casa . Baldeschi is also certainfy the work of Pinturicchio. — Mr.] There is in these scenes out of the life of JSneas Sylvius <Piu8 II.) nothing so good, and nothing so bad, that it might not^ some time and mood, have been <x)nceived and painted by Pintu- ricchio himself; the execution in itself is very careful and very even. A lofty historical conception, dra- matic intensity of expression, in, for the most part, ceremonial pic- tures, are not to be expected ; rather must we be satisfied that the characters and forms capable of life are here more numerous than usual in Pinturicchio. The life of the Pope became, under the hands of the fortunate painter, a graceful fable, a novel, all in the oress and character of his own time, not in that of fifty years before. Even Pius himself shows hardly anything like a portrait likeness. Frederick III. is 'Hhe Emperor,'* as he might appear in any tale. This sort of simplicity was an essential advantage for those painters.*

There are easel pictures of Pin-


  • The Last Supper, in fireRCO, which was

discovered several years ago, in the closed convent of 8. Onofrio in Florence, now Museo Egiziaco, and given out as the work of Raphael, is a Feruginesque production, and most probably by Pinturicchio. Crowe and QEtvalcaselle are disposed to regard it as a work of Gerino da Pistoja, who repeated in it an older composition of the school


turicchio's n the Museum of 6 Naples (the Assumption of the Vir^n), in the Pinacoteca of Pe- rugia, !No. 30, a large and excellent alter-piece from S. Maria f ra Fossi, apparently of 1498 [in S. Girolamo {de Minori osservanti) there is inc the choir a Madonna enthroned, almost twelve feet high, with saints. — ^Mr.] — Palazzo Borgliese, ind Borne, (a sort of chronicle of the History of Joseph), a fine altar- piece in S. Lv^Jiese, above the<^ town of Poggibonzi.

Among the actual pupils of Pietro, after Raphael, Oiovaimi di Pietro, called Lo Spagiia was the most distinguished. EEis Madonna with patron saints, in the Tovmf Hall of Spoleto, is one of the purest and freshest of the whole school. [There are pictures in two churches of the little town of Trevi, lying 9 on the side of the Foligno road, in Madonna delle lagrime, second chapel on the left, the two especi- ally beautiful fisures of S. Cathe- rine and S. Cecuia, the first hardly surpassed by an early Eaphael ; in S. Martiiw, a delicate and mild ^ Madonna in the Mandorla with S. Francis and S. Antony, of 1611. — Mr.] A Madonna with Saints, in . the lower church of S. Francis at * Assist (chapel of S. Louis, first on the right). [Doubtless his most im- portant work, of 1516 ; the execu- tion extremely careful and refined. — Mr.] Frescos in the churches , of Gavelli, Esgi, and S. Jacopo,/ between Spoleto and Foligno, partly of his bold, mannered time ; then, again, an early picture (if it be by him), the Coronation of the Virgins, in the choir of the church of we Zoccolanti at Nami (but a^ few steps from the road leading to Temi) : the elevated tone of the figures, especially of the beautiful Madonna, still Florentine in con- ception, is yet far removed from a merely ecstatic emotion. [More

H


98


^^ TJie Renaissance J^ Umhrian School.


probably by KidoUo Ghirlandajo or Raffaelino del Garbo. — Mr.]

«In the Vatican Gallery the Na- tivity, a counterpart of which, at Berlu), has long been attributed to

^Raphael. In the P. Colonna at Borne, an excellent S. Jerome in the Desert is attributed to Lo Spagna.

c [In the P. Pitti, Corridore della Colonna, there is a tender Marriage of S. Catherine, between S. An- tony and S. Francis, with youthful, innocent heads. — Mr.] There is

^ also by him a beautiful Madonna enthroned in the Pinacoteca at Perugia, No. 25.

The remaining pupils and fol- lowers, (Hannicola Manni, Tiberio tTAssisif Adone Doni, Eusebio di S. Oiorgio, Sinibaldo /W, Berto di Oio- vannif . Oerino da Pistoiaj Bertucci da Fa/emaa. The Caporali, Melanzio, Ikyinenico and Orazio Al/ani, and Bernardino da Perugia, may be looked for in the churches of Peru- gia and the neighbourhood, and especially in the Pinacoteca. By Eusebio there are two good and characteristic frescos, the Annun-

^ciaiipn and the Stigmata of S. Francis, in the cloister in the little Capuchin convent of S. Damian at Assisi. Of 1507, two years older, is the beautiful Adoration of the Kings, from S. Agostino, in the Pinacoteca, No. 8 ; of 1512, is an altar-picture in S. Francesco de^

fZoccolanti, at Matelioa, near Fa- briano. These scholars are, in some of their more distinguished works, more ori^al and genuine than the master in his average later productions ; but for the most part they are somewhat weak, and when the last of them tried to imite the principle of style of the Roman school with their own faulty rendering of form, they fell into a poor manner.

[Oiannicola Manni. Principal ^ picture, the Conversion of Tlvomms


in S. Tommaso at Perugia ; the second room of the Cambio is of /e his later time, with Sienese influ- ences. Several excellent single Saints on a pier of the Cathedral, v Tiberio d^ Assisi painted a series of frescos from the life of S. Francis in the Cappella della Rosa of S. M. / degli Angeli, below Assisi. Among Perugino^s especial scholars, Sini- baldo Jbi deserves mention (G-ubbio, the principal church ; Rome, S, Francesco BoTnana). The Alfanih must be regarded rather as imi- tators of Raphael than as pupils of Perugino. The father, Dornenico di Paris Alfani (1510-53), received from Raphael the cartoon for a Ma- 1 donna with Saints of 1518 (Pinaco- teca, No. 59), and he betrays this overpowering influence in aU his works. His son Oraxio (1510-83) is entirely swayed by models of the most different sorts. Adone ^i^ Doni (1532-75) shows in the Ado- ration of the Kings in S. Pietro- (fifth pier on the left) all sorts of foreign influences along with Peru- ginesque character. A Last Supper of 1573 in the lower churdi of^ Assisi ; there, too, the mannered frescos of the C, S, Stefano ; an^ altar-piece in the cathedral of Gubbio. Oerino da Pidoja is a constrained imitator of Perugino. — Mr.J Altarpiece of S. Agostino,. of Borgo San Sepolcro (1502), and Madonna with Saints (1509) in S. Pietro, of Citt^ di Castello. Last Supper (1513) in S. Lucchese, near Poggibonsi. [Bertucci or (Ho- p vanni Battista, of 'Faenza (1502-16) imitates Piuturicchio and Palmez> zano. Most notable his Madonna of 1506, in the Gallery of Faenza. Jacopo Sicolo, a disciple of Spa^a, shows well in a Virgin with Samts q (1538) in the 'church of S. Ma- migliano, and a Coronation of the Virgin (1541) at Norcia. B. Capo- r rati combines the Peruginesque with something of Fiorenzo and Beuozzo. Madonna at Castiglioue


Francesco Francia and his School.


99


« del Lago. G. B. Caporali, imitator of Perugino and Signorelli. Frescos of the Villa Passerini, near Cortona.

^ Melamio*s works are all in churches in Montefalco and its suburbs.

c Bernardino da Perugia^ a sort of double of Pinturicchio, is old- fashioned and feeble, and in some of his works a copyist of Ka^hael, ex. g., Marriage of St. Catherine in S. Catherine, of Perugia. Other

^ pieces in the Perugia OaUery,

FRANCESCO FRANCIA AND HIS SCHOOL.

We return once again to Bologna, on account of Francesco Francia (born about 1450, died 1518), whose feeling is essentially related to that of Perugino, or was directly inspired by him. In painting, originally a pupil of Zoppo di Squarcione (?), or rather of Costa, he had, till late in manhood, especially applied himself to the goldsmith's art, and also made architectural plans and sketches. Afterwards, between 1480 and 1400, most probably in Florence, he might have leamc^d to know Perugino in his best time, perhaps when he was painting the fresco in S. M. de* Pazzi. (It must be understood these are but hypo- theses.) And accordingly one of his earliest known pictures, the Madonna Enthroned, with six Saints and an Angel playing a lute, of the year 1494 (the date has been wrongly altered to 1490) {Pinaco- eteca of Bologna, No. 78,) is the most Peruginesque of all his works, «>lenclidly painted, and possesaing that depth of the partially ecstatic expression which only belong to Pietro himself in his best middle period. Also an Annunciation with two Saints (No. 79 of 1500) belongs doubtless to this time. The Madonna enthroned between two porches, with four Saints, as well as the Adoration of the Child with Saints and Donators (No. 80 & 81


the last of 1499), are no longer in their original condition. Later on also, he appears constantly to have had reminiscences •f Perugino.

But by his connection with Lo- renzo Costa there arose a singular mixed style, which his pupils also, among them Cfiulio, his cousin, and Oiacomo, his son, as well as Amico Aspertini, adopted. The healthy, sometimes even coarse, realism which Costa more especially repre- sented, and which also existed in Francia from the beginning, ap- pears in continual opposition to the Umbrian sentimentality. This when engrafted on stronger, coarser forms assumes an air of peevish- ness. Especially the female Saints and the Madonnas seem to reproach the beholder for havins the indis- cretion to look at them. Yet Francia does not go into heavenlj languors. On the whole, there is much more that is fresh, even knightly in him, than in the younger Perugino. He drew more carefully, and not only placed his figures more freely and less conventionally, but he Imew how to sroup them in a life-like manner, although his feel- ing for lines remained very much undeveloped. The drapery is al- most always natural, and freshly conceived for each figure. As an old East Lombard, he takes plea- sure not in merely ornamental rich- ness, but in the real appearance and modelling of costumes, armour, ornaments, &c. It was his wish and his will in those things to equal at least Mantegna. Still, narrative and action generally is not his strong point.

His most beautiful work in Bo- logna is the altar-piece in the C. BentivogHoin S. Oia^omo Maggiore, f dated 1490. Of the angels who surround the Madonna, those near- est to her are especially lovely; among the Saints, S. Sebastian is one of the most perfect forms of the fifteenth century. Other re-

H 2


100


" The JRcfiaissance. JJnibrian School.


markable pictures, the Madonna

a enthroned with Saints in S, Mar- tino (first chapel on the left), where the landscape is given and treated quite in a Ferrarese manner (and indeed in Costa's). The altar-piece in the great chapel on the left in

h S, S. Vitale ed Agricola, beautiful angels hovering and playing on in- stmments round an old picture of the Madonna; the frescos on the right by Giacomo Francia, left by Bagimcavallo, of a considerably later time, but more especially the Visitation by the latter, aunost entirely good and simple; in the Virgin, a lofty and touching emo- tion. The pictures from the An-

c nunziata of the year 1500 ; an Annimciation with four Saints, a Madonna with S. Paul, Frauds and the kneeling Baptist, and a Crucifix with Saints in the Fina- coteca.

d The frescos in S. Cecilia, of 1609, * a work of the whole school, should not be looked at when the impres- sions of Florence are too recent. The narrative part of them is felt to have been borrowed thence, and with considerable constraint. Only as far as Francia's own desini seems to go, the forms are nome and full of life; in both his own

gictures, this is true also of the eads and of the whole treatment. But why does Cecilia turn away with such a fashionable modesty, while Valerian puts on the ring ? For she is not the less stretching out her hand to him. (Costa's landscape backgrounds, comp., p. 75.)

Of Francesco's works beyond

Bologna, the S. Stephen signed in

<the P. BorgJ^se at Borne (where

  • The arrangement, according to the

authors, is as follows :—

(Space for the altar). Fr. Franda, Fr. Francia,

Lorenzo Costa, Lorenzo Costa,

Cfiacomo Francia, Giaconu) Francia (?) Chiodarolo, Am, Aapertini,

Am. Aspertini, Am, Aepertini,


there are also two Madonnas) might be quite an early one ; the Madonna enthroned with four Saints in the OcUlery of Parma has strikingly/ synmietrical positions of the heads. The Descent from the Cross also, one of the earliest examples for the effect of an evening sky. In the Gallery of Modena is an excellent^ large Annunciation, early [by Bian- chi-Ferrari, see anteap. 82, d. — Ed. ] Of the famous picture at Munich (Mary in the Hose-garden) a copy in h, the Pinacoteca at Bologna. A later Annunciata in the Srera. Thei Deposition in the Turin G&ilery, I know not how attested, resembloi one of the best Milanese. [Besides ^ these, the Trinity with Saints/ adoring, in S. Giov. Evangelista at Brescia [?byFerramola] (E^ptistery chapel on the left), and an altar- piece at S. Frediano at Luoea, de- k serve attention. — Fr.]

CHacomo FraTvdcHs masterpiece, inspired indeed not by his father, but by the Venetians, and there- fore free from sentimentality, is the beautiful Madonna seated with I S. Francis, S. Bernardino, S. Se- bastian, and S. Maurice, dated 1526, in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. What there and elsewhere remains of his shows a reproduction, some- times pure, sometimes mixed, of his father's thoughts. One of the earliest pictures, the Adoration of the Child, in S. Cristina, the first »& altar on the right. Among the principal works must be counted the Aaoration of the Shepherds of 1519 in S. Giovanni at Parma, n second chapel on the right. A beautiful male portrait in the PiMi o Gallery, Florenoe, No. 195 [really by BonsignorL — ^Ed.] Later pic- tures, one of 1544, in the Brera, p

From time to time the atelier became a manufacture of haU- length figures, and convention- ality and absence of thought went as far as in the worst moments


Amico and Cfuido Aspertini — Simone Papa — Lo Zingaro. 101


of Peragino. By the ennuv6 peeyish expression, you can tell the Madonnas of this period, even at a distance.

Amico Aspertini (1476 — 1562) in his earliest picture (he calls it his l^jrocinium), which may have been painted about 1495, adopted the most Peruginesque style of Francia.

a It is a large Adoration of the Child, by Madonna, Donors, and Saints, in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. The frescos of a chapel on the left in

h S, Frediaru) at Lucca (stories of the face of Christ, volto santo, &c.), are delicately and carefully exe- cuted, with exquisite special detail, betray all varieties oi impression as they were taken up en passant by (a phantast who never became truly formed and independent. Once, when he was probably inspired by Giorgione, he painted

cthe picture in S. Martiiw at Bo- logna (fifth altar on the right) ; the Madonna with the holy bishops, S. Martin and S. Nicolas, with the three maidens saved by the latter. By his brother, Gutdo Aspertini, there is a good, essentially Ferra- reee Adoration of the mnss, in

<2the Pinacoteca at Bologna, No. 9. [Also Oiulio Fram/^ia, seemingly brother of Giacomo, a certain Ja-

« eobus de JSoateriis {FUti, No. 362), and the before-mentioned Oioy. Maria Chiodarolo (see note, p. 100) in the Pinacoteca at Bologna, (No. 60) belong to the followers of Francia. Mr.]

NAPLES.

At Haples, under the last of the Anjous, Ren6, and under Alphonzo of Arracon, pictures of the Flemish Bchool had attained such a repu- tation that several national painters formed themselves directly upon them. This is true of Sirrwne Fapa, the elder, whose picture of ytbe Archangel Michael (Naples Museum) shows at least how gladly


he would have followed the Van Eycks.

In the Flemish style there are g besides in S. Domenico Maggiore; in the sixth chapel on the right, or del (>ocefis80, the Carrying the Cross ; near the altar, a Descent from the Cross, and in the first chapel left of the entrance, a very brown Adoration of the Kinss. In S. Fietro Martire, the excellently h coloured panel of S. Vincenzo Fer- rer, surrounded by small coloured representations of his legends ; [in the lower church of S. Severino, at * the high altar ; above, the Ma- donna,^low, S. Severino, between four Saints. — Fr.]

At this time appears the artist whom the Neapolitans are accus- tomed to boast of as the father of their paintine, Zingaro (or Antonio Solario). The entirely imcritical Neapolitan history of art attri- butes to him, besides a romantic history, works of the most various origin ; among them, some of those above-mentioned ; whUe, in fact, there exists by lum no single au- thenticated picture. WhatactuiJly comes out is only that alone with the Flemish influence the school of Umbria found acceptance in Na- ples ; of any independent character m Neapolitan art there can be no question. What deserves most at- tention among the works ascribed to Zingaro, are the twenty frescos of one of the courts of a convent at S. Severino (best light in they forenoon). This is an excellent work of the end of the fifteenth century, which shows a knowledge of the Florentine and Umbrian works of the time. Even the cos- tumes only belong to this time. The life of S. Benedict has never been better represented, if we except Signorelli'iB frescoes in Mon- te Ofiveto^ (Tuscany). The i^ype of man here represented is indeed inferior to the Florentine, and in the nose, expression of eye and


1


102 "27^e Renaissance,^^ Neapolitan School.


lip, has something coarse and low- featured. But this is lost sight of in the number of living and power- fully depicted figures ana like- nesses ; tne forms move with grace and dignity on a middle distance, behind which the architectural or landscape background stands out easily and pleasantly. The master understood, for instance, as well as Giorgione, the delightful effect of slender stems, thinly clad with foliage, which rise up before and near steep masses of rock. In

general, the landscape is treated ere with complete understanding as a scene for important events, with the Flemish fancifulness and overcrowding. One never sees any sinking into conceits or heaviness ; a harmonious noble style enlivens the whole. * The quiet court, with the gigantic i)lane splendid stiU in decay, an oasis in the midst of the world of Naples, heightens the im- pression (unfortunately badly re- stored lately). [Next to this work ought to stand the great Madonna with Saints named Zingaro in the

a Museum (Koom 25, No. 6), a com- paratively unintellectual work [of Umbrian style] ; and the Ascension of Christ with Saints at the sides,

^ called Silvestro dc' Buoni^ in the church of Monte Oliveto, GappeUa Piccolomini on the left of the Forch«  — Fr.]

[The two DomeUi are Florentines, Fiero (bom 1451) being older than his brother Ippolito (born 1455). — Ed.] To them are ascribed some

Sictures by divers hands in the [useum of Naples, and a series of wall pictures in the ex-refectery of cS. M, Nuova ; on the north-east wall the Adoration of the R^gs and the Coronation of the Virgin,

• Another life of 8. Benedict, in the upper story of that double row of Ionic columns at the Badia in Florence, always seemed to me like an earlier work by the same master.


in which Crowe and Cavalcaselle trace the hand of an Umbrian master, like Francesco da Tolen- tino: on the south-west wall the Bearing of the Cross, in life-size figures. This is, according to Schulz, by Viricenzo Ainemolo, To Silvestro de* JBtwni are further at- tributed in S, Restitv^ta in the<2 Cathedral, Madonna with two Saints ; other paintings in the Mu- ^ aeum ; in his manner, Caihedral oif Capua, in a chapel on the right, a Madonna with two Saints ; Cathe- dral of Fondi, in a chapel on the g right, a similar picture, signed. We should not mention this painter, nor his pupil Antonio cP Amato (a picture m J^'. Severino), but that^ among the works of the later Nea- politan school the eye rests grate- fully on such pictures, in which the painters have sought te represent lofty subjects with simple methods.* In Home, amongst other places in ^ the Palazzo dei Conservatorif and in * the Neapolitan States, especially , at Ascoli, appears Cola delV Ama-j trice, an inferior master, ako influ- enced by the Flemish school, who painted in this style [from 1513 to 1543.— Ed.]

THE OLD GERMAN AND FLEMISH MASTERS.

What impression will be made by the old Flemish and old Ger- man pictures alongside of those products of a strong natural crowth of artistic talent ? It would be a great error te believe that Italy in the fifteenth and sixteenth century did [not esteem them ; the compa- ratively large number in which they are spread through Italian galleries and churches, proves the contrary. Even if here and there it was esteemed only a luxury to

  • The beautiful Adoration of tiie Shep-

herds, in 8. Giovanni Ha^ore, first chapel on the right, might be by a Nea- politan follower of Lionaxdo.


Justus V. Gent. — Justus de Alkmagna.


103


possess northern pictures, the Ita- lians of that time must always have felt and prized something special in northern art.

The old Flemish school of the brothers Hvhert and John Van JEyck had, ten years earlier than Masaccio, fully carried out into practice the realistic tendency of the fifteenth century. Already in the lifetime of both brothers some of those pictures appear to have reached Naples, which afterwards had so great an influence upon the 6cht)ol there.*

Subsequently, it was, above all, the so-called technical method which gave special worth to the old Flemish pictures, that is, the deep clowing fight in the colours, which diffuses a poetical charm even over theprosaically-conceived characters and events. As soon as possible, they learnt the methods of the Netherlanders. The new vehicle, the oil (and the not less essential varnish) was not, by any means, the chief thing ; much higher pro- blems of colouring (of harmony and contrasts) must have been silently worked out on this occasion.

They were likewise impressed by the delicate completeness which makes a perfect jewel out of every good Flemish picture. Lastly, the

• [The S. Jerome with the lion, in his most realistically represented study (Mu- seum of Naples) Sala di Raffaelle, No. 81, can yet lay no claim to the name of HiCbert v. Eyck. The colour, everywhere scratched and cracked, as is never the case in real Van Eycks, the half heraldic lion, the streaks and lines in place of real letters in the inscriptions, but after all, the inferior execution must, in spite of all authorities, prevent us from giving such a name; and we must ascrilb« the picture to one of the Neapolitans (??) af- fected by Flemish influence— Fr.] The Adoration of the Kings in the church of the Castello Nuovo, in the choir on the left, was also regarded formerly as a work of J. V. Eyck ; it is a very weak, dull pro- duction, with touches of Raphael, Lio- nardo and the Flemings, and there is no question of its being the work of any great Master. — Mr.


Flemish treatment of landscape and architecture so true (compa- ratively) in linear and aerial per- spective, gave a decisive impulse to Italian painting.

As to their conception in general, the Flemings gave to the Italians nothing which they could not have obtained by their own powers, though in a different manner. But peop& felt in the devotional pic- tures of the first the more harmo- nious seriousness, disturbed by no effort after beauty (being quite in- different to the object represented). In the time of Michael Angelo the Flemish pictures were regarded as more "pious " than the Italian.

The immediate pupils of the v. Eycks, and also those indirectly influenced by them, are in some ways excellently represented in Italy.* [Cristtcs is to be studied a in two fine portraits, male and female. No. 749, in the Uffizi, and a Virgin andChUd (No. 359) in the Gallery of Turin.— Ed.]

By Justus V. Gent is the chief picture out of S. Agata, now No. b 46 in the town gallery of Urbino, the Institution of the Last Supper, 1474. Among the spectators the authentic portraits of the Duke Federigo di Montefeltro, with his wife and sons, and the ambassador of the Shah of Persia. Jmtus de Allemagna, who in 1451 painted a great Annunciation in fresco in the c cloister of S. Maria di GasteUo in Genoa, is apparently another Ger- man master of that time, as more particularly appears in the mild rich-blond Madonna. The cir- cular pictures with Prophets and Sibyls in the vaulting seem to


• We have paid no attention to the names showered on the old Flemish and old German pictures still in Italian gal- leries, where A. Duro, Olbeno, Luea d'Olanda, are mere collective names, and the reader must consider all pictures of these masters not mentioned here as essentially non-genuine.


104 " The Benaissance" Old German and Flemish Masters.


belong to a harder but still Oerman hand.

The most important work of Hugo van d^r Goes, from S. M. aNuova in Florence, now in the newly-arranged Museum of the Arcispedale, beside the church, a hu:ee Adoration of the Child by Shepherds and Angels ; on the wings, the Donor, with his sons and two protecting Saints; his wife, with a daughter and two female Saints. The Virgin and the angels display the type of V. d. Goes, timid, yet not devoid of charm ; but the side pictures have all the striking Flem- ish individuality. From this and similar pictures the old Florentines ma^ have learot the art of por- traiture. [At Folizzi in Sicily a Madonna, with S. Catherine and S. Barbara, like the Nativity of S. b M. Nuova. ] In the Uffizi, the beau- tiful little picture of a Madonna enthroned with two angels, under a splendidly ornamental Renaissance arch. No. 703. No other contem- porary school followed out pre- cisely this idea ; no one could have produced so brilliantly beautiful and tender an easel picture. [Cer- tainly by Memling, by whom, like- wise, are a portrait of a Man, No. 769, and S. Benedict, panel of a diptych once in S. Maria Nuova. — Ei] Much like H. v. d. Goes is the painter of a precious little picture of the Death of the Virgin in the cSdarra Gallery at Borne, if it is actually not by him. The ema- ciated, dreary features of most of the spectators go indeed to an ex- treme which even Castagno and Verocchio did not overstep. [The remarkable original picture of this composition is in the National Gal- el levy in London, ascribed to^ Martin Schon. — Mr.] According to Waagen, they belong to a master of the Calcar school.

    • In the manner of Roger v. d.

Weyden " — [surely by Memling. — Ed.], BO must I designate a DexetU


fro7n the Cross which for several <? years has been exhibited in the Doria Gallery at Rome. Here we see northern art at a disadvantage, not because of the expression of pain carried nearly to grimace->Guido Mazzoni, for instance, goes much further, and adds pauietic ges- tures to it, — but on account of the want of beauty in the arranffe- ment, which is so common in this school when it forsakes architec- tonic or decorative symmetry, and of the faulty form of the body, otherwise so carefully executed. Another Deposition in the Vffizi^f No. 795, ascribed to R,v, d, Weyden^ raises the question how it could be possible that the old Netherlanders should observe the details of reality with so sharp an eye, and oop^r it with such a sure and unwearied hand, and yet so misconceive life and action as a whole. The delight of the Florentines in lively liction was entirely wanting in them. (There is another Deposition after Roger v, d. Weyden, in the Museum ff of Naples.*)

A very famous triptych, said to be by Van Eyck, miniature-like in delicacy of execution, has lately been placed in the gallery at Pa- ^ lermo. — M. H. [Now assigned to Memling. — Ed.]

By JSans Memling there is a ^ masterpiece in the gallery at Turin i of the greatest value, which sur- passes all pictures of a similar kind in Italy. The Seven Sorrows of the Vircin all combined in one picture, the counterpart to the Seven Joys of the Vimn, in the Pinaoothek at Munich. There is an old and good copy after the famous S. Christopher at Munich, in the gallery at tJCodena. There, too, by a painter who may stand between Memling and Metsys ; Mary and

  • It is well known that to attribute

this and similar pictures to R, v. d. Wey- den the younger has been found to be im- possible by authentic documents.


Brugge. — Wohlgemuth. — Nicola Frumenti. — B. v. Orley. 105


S. Anna in the open air, giving fruit to the child.

According to the latest investi- gations, another very important master of the Van £yck school,

a Gerard David of Bruges, has been declared the author of an excellent Madonna, two-thirds of life-size, between S. Jerome and a bishop, in the conference hall of the town palace (formerly Doria Tursi) at Genoa. In the same hall are a crucifix with Mary and John, by an excellent early Netherlander, beautiful and distinct in character. Two other old German pictures are late and insignificant.— IVir.]

h In the Gallery at Turin there is a great Flemish Adoration of the £[uigs of the end of the fifteenth century [in the manner of Hier. Bosch, — Mr.]

The picture of S. Catharine of Siena, with a view of a town, in the

c Academy of Pisa, may be the work of an early Dutch painter of the fifteenth century.

Of the work of Germans of the fifteenth century there is very little to be seen in Italy. Their works gave just what was most admired in the Flemings, but imperfectly and at second-hand ; namely, the delicate splendid peifection of work, the glowing colour, the picture of the world ID little. Still, there are [in

d the Miiseum of Kaples various pic- tures on folding panels, now di- vided, amone others, Adoration of the Kings, of which one belongs to Michael Wohlgemuth. There is something touching in these fair, helpless-looking creatures in their kingly arrav, when one thinks of the aecided will and capacity of the Italians contemporary with them. But we need not especially reverence the German school of the fifteenth century. It persisted in its deficiencies with a composure which could hardly be quite faith- ful As it was too troiiblesome to learn to represent the spirituid


through the corporeal, the expres- • sion of the soul in the movement of the body, there arose a great superfluity of unapplied fancy, which then turned to what was bizarre and extraordinary. One sees, for instance, in the Uffizi, a e Kesurrection of Lazarus, with side pictures and (better) outside pic- tures, dated 1641, by Nicola Fru- menti^ whom we may cuess to have been a master from the district of the Golmar schooL Who gave this (by no means unskilful) painter the right to produce his horrible grimaces? The life of Durer and Holbein, who had the firm and noble resolve to attain to the truth, was passed for the most part in the struggle against such and similar mannerisms.

It is time to pass on to the sreat masters of the beginning of the sixteenth century. Italy possesses considerable treasures iJso of this period of northern art.

First, a masterpiece of one of the most distinguished Flemish masters, about 15%. In 8, DoTi^to, f at Genoa, at the beginning of the left aisle ; a rich Adoration of the Kings ; on the side wings S. Stephen with a Donor and St. Macdalen, with a landscape background in the manner of Fatenier. [Probably by Bernard von Orley, with a distinct reminiscence of Mabtise, — Mr.] Here the severity of the old Netherlanders is lost in a mild grace of feature and movement ; the heads, as if freed from a curse, are pale with the smile of recovery; the colours, no longer confined to the gemUke brilliancy of the early pictures, pass into soft transitions and reflections ; but the love of brilliant detail seeks for new pro- blems — ^for instance, in special very highly finished representations of jasper pillars, gold ornaments, etc. The double portrait in the collec- tion of painters' portraits in the Uffizi, signed 1520, which then^


106 *^ The Henaissance.'* Old Oerman and Flemish Masters.


passed for that of Quentin Metsys and his wife, ought rather, on account of the reddish flesh tones, to be placed in the school of the Master of the Death of the Virgin, The portrait of a cardinal in the

a Corsini Palaxx at Borne. Eoom 6, No. 43 ( Albrecht of Brandenburg ?), is an excellent work of a similar tendency. So, also, the highly finished Discovery of a relic, in the

h gallery at Turin. A Netherlander of the same time, first-rate, errone- ously called Holbein, Pitti, No. 223, a portrait. Of the genre pic-

<;tures of Quentin Metsys and his school, which are best described as scenes of Antwerp counting-house humour, there are severid in Italy.

<2 Among others in the P. Doria at Bome, two Misers with two spec- tators.

Of the contemporary Netherland landscape paintmg some idea is given by a beautiml picture in the

<^ Pal. Pallavidni {Sir, Carlo Felice) at Oenoa : it is a Bepose during the Flight in Egypt, in one of those re- tired wood landscapes which set before us one of the most beautiful poetical sides of northern art of that time (not by Pabenicr).

By Herri de BUs there is a beau- tiful landscape with a ruin in the fUffizi, No. 730; his Tower of ^ Babel {Academy at Venice) was painted for the sake of the figures ; hvn his Fietd. {S, Pietro at Kodena, second altar on the right) the land- scape appears to be treated partly in a Ferrarese manner.

[Lucas van Leyden, who, as

  • ' Luca d' Olanda," has become but

too familiar to Italian custodes,* cannot claim with certainty a single one of the pictures ascribed to him,

  • See above, note to p. 103. The most

absurd is in the catalogue of the Turin gallery, of 1857 : Coronation of Henry IV. of France, by Lucas Dnmez of Holland, bom 1494, died 1538 1— Mr.


and we must give up the naming them as beyond the limits of this book. Among the best is the Ecce Homo, in the Tribune of the Uffizi i at Florence, which shows the hard hand of ff. Hemessen. — ^Mr.]

By the elder Breughel there are in the Museum of Iffaples, among/ others two tempera pictures on Hnen ; one, with the alle^ry of the Penitent deceivedby the World, is signed and dated 1565 ; the other represents the parable of the Blind. [By Hieronymus Bosch is a Temptation of S. Anthony (under the name Oranach, in the Palazzo h Colonna at Some. — Mr.] By the Flemish contemporaries of Breughel, who had passed over to the Italian manner, there are in Italy few things worth mentioning, or else they bear the Italian names of the originids who prompted them. Several of these Netherlanders pro- duced copies, and pasticcios id^r Lionardo and Kaphael, which then and later misled people.

There is a tolerably large cate- gory of pictures which, in the absence of more special knowledge, I must describe as Flemish — Lower Rhenish. This style, recalling most the treatment of Qn. Metsys, in the years between 1510 — 1530, prevailed variously from Flanders to Westphalia. To this group belong the masters Jan Mahvae (MaXbodius), Bemhard von Orley^ Joa/chim, Patenier, Herri viet de Bles (Civetta), Jan Mostaert^ H. HcTnes- sen, Jan ScJwreel, Michel Coxcie, Lamhert Lombard^ Victor and Hcinrich DUmvcge, from Dortmund, and, above all, the anonymous Master of the Death of the Virgin, whose chief picture, the Adoration of the Kings, in the Dresden Gal- lery, comes from the neighbourhood of Genoa, where manv pictures of this school are found. The most beautiful and richest of these pic- tures, in the Museum of Naples, SsJa di Baffaelle, No. 28, is a great


Albert Direr.


107


Adoration of the Kings with Donors, Saints, Monks, Nuns, and a num- ber of angels, among splendid re- naissance-ruins, with a rich view seen through, signed 1512. The pretended monogram A. D. is not to be found. Diirer is not to be thought of ; the treatment of the black outlined heads is quite pe- culiar, and not corresponding to that of any known master.* The

a same museum contains, in the same hall, Nos. 25 and 26, two altar- pieces and several other smaller pictures likewise valuable of this

h kind. In the Brera at Milan, No. 432, a picture divided into three parts (Birth, Adoration of the Kings, and Kepose during the Flight).

Lastly come the German painters of the best time. They, too, must be mentioned here, because in their development they were parallel only with the great Italians of the fifteenth century.

By Albert Diirer, even after ab- stracting all pictures falsely as- cribed to "Alberto Duro," there are still a whole series of genuine pictures left. They begin with the wonderful portrait of his father in

c the Uffiziy of 1490, No. 766 [while his own fancifully costumed por- trait, No. 498, is only a copy of the excellent origintd in Madrid. — Mr.] Then follows a masterpiece of his middle time, the Adoration of the Kings, Tribune of Uffizi, 1504, and an excellent drawing of the Cru- cifixion done in green, heightened with white, 1505, in the fourth room on the right from the tribune inclosed in a cover painted by

d Breughel. In the Borghcse Gallery, Boom 12, No. 37, a beautiful male portrait of 1505, according to Waagen's conjecture the likeness of

♦ According to Waagen, by a Westpha- lian, resembling Victor and Heinrich Dun- wege.


Pirkheimer. A reminiscence of his stay in Venice, 1506, is the Christ among the Doctors, a half-length figure picture, in part truly Vene- tian, but in part somewhat gro- tesque, in the P. Barberini at Borne, e [Also a portrait in the Palazzo Brig- nole at Genoa.] By the way, look among the paintings executed by Cdrpaccw, 1602 — 151 1, in the ScuoUt di S. Giorgio degli Schiavoni at/ Venice, for the picture of S. Jerome in his Study, and condpare it with DUrer's famous engraving of 1514, in order to see how, perhaps, the first timid attempt of the former gave the impulse to produce this imperishable work. [Cavaliere S. g Angela at Naples, possessed in 1861 quite a small picture of 1508; a weaver of garlands at the window. An excellent little Ecce Homo, half-length picture of 1514, in Casa h Trivulzi at Milan. — Mr.]

Of the later time are the two ^ Heads of Apostles in the Uffizii (1516 in tempera), which do indeed display Diirer's whole energy, bat not the high inspiration which was reserved K)r his last work, the picture of the Four Apostles in Munich. [And a Madonna of 1518 in the gallery of Marquess Gino Capponi at Florence.]

The life-size pictures of Adam ^ and Eve, P. Pitti, which may have/ been painted about this time, if they really are by Diirer, at least show not unbeautiful form in movement. [These are certainly the originals from which the pic- tures in Madrid and Mayence are copied. — Mr.] His latest work existing in Italy, the Madonna of the year 1526, in the Vffizi, No. h 851, is already impressed by the spirit of the approaching reforma- tion, without glory and adornment, harsh and domestic.

These works hang partly in the same rooms which contain Baphael, Titian, and Correggio. Can we only be just to them in a historical


108 " The Renaissance^^ Old German and Flemish Masters.


spirit, as it were, only excuse" tnem? In any case DUrer, from the point of view of mere work, would hardly lose near Raphael : the life and freedom, though but comparative, which German art, certainly too late, owed him, was something immeasurable, which, without the lifelong effort of a great mind, could never have been mastered. But, also, measured according to an absolute standard, these pictures have a high value. The forms, without any ideality, but also without vague abstraction, correspond, that is in the pictures where the fancif ulness of ^outh has been overcome, in the highest de- gree, to what he wished to express by them ; they are the fittest robe for his kind of ideality. All gained by his very own work, the man and the style always identical. How many in the sixteenth century can boast of this ? How have they all through whole schools been merely echoes in feeling and in expression ?

Of Diirer's pupils Hans ScJiMuffelin

a is represented in the Uffizi by eight pictures, with the legend of Peter and Paul, which belong to his best works. The pupils again fell into the fantastic manner from which Durer had gradually freed himself by great effort. In Albrecht Alt- dor/er, to whom belong two pretty

b pictures of the Academy of Siena, signed, this manner takes quite a pleasant Romantic form, especially in the landscape.

By George Pencz there is, in the c Collection of Painters in the Uffizi, No. 436, an excellent youthful portrait. [Genuine and signed, painted in 1544, therefore not his own portrait. — W.]

By Lucas Kranach there is an

early and, one might say, quite

surprisingly good small picttire

d (1504) in the P, Sciarra at Borne ;


the Holy Family with many sing- ing and dancing Child-augels m a fanciful landscape, after the manner of the Franconian school [now in a private collection at Berlin. — Ed.] Also good, one of the so- called Venuses (in a red cap with a gold chain and a transparent veil) with a Cupid Stung by Bees, of 1531, in the Borghise Gallery at^ Eome. For the rest there exist no works of first-rate merit by him in Italy. Adam and Eve^ in the Tri- bune of the Upziy Saxon Dukes, and/ BO forth, in another room. A little St. George in a bright landscape. No. 751, is worth all of this. One of the best examples of the Adul- teress before Christ in the Micseum g at Naples.

By anonymous South German artists : an excellent, unfortunately much washed-out portrait of a Car- dinal, in the Mtiseum of Naples, as h delicately and intellectually con- ceived as any German portoiit of the time ; several portraits of the house of Hapsburg (Archduke Philip, Charles v., Ferdinand I.), partly South German, partly Fle- mish, in the same room of the Mu- seum of Naples, in the P. Borghese, % at Borne, and in other placer.. [By Christopher Amber ger : the portrait of Charles V., in the Accidemy o,tj Siena, Quadri diversi. No. 54— a masterpiece. — ^W. ]

By Nicolas Mantiel, Martin Schaffner, and Hans Baldung, I know of no picture. On the other hand, the great ff. ffolbet7i the younger had, like DUrer and Lucas van Leyden, the fate to become a general name.

In the Uffisd: (1) The genuine, A; excellent finished portrait of Richard Southwell, aged 33, of 1537 ; * the portrait of Holbein himself, in the Collection of Painters (that is a head drawn

  • The inscription beftra the 88th year of

Henry VIIL's reign.


HoUmn. — Janet.


109


\dth chalk aod pencil, tinted with little colour on a sheet of paper, which, later enclosed in a larger sheet, was provided with a gold ground, and completed by the ad- ditions of a coarse, clear blue- grey smock-frock). Originally, very Hkely bv Holbein, in the style of many of the iK>rtrait-heads found at Windsor; in spite of all ill- treatment and varnishing, the parts, for instance, round the &f t eye and the mouth, are still excellent. But the individual represented with the light grey eyes, the square-shaped face, and the coarse upper-lip, is not Holbein, and the inscription not original [But it is a true copy of a genuine one existing there, and the portrait must be a likeness of himself. — Mr.]

Of all the other portraits called Holbein only two likenesses of Erasmus can be accounted genuine ;

a that in the gallery at Parma, 1530,

b [and one in the gallery at Turin, soft as velvet, and firm also, un- fortunately somewhat washed out.

c — ^Mr.] The one in the Mvseum of ITaples is placed in too imperfect a li^t for close examination. [That of x^arma so repainted as to pre- clude quite a safe opinion.— Ed.]

d [Jnthe Majifrini Palace is agenuine, though not interesting, youthful picture of the master, of the year 1513, a young man, with a suver cup rimmed with gold in his right hand, the left leaning on a balus- trade ; the hands painted over. The well-known background, with renaissance architecture and orna- ments. — In the public gallery of

^^Bovigo, also, a portrait of King Ferdinand, which appears quite genuine. — ^Mr.]

Under the name of Holbein are found some of the miniature paint- ings of the early French school, in the manner of Clouetj named Janet. The equestrian portrait of Francis '/I., in the Ujffizif is one of the best;


others in P. Pitti ; also at Genoa, in the P. Adomo, etc.


GLASS PAINTINGS.

For my own part, I should gladly dissuade persons from the study of Italian painting on glass, so injurious to the eyes, in order that the sight may be reserved for the examination of frescos. But since there exists a veiy consider- able number of remarkable works of this kind, I must not altogether pass them over. Especial study of the subject is not here to be expected.

Glass-painting may have been practised here and there during the whole of the later Middle Ages, but on a la^e scale it only came in with the Gothic architec- ture of the North. I can recall no painted glass of the Bomanesque style. Even in ^uite late times many of the most miportant works are executed by transalpine artiste, or, at least, by those who had been educated in the North.

How much of the painted glass of Milan Cathedral still belongs to g the time of its building I cannot state; that of the great windows of the choir is modem ; that of the south side, which again suffered injury in 1848, will have to undergo restoration. — The great window in the choir in S. Do- & menico at Perag^ (l^l)) is attri- buted to a certain Fra Bartolom- ineo : a series of histories, and four rows of saints, somewhat common- place in style. A great part of the pictures in glass in the Cathe- i dral of Florence (since 1436) were by a Tuscan educated at Lubeck, Francesco di Lim, from Oanibassij near Volterra; but the sreater number are ascribed to the famous bronze-worker, Lorenzo Ohiberii, especially the three front circular wmdows. Neither one nor the


110


" The Henaissance." Painting on Glass.


other make a striking, overpower- ing expression. Far more charac- teristic is the Descent from the Cross in the front central window

a of S, Cfroce, which is said to be an authentic design of Orcagna. Paint- ings on glass begin to be more inte- resting only after this time, because the powerful Italian realism of the fifteenth century also interpene- trates them; henceforth they are distinguished from the contempo- rary northern pictures not only by the style of drawing and concep- tion, but also they serve decorative purposes more freely, and at the same time attempt much more to be real pictures with separate meaning than in the North.

Out of German and Italian real- ism was combined the style of the preacher and lay-brother, Jacob von Ulm (1407-1491), who pro- duced the splendid picture in >S'.

1> PetroniOy at Bologna, of the fourth chapel on tbe right, and perhaps also that of the fourth on the left was constructed under his direc- tion. Of the remaining windows of this church, the one in the seventh chapel on the left (C. Bac- ciocchi) is remarkably beautifully executed, after the vij^orous design of Lorenzo Gosta; of similar style, is that of the fifth chapel to the left. That of the ninth chapel on the right is supposed to be after a sketch of MiehelaTipeys ; but the motives of the smgle saints distinctly re- mind us of Bandinell'i's figures in relief in the Florentine shrines in the choir; the execution is very rich in colour for this later period. — Costa, too, is doubtless the author of the circular window of S^. Oio-

c vanni in Monte in Bologna. (John on Fatmos ; the windows next to it inferior. ) In S, Giovanni e Paolo^

d at Venioe, the gi'eat window of the right transept is considered to be the composition of B. Vivarini; the upper series of figures are more in Vivarini's style than the lower.


[The last are by Qirolamo Mbcetto, — Fr.]

The great window of the choir in S. M. Novella, in Florence, by Alessandro Fiorentino (?) (perhaps Sandro Botticelli?), of the year 1491,* is only of moderate excel- lence; on the other hand, the painted glass of the adjacent 0. Strozzi may be called the best in Florence; it seems composed in harmony with the frescos of Filip' pino Lippi.. There are some good smaller pieces of work also in S. e Sptrito, in the C dei Pazzi, in S.f Croce, in S. Francesco al MoTtte, in g S. LorenaOy of a recognisable general type which seems to indicate the composition of a Florentine, and the execution of a Northerner.

Lucca possesses, perhaps, the best thing of this whole style in the beautSul windows of the choir of the Cathedral; they remind us^ most of the windows of the 0. Strozzi. The other painted glass, also of this Cathedral, is ot the best. In S. Paolino, there is some i glass in the same style, somewhere ^ about the year 1530. — In the Bap-j tistery of S, Giovanni the circular window with the figure of the Baptist, of the year 1572.

In Arezzo, the beautiful painted h glass of the Annunziata is still of the fifteenth century; but in the Cathedral we meet the most famous painter of Raphael's time, Gu^glielmo da Marcilla. He it is who adorned both the side windows of the choir of 8. M. del Popolo at Borne with I stories of Christ and Mary — in the time of Julius II., apparently after compositions of an excellent XJm- brian master. [The colouring, un- like the early fVench and German painting on glass, appears dull, cold, and watery. — ^Mr.] Later, in the

  • [The window was painted from Ghir-

landaio's designs, during the tenure of office of the preetor Alexandrini, whose office, indicated by ** i^toris" was inter- preted to be that of a painter.— Ed.]


G. da Mardlla. — P. Miccheli.


Ill


a Cathedral of Areno, he may have followed other models or his own invention ; at any rate, his style is here, on the whole, the same which characterises the Netherlanders then working in Italy. The limi- tations of this art, which has to be subordiDate to architectonic sym- metry and absence of action, not only because it must avoid dis- lu^ement with the vertical de- signs of the Gothic windows, but more in order to refrain from com- plicating its immense resources of colouring with other distracting elements, of effect; — ^these limits are here entirely forgotten, as so often in the glass painting of the


sixteenth century ; they are pic- tures transferred to glass. *

In the Cathedral of Siena, the& glass painting of the large front circular window — a Last Supper — was executed by PtisUyrvno Mic- chelif 1549, after a somewhat mannered composition not very suitable for the style by Ferin del Vaga.

in reality, the whole art found little sympathy that could bo spared from the engrossing interest given in Italy to ecclesiastical fresco and oil painting; it has, as a rule, the character of an ac- cessory of luxury.


CHAPTER VI.— PAINTING OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.


With a conscious knowlege of its own strength, and free from dependence on any existing types, — without even a tendency to imi- tate exactly any of the models of antiquity, art, at the close of the fifteenth century attained the highest level to which it was pre- destined to ascend, and rose new bom out of the study of life and character which had been the special aim and purpose of the new a^e. It rose not as a mere indica- tion or purpose, but as an accom- plished tact ; and not until art in the fifteenth century had mastered the expression of every kind of life did she, simplified and at the same time infinitely enriched by her achievement, create at last the highest form of life.

Then and there it springs forth, suddenly, like a flash of lightning, not simply the fruit of persevering endeavour, but like the gift of heaven. The time had come. Out of the thousand elements proved


to be capable of delineation, out of the wide extent of life which had. formed the domain of art from. Masaccio to SignoreUi, out of time: and nature, the great masters now gather eternal truths for imperish- able works of art. Each has his: way, so that one beauty does not- exclude another, but aUL together form a multiform revelation of the highest. The time of full bloom is mdeed but short, and even then those who failed to reach the goal ' still continued to work in their old wav ; among them some excellent and even great painters. We may say that the short lifetime of Ra- phael (1483-1520) witnessed the rise of all that was most perfect, and that immediately after him, even with the greatest who out- lived him, the decline began. But this perfect ideal was created, once for all, for the solace and admira-

  • In the central window of the fagade

of the Anima at Rome there is said to be still a Madonna of Guglielmo.


112


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


tion of all time, will live for ever, and bear the stamp of immortality.

LIONARDO DA VINCI.

LwTUirdo da Vinci (1452-1519), the pupil of Verrocchio, ensures to the Florentine school the well- deserved glory of having given birth to i& liberating genius. A wonderfully gifted nature, whether we take him as architect, sculptor, engineer, physiologist, or anato- mist, always an originator and discoverer, and withal in every other relation the perfect man, strone as a giant, beautiful even in old age, and famous as a mu- sician and an improvisatore. We cannot say that his powers were diverted into too many channels, for a many-sided activity was in his nature ; but we may lament that so few of his designs in all branches of art were carried out, and that of those few the best part has been destroyed or only exists in fragments.

As a painter, again, he combines the most opposite gifts. Perpetu- ally endeavouring to make clear to liimself the anatomical causes of all physical appearances and move- ments, he tnen turns with admi- Tably quick and sure rendering to the intellectual expression, and gives the whole scale from hea- venly purity to the depths of ab- surdity and corruption. His pen sketches, of which many are exhi- ^ bited in the Arribrosiana at Milan, give the richest proofs of this. In him are united the beautiful soul of the enthusiast with the strongest power of thought and the highest understanding of the conditions of ideal composition. He is more real than all earlier artists where the point is reality, and then again sublime and free as few have been in any century.

His earliest preserved works*

  • Tlie head of Medusa in the UflDzi is.

as I believe, not only not the youUiful


are portraits, and in those his pecuhar manner of painting can best be traced. A few words con- cerning the general style of por- trait painting at that time may be allowed us here.

We constantly observe that during the fifteenth century and through the whole lifetime of lionardo and Baphael hardly any but verjr distinguished characters were painted separately, at any rate, except at Venice, where in Giorgione*s time portrait paintine began to be a luxury consider^ suitable to the rank of aristocratic personages.

In the rest of Italy the separate pictures (not those merely intro- duced into wall paintings and church pictures) even of princes are rare. Piero della Francesea'sb double portrait, with the especially characteristic and graceful allego- rical pictures at the back, in tiie Ujffizi, No. 1300, might represent a contemporary tyrant and his wife [without doubt Federigo di Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino, and his wife Batista Sforza], the por- traits of the Milanese Bernardino de* Conti in the Gallery of thee Capitol,* and in one of the Papal dwelling rooms of the Vatican, d perhaps represent princely chil- dren ; so, too, the girl's head called P, deUa Francesca in P, Pitti, No. c 371 [more probably by Bonsignori — ^Ed.] ; the female head arbitrarily named Mantegna [but also by Bon- signori — Ed.], in the Uffizi, No./ 1121, certainly represents a lady of


work of Lionardo, described by Vasaxi^ bat not even a copy from it, rather an. attempt made only after Vasari's descrip- tion to produce something of the kino, perhaps oy one of the Carracci. [Clearly no tyro, but a ready and determined, hand, yet less suggesting to my mind the Carracci than the Milanese Lomazao. —Mr.]

  • [There are now no portraits by Ber-

nardino de' Conti in the Capitol Qalleiy. — Ed.]


Lmmrdo da Vinci — Portrait Painting. 113


high rank, according to the cata- logue, Elizabeth, wife of Guido Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua. We find more often self-painted por- traits of artists, as, for instance, in the collection of painters in the

« UJiziy those of Filippino Lippi (still erroneously called Masaccio) of PericginOf of Giov. Bellini (ano-

•ither in the CapitoUne Gallery),* and in the same place in the rooms of the Tuscan school, that of a Medallist and of [Verrocchio by] Lorenzo di Credi (to whom besides is ascribed the portrait of a youth, almost Peruginesque in expression). JPor the likenesses of prelates of rank, even the Popes, we are limited up to Kaphael's time almost entirely to monumental sculpture. The remaining portraits are almost only memorials, which were exe- cuted in honour of literary fame, of love, of near and close friendship, also of great beauty, and were often produced by the artist for the sake of preserving the memory of those qualities. For the sake of her beauty Sandi'o painted La Simo-

c netta, FiUi, No. 353 ;t as an old friend, Francia appears to have painted the fine portrait of the

^i Vangelista Scappi in the Uffizi, No. 1124.J

• [The portrait No. 287, called Perugino, is now ascertained to be the likeness of another person. The portrait called Giov. Bellini, No. 354, is quite unlike that of the Capitoline Collection.— Ed.]

t [The portrait of the Fitti is not the likeness of La Simonetta. — Ed.]

X In this connection wo may mention the woodcuts, To Distinguished Men, by Paolo Giovio, as the first great collection of i>ortraits. The originals of these, col- lected from all quarters, those of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, cer- tainly very much from frescos, were in the Palazzo Giovio at Como. There were among them (according to Vasari, Life of Plero della Francesca), lor instance, a large number of heads which Raphael had copied from the frescoes of Bmmantlno, so rich in portraits, in the Vatican chambers, before he took tiieni down to make room for Heliodorus and ttu Miracle of Bolsena ; by Raphael's bequest they came through


In manner of representation these works differ greatly. Massacio, in the Brancacci Chapel, already gives c a clever three-quarter view. Andrea del Castagno (youthful portrait in the P. Fitti) follows him to the best/ of his power ; Sandro, on the other band, only gives a profile ; excellent portraits by him, Falazzo Strozzi, Florence. The North Italians also g are divided: P. dclla Francesca gives heads in profile, with the sharpest and most exact modelling, which omits no warts or other de- tail, on a pretty landscape back- ground ; Conti also does profiles ; Mantcgim and Fraiicia (also Feru- gino) give the heads quite in a front view, and endeavour by beautiful landscapes to give them a really ideal background. In the so-called Matdcgna there is a mountain in h the last glow of Evening. The pic- ture of the Medallist is almost a three-q[uarter view (with a land- scape in the manner of Francesca) ;

Giulio Romana to Paolo Giovio. In the sixteenth century the Medici had the whole collection copied by painters sent on purpose, and these copies, which still possess a higher authority than the wood- cuts, now form a part of the great collec- tion of portraits in the Uffizi, in the pas- sage between the two galleries. [Unfor- tunately, executed by hasty workers of a poor kind, chiefly Christo/ano deW Altis- sinw.— -Mr.]

Another fine old collection, the Man- tuan, with works of the excellent Veronese painter, Fra.ncesco Bonsignori (born 1455), seems to have been dispersed after the catastrophe of Mantua, 1030. (Comp. Vasari, in the Life of il Giocoudo.) [It was sold in 1629 to Daniel Nys, who parted with it to Charles I. of England.— Ed.]

[A sort of ideal collection of painters is fomied by the twenty-eight half-lengths of wise men, poets, learned men, etc., of ancient and modem times, which, having apparently issued out of the atelier of Justus vail Gent, who was employed in Urbino in 1474, adorned the palace of Urbiuo, w^here the young Raphael copied a number of them (in his Venetian sketch- book). Half of these pictures are in the P. Barberini at Rome, in rooms very difficult of access ; the other half has come into the Louvre with the Campana collection.— Mr.]

I


114


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


^ BO also Lonmzo Costa {P. Pitti) and Giovanni Bellini, Lorenzi di Credi follows Lionardo (a fine portrait of a man by him in Palazzo Torrigiani,

^ Florence.

In conception some of these por- traits are noble masteipieces. But Lionardo surpasses tnem all in what is peculiar to himself, in the modelling, and gives to what he represents a breadth of higher life which is peculiarly his own and goes with nis ideaL He too wil- lingly uses the help of landscape, and thus gives the last touch in the portrait of the Gioconda (Louvre) to the thoroughly dreamy effect produced by tnis portrait of iJl portraits.

As he never could satisfy himself in his striving towards finished modelling, he sometimes employed colours which later on brought greenish tones into the shadows. But the lofty, intellectual grace in the head and attitude ; the beauty of the hands in the genuine pic- tures designate clearly the tmie which uses the gift of character in the noblest manner.

In my opinion Italy possesses (not counting the coloured draw- ings) but a single genuine finished picture by Lionardo — that of Isa- bella of Aragon, wife of Giov.

^ Galeazzo S/orza, near her husband, in the Ambrosiana at Milan, Nos. 152 and 153, formerly called Lu- dovico Moro and his wife. This profile picture is beyond all de- scription beautiful and charming, and of a perfection in the execution which excludes the possibility of any author but Lionardo. The picture of the Duke is unfinished and washed out. Amons the draw- ings is one of a lady with eyes cast down, in black and red chalk, es- pecially charming. [Italy also pos- sesses a picture in which Lionardo had a share, the Baptism of Christ by Verrocchio, No. 43 in the Academy

d at Florence.— Ed.]


[The Goldsmith in the P, PUH ^ (No. 207) appears to me an excellent picture from the hand of Lorenzo di Credi. The so-called Monaca of Lionardo, also there. No. 140, a lady draped in black gazing at a convent building, is decidedly too weak for Lionardo. The head of a young man looking straight for- ward, with hair brushed back, in the Uffizif No. 1157, is clearly late/" (about 1540). Lastly, as to Lion- ardo*s portrait of himself in the collection of portraits of painters, we must say boldly that, in spite of its great fame, this 'picture can- not now nor ever stand for an original work of the great Floren- tine. A man like Schidone, like Sisto Badalocchio, or a somewhat earlier imitator of Correggio, might easily have produced such a picture.— Mr.]

His remaining portraits are in foreign countries.

After these works, in which there is but the faint aroma of his ideal, those smaller works may follow in which it reveals itself without reserve. It was antici- pated in the youthful heads of Verrocchio ; but it reaches its full charm in Lionardo; the smiling mouth, the small chin, the lai^e eyes, sometimes shining with a joyousness, sometimes slightly veiled by a gentle sorrow. Con- ventional expressions appear in all the fifteenth century; but here first we have an expression which a great master gives as his highest enort. It is undeniably one-sided, and easily falls into mechanical repetition, but thoroughly fasci- nating. 'The Madonnas, Holy Families, and other compositions of which we are speaking are sometimes naive even to a genre character. But iu them begins that higher feeling for lines, that simplicity which reaches perfection iu Kaphael. There is iu him but an echo of the Florentine


Luini. — Andrea Salamo.


115


domestic character of earlier Ma- donnas. Here, again, the most remarkable works are in foreign countries ; and of those in Italy what are in the private galleries of Milan are unknown to me. [There are no more genuine paintings by Lionardo in private collections at Milan. Still, any one who has lei- sure will do well to visit the house of Duca Scotti, Duca Melzi, Don Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli, etc. By Lionardo little will be found, or nothing certain, of his school that is good and pleasing. — Mr.] Of the works now in Italy very few are re- cognised as originals : far the greater number pass either for works of his pupils after sketches and ideas of Lionardo, or as direct copies from finished works of his hand.

These pupils, whose own works are still interpenetrated with the forms and motives of Lionardo, had attached themselves to him in Milan ; amongst them we must first consider BerTiarditw Luini and Andrea Salaiiw.

d First of all, the beautiful /rcsco of the Madonna with a Donor on a gold ground is an original work, in an upper gallery of the Convent of S. Onofrio in Rome (1482); chiefly Florentine in character, so that the fellow-pupil of L. di Credi is felt. The somewhat strange bowed-down attitude of the child blessing is explained by the fact that originally it was held up by Mary in a waistband, of which the tempera colour has entirely disap- peared.*

^ [A MadoTiTva called Scuola di Lio- nardo, in the Borghese Gallery, first room, No. 65, is, in my opinion, by Giov. Pedrini. — Fr.]

" Modestia e VanitH," in the Pal. Sciarra at Home betrays, in the

  • [This fresco cannot be accepted with-

out some further evidence as certainly a work of Lionardo's. It reminds us strongly for example of Gesare 'la Sesto.— Ed.]


blended character of the modelling the hand of Luini ; to judge from the not very beautiful hands ar- ranged in parallels and right angles, the arrangement of these parts can hardly have been given by Lionar- do. The characters are infinitely beautiful.

Of the half-length of John the Baptist {Louvre), with the highly ^^ enthusiastic look, none of the copies existing in Italy give a sa- tisfactory idea, not even that in Milan.

    • Christ among the Doctors,'*

a half-length picture ; the original in England executed only hy Luini ; a good copy in the Pal. Spada at Rome. Incapable of representing the conquest of argument over argument. Painting here gave the victory to heavenly purity and beauty over stiffiaess and vulgarity. The conquered party are merely re- presented by half-length pictures, with whom the tellingly prominent chief figure hardly occupies itself. Too often, in the pictures of this subject, we have only a child in a large temple hall, lost among a crowd of men who seem as if they might show their full age in some rough way.

A Little Christ giving the Bene- diction, most probably executed by Salaino, in the Borghese Gallery, ^ first room. No. 33, appears to be a direct inspiration of the master. [Most likely by M. (T Ogionno, — Fr.]

There is a small repetition by Salaino, in the Uffizi, of the famous ^ picture of S. Anna, on whose knees sits Mary,- bending backwards to iihe children. In expression as sweet as any picture of the master, and executed also with great ten- derness, it yet shows how much the scholars were inferior to their ori- ginal in drawing and modelling.

An original work of Lionardo[??]. is the sketch-paioting in a brown tint of an Adoration of the Kings,

I 2


116


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


a in the Uffizi; somewliat crowded, part of it only the first sketch, but most significant by the contrasts of the solemn devotion of these kneel- ing in front and the passionate longing in those pressing forward. It gives great fulness of life with a severe and grand foundation.

Genuine [??] and quite corre- sponding in character to this picture is the S. Jerome, likewise painted in brown in the gallery of the Vati- can, second room, No. 1, formerly in the Fesch Gallery. The strong markings of the limbs in the fore- shortened position were clearly the problem which interested the master in this case.

[An Annunciation, lately re- moved from the Church of MmUe

hOliveto, in Florence, to the Uffizi (No. 1288), is described as a youth- ful work of Lionardo ; given by Crowe and Cav. to Eid. Ghirlan- dajo^ by MUndler decidedly to L. di Credi.]

Of the work, by which Lionardo most strongly impressed his con- temporaries, the battle at Anghiari, drawn in 1504 and 1505 (for the great hall in the Pal. Vecchio, at Florence), nothing survives but a single group in an engraving.

Lastly, before 1499, heliad al- ready completed the world-famous Last Supper, in the Refectory of the

c Convent of S. M. delU Grazie, (Best Hght about noon. ) Its ruinous con- dition, which was apparent early in the sixteenth century, is almost entirely caused by Lionardo's hav- ing painted the work in oil on the walls. (The fresco opposite, by a

^ mediocre old Milanese, Montorfano, is well preserved. ) Bad repainting, principally of the last century, did the rest.^ Under such circumstances, old copies possess a special value. They are, especially in the neigh- bourhood of Milan, very numerous ; one, for instance, in the Ambro-

csiana, a return to the elder Lom- bard style, by Araldi (p. 82 e), in


the Gallery at Parma. Of the ori-/ ginal sketches by Lionardo pre- served in various places (especially at Weimar*), the head of Christ, in the Brera, is regarded as undoubted. (/ The picture itself, even as a ruin, teaches us what cannot be learnt either from Morghen's engraving or from Bossi's copy ; apart from the general tone of light and colour, which is by no means lost, one can understand nowhere but here the true proportions in which these figures were conceived, the locality and the light, perhaps also the splendour of originality, which nothing can replace, pervading the whole.

The scene which is known in Christian art as the Last Supper, given usually as a wall picture in Befectories, contains two quite different actions, both repeatedly treated from the earliest times, s^d by great artists. The one is the institution of the Sacrament, very characteristically treated by Signorclli (p. 70 i). The other ac- tion is the **Unus Vestrum" — Christ expresses his knowledge of the betrayal. Here, a^ain, either, according to the words of Scrip- ture, the pointing out of the traitor by taking the sop to be dipped at the same time (as in Andrea djel Sarto, see below, Convent S. Salvi), or simply the grieving word of Christ may be the distinctive action. With Lionardo it is the last. Art cau hardly undertake a more diffi- cult subject than this, the effect of a word on a seated assembly. Only one light reflected twelvefold. But

would the spiritual result gain by

\ it if the twelve, passionately moved, \ left their places to form richer groups, greater dramatic contrasts ? I The chief purpose, the domination I of the principal figure which could I only sit and speak, would, in the I action of the others, be unavoid-

I * [The heads at Weimar are not yetprovecl . to be originals.— Ed]


Luini.


117


ably lost. Even the table spread for the meal, which runs across the figures like a light parapet, was of the greatest advant^e ; the essentiial part of the emotions that moved the Twelve could be represented in the upper part of the body. In the whole arrange- ment of the lines of the table and of the room, Lionardo is purposely as symmetrical as his predecessors ; he surpasses them by the higher architectonic effect of the whole divided into two groups of three, on both sides of the isolated prin- cipal figure.

But the divine element in this work is that we attain a result in which the accidental and limited in art is lost in the highest expres- sion of eternal and self-developed beauty.

A most powerful mind has here opened all his treasures before us, and united in one harmony all degrees of expression of physical form in wonderfully balanced con- trasts. The spiritual result has been finally summed up by Goethe. What a race of men is this, passing from the most sublime to the most limited, types of all mankind, first- bom sons of perfect art. And, again, from the simply picturesque side, all is new and powerful, dra- pery, foreshortenings, contrasts. If one looks at the hands alone, we feel as though painting had but just awakened to life.

BERNARDINO LUINI.

Of the Milanese pupils, Bernar- dino Luini (died after 1530) did not know Lionardo at the time of his earliest works ; in those of his middle time he most faithfully reproduced him ; in the later ones he produced independently on the foundation thus gained, so that it is evident that with perfect nalveU he had only taken from the master what was natural to him.


His taste for beautiful, e^ressive heads, for the joyousaess of youth, found full satisfaction in his mas- ter, and was most nobly developed by him ; and even his latest works give the finest proofs of this. On the other hand, nothing of the grand severe composition of the master has come down to him ; one might believe he had never seen the Last Supper (though he once imitated it), so faulty in lines and ill-arranged are most of his drama- tic compositions. His drapery, also, is often slight and careless. On the other hand, he shows occa- sionally what no teacher and no school can give— grandly felt inci- dent resulting from a most profound conception of subject.

Beyond the neighbourhood of Milan, only small single pictures by him are to be found. Besides those named (p. 115 2>), the most important is the BeJieading of John^ a in the Tribune of the Uffizi, long attributed to Lionardo, although the form of the hands, the some- what commonplace beauty of the king's daughter and her maid, the glassy, vaporous surface of the nude, clearly indicate the pupil. The executioner grinning, and yet not caricatured ; the head of the Bap- tist very noble. Thus does the golden period mark its character. In the P, Capponi, at riorence : 6 Madonna kissing the Child. In the P. Spinola (Strada Nuova), at Genoa : an excellent Madonna c with the Child giving the Benedic- tion alone with S. Stephen and S. James the Elder, by Luini, or a fellow-pupil [most probably by Andrea Salaino, — Mr.], employing the Raphaelesque motives of the

  • ' Reveil de I'Enfant " (Bridgewater

Gallery.) Other Madonnas in various places.

In Milan, the Arnbrosiaiia, the d Brera, and private collection con- tain a number of easel pictures by him. Thus the Brera has a specially


118 The Sixteenth Century — Milanese ScIiooL


finislied Madonna -with the Child sitting in front of a bower of roses.

a In the Cathedral of Como, two great tempera pictures (altars right and left), the Adoration of the Shepherdis and that of the Kings, with wondroiisly beautiful detail ; in the right side aisle, another great altar-piece, which, unfortunately, has suffered very much, and was restored in 1857. Here also are several others by him.

h Frescos: — Before all others, the Church S. Maurizio (the so-called Monastero Maggiore), at Milan, divided by a waU into a front and a back church, which were both entirely decorated by Luini and his contemporaries, partly with decorative paintings, partly with figures and nistories of saints ; the great part of Luini's own work seems to be collected on the two sides of the wall and the adjoining part. Also a whole collection of frescos, by Luini, removed into the

c Brera : the chief work is a Ma- donna enthroned, with S. Antony and S. Barbara (1521) ; in quiet devotional pictures of this kind, where the subjects protected him from unsymmetrical arrangement, his loveliness is enchanting. The remaining frescos here appear to be pretty early ; for instance, in the somewhat timid mythological and genre subjects, the naivete of which quite indicates the coming glow of the golden time, and also the pictures from the life of the Virgm and the well-known simple and beautiful composition of the Angels carrying the body of S.

dCa^erine.*

e In the Arribrosiana (side room on the ground floor to the right), a great and important fresco of the Mocking of (5hrist in presence of an adoring religious fraternity is,

  • Aurdio Luini, son of Bernardino,

shows himself here in a great firesco of the martyrdom of 8. Vicenzino, a man- nerist of the style of the Roman schooL


on account of its powerful colour and its portraits, of especial value. The frescos from the P. litta are in Paris. Finally, the two later great works, in the Pilgrimagef Churdh at Saronno (between Va- rese and Milan). The nave in the pompous early baroque style ; the Cupola decorated with a choir of angels, by Gaudenzio Ferrari^ the short drum with statues of Andrea Milanese^ the walls below painted with frescos of Lanini in the upper part, and below with frescos of Cesare da Sesto and Luini (SS. Koch and Sebastian) ; then, in the passage to the choir, the Marriage of the Virgin, and Christ among the Doctors, both by Luini, although in a different colouring and character from the rest ; then, in the choir itself, the two great frescos, the Adoration of the Kings and the Presentation in the Temple ; above in the panels and the upper part of the walls, Sibyls, Evangelists, and Fathers of the Church ; lastly, in the little offset of the choir, on the right, S. Appollonia ; on the left S. Ca- therine, each with an angel : these last-named paintings belong to the most perfect of Luini's creations.* Lastly, in S, Maria degli Angeli, g at Lugano, on the principal wall above the entrance to the choir, is the colossal fresco picture of the Passion (1529), of which the fore- ground includes the Crucifixion, with the followers of Christ, the thieves, the captains, soldiers, &c. Though marked by all the defi- ciencies of Luini, this picture is

  • Luini's paintings in Saronno are as-

cribed ^nerally to the year 1530, but they nught easily belong to different periods of the master's life. Tradition said that he had taken refuge in the sanctuary of Saronno on account of a homicide com- mitted in self-defence, and was obliged to work under conditions prescribed to him by the monks. Saronno and Luganno show what a master, full of life and power, could do, even in the terrible time after the battle of Pavia.


Marco (TOgionno — Salaino — Cesare da Sesto. 119


nevertheless one of the greatest of North Italy, and worthy of a visit, for the sake only of a single figure — that of John, who is giving his promise to the dying Christ. On aeveral piers of the church are beautiful paintings by Luini ; in a chapel to the right, the fresco lunette brought out of the Convent (which has been altered), of the Madonna with the two children, the last of perfect Lionardesque beauty. The Last Supper, lor- merly in the Eefectory of the Convent, in three divisions, quite independent of Lionardo's compo- sition, although showing a distant likeness to it, is on the church wall to the left. Any one whom these treasures have once kept for whole days in the beautiful Lugano, will perhaps also on this occasion become acquainted with the charm- ingly idyllic landscape, and wil- lingly abandon the brilliant Lake Oomo for it.

[Another masterpiece of Luini is the splendid large altar-piece in

a the principal church at Legnano (Railway Station after Sesto Ca- lende), with rich floral decoration in the setting. Milan itself pos- sesses a picture of his youth which reminds us of CiverchiOy Mourning over the body of Christ, in the

h Sdcristy of the Church of the Passion.— Mr.] [A beautiful Ecce

c Homo in S, Giorgio in Palazzo. — Fr.]—

Marco cPOgionno (Uggione) is at his best when he follows Lionardo closely, and reproduces his type with a peculiar harsh beauty — the

d Fall of Lucifer, in the Brcra ; the frescos there mostly very wild.

c Altar-piece in S. Eufemia [altar- piece in six parts. Virgin and Child and Saints, in the Casa Eovelli, at Milan.— Ed.]

Andrea Salaino (p. 115 d, e) ex- clusively devoted himself to repro-


ducing Lionardo. A lovely Ma- donna in the Villa Alhani, at/ Some. Pictures in the Brcra and Ambrosiana. Not to be confounded g with A. Solario (p. 122).

Francesco Melzi, an aristocratic dilettante, to all appearance chiefly a miniaturist. His pictures are very rare [The crand fragment of a Madonna in the Villa Melzi, B.th Vapiio, belongs, in my opinion, to Lionardo himself.— Mr.] ; so like- wise are those of Giov. Aivt, Bel- traffio. Gallery on Isola Bella, two i portraits. Gallery at Bergamo, Madonna^

Cesare da Sesto, who later passed into the school of Kaphael. His best early pictures are in private collections in Milan ; a beautiful youthful head of Christ in the Am- k brosiana. A Madonna in the Turin I Gallery (No. 71). In the Brera only one indubitably genuine pic- ture, the graceful Madonna (No. m 303) under the shade of a laurel- tree. His famous youthful work, the Baptism of Chnst in the Casa Scotti, at Milan, completely exem- plifies his characteristic almost over-sweet softness. In his later

feat picture, Adoration of the ings, in the Museum of Naples, n there is much useless and oppres- sive richness in the accessories, also many beautiful incidents quite out of place, but therewith an absence of reality and of feeling for space. [Of the same class : Christ between two Saints, in S. Prassede at Home. Better, though displaying at once imitation of Lionardo, Baphael and Michael- angelo, is the Virgin and Child with S. Boch and other Saints, a triptych in the Melzi Collection at DKuan. — ^Ed.] Cesare appears too have become later the friend and assistant of Raj)hael at Home ; a large circular picture in the Vati-p can, of 1521, shows the melancholy


120 Tlie Sixteenth Century — Milanese School.


decadence into which he fell after the death of the master.

[Girolamo Mibrandi, once a com- rade of Oesare, is known by pictures in which the style of Lionardo is mixed with something of the Ferra- rese style. Presentation in the Temple of 1519, in S. Niccolo ; same a subject in the CatJiedral of Mes- sina.— Ed.]

Gaudenzio Viiid, Principal work h in the upper church at Arona, the altar on right of choir, Madonna adoring the Child, after a composi- tion of Perugiuo, containing saints and legends, besides side and upper X^ictures of 1511. [I look on this as the work of Gaudenzio Ferrari, with whose youthful painting it harmonises, and think it possible the two names, on the whole, belong to but one and the same master. — Mr.]

Giov. Ant. de Lagaia. Principal altar of the church of the Scminario c at Ascona (Tessin), the centre pic- ture, Madonna with Saints and well-executed Donors (1519). The last especially betray a close con- nection with Luini.

Gcmdenzio Ferrari (1484 — 1549), one of the most powerful masters of the golden time, but widely dis- tracted by the opposite teachings of the old Lombard and the Pied- montese schools, of Lionardo, Pe- rugino, and Kaphael, all of whose studios he must have attended at various periods of his life. With great power and freedom he worked up their ideas afresh, while be- tween times breaks out his own original naturalism. The life-like movement and intense expression of feeling at times is of the highest order ; the colouriug often some- what motley, and only in the later frescos now and then harmonions ; the composition often overcrowded


and not beautiful ; the mechanical execution seldom thoroughly mas- tered. The most beautifid easel picture of a Bearing of the Cross, with marvellous heads, although much overcrowded, on the high altar of the church at Canobhio, d on theLagoMagg^iore (immediately under the small cupola ascribed to Bramante) ; the great Martyrdom of St. Catherine, in the Breray \ac pompous, and not pleasing, except in the principal figure ; an ex- cellent, very detailed altar-piece, from Ferrari's Peruginesque time, 1514-15, in six panels, in S. Gait- f denziOy at Novara, second altar on the left ; a very beautiful Baptism of Christ, in the right side aisle of S. Maria presso S. CelsOy at Milan ; g the Marriage of S. Catherine on the high altar of the Colhgiata at Yarallo ; ♦ two late tempera pic- ^ tures in the CatJiedral of Come, i improvisations of considerable power. [A splendid altar-piece, in six divisions. Assumption of the Virgin, in the principal church of ^ Btisto ArsiziOy near Milan. — Mr.]./ The works of Gaudenzio to be seen in galleries seldom give the highest idea of his talent ; the following are the best in the gallery at Turin, ^ which is rich in his works : St. Peter with Donor, and a Deposi- tion, which reminds us of Garofalo, who stood to the great masters in a similar relation with Ferrari. [The allegorical picture in the Scian^a Gallery at £ome, interest- ^ ing by its unskilful fanciful land- scape, does not belong to the master.— Mr.] [Cartoons in Acca- demia Albertina, Tnxm.—FT,] ^ ^^?-

Frescos : Those existing in a rich series at Yaredlo show best his^


• He came from a neighbouring village, and always called himself, with pride, a Valsesian, and between his sojourns in Milan and Rome always returned to Va- rallo. The place is not difficult to reach, either from the Lake of Orta or from Novara.


Gmtdenzio Ferrari. — Lanini.


121


whole conrse of development. The earliest, some still Lombard ia character in two churches outside

ft. the town, S. M. di Loreto and S.

h Marco : also in the Franciscan

c church, S. MaHa dAle Grazie (at the foot of the Sacro Monte), first the whole wall above the choir is filled with a Passion in a centre picture, and many single panels, essentially a very free and power- ful reproduction of a Peruginesque inspiration, in which also there is a reminiscence of Signorelli ; in the chapel, to the left, under this wall of the choir, the Presentation in the Temple and Christ among the Doctors, almost Eaphaelesque in its mode of narration, perhaps the purest thing produced by him. In the forty chapels of the Sacro Monte also, much is assigned to Ferrari ; with certainty are ascribed to him the Procession of the Three Kings, painted round the walls, much in- jured, in the chapel of that name ; also in the chapel of the Cru- cifixion, the Procession, painted round the wall, of soldiers, knights, and ladies of Jerusalem, along with about twelve blond weeping angels on the dome, a late masterpiece of very great ful- ness of expression, and most en- ergetic breadth of representation. On the other hand, the groups in teira cotta which occupy the centre of the chapel cannot possibly be Ferrari's own work, even if he undertook them in partnership with some one else. d In the Pilgrimage Church at Saronno: the Concert of Angels filling the Cupola, coarsely power- ful, m remarkable contrast with the softness of the masterpiece also

e there by Luini ; in the Brcra, frescos with the Life of the Virgin, in part containing very noble and simple-speaking motives ; a really grand ** Flagellation," imposing even in its arrangement, in S. f Maria delle Grazie, at Milan, in a


chapel of the right aisle, Ferrari's last fresco, dated 1542; some ex- cellent figures of saints in the church of the Island of S. GiulianOf g in the Lago d'Orta; other things in S. Cristofcyro, S. Paolo, at VerceJli h [Madonna with female founders, in a thickly overgrown fruit-garden, perhaps the most beautiful picture ever painted by Ferrari. There, also, colossal frescos, 1532 and 1534. — Mr.], and elsewhere.

Of Gaudenzio's followers, Per- Tiardino Lanini, during his good time, displayed real energy in forms and colours. His later work is more mannered. {Brera andi various churches in Milan.) [The best are the youthful wall-paint- j ings of a chapel in the right aisle of S. Ambrogio. A late painting, the great fresco in S. Caterina. — k Mr.] Turin Gallery; Church oil Saronno: [Church of S. Pietro-m Paolo at Borgo Sesia: a Madonna ?» enthroned between Saints, of 1539. In Novara and Vercclli, Lanini o appears in all churches, with Gau- denzio and alone. — Mr.]. Chief work, a chapel in the left aisle of the Cathedral of Novara, with scenes out of the Life of the Virgin, from the Annunciation to the Flight into Egypt, with angels on the ceiling. Lomazzo and Figino belong to the mannerists proper ; the first is valuable as a writer on art, less for his views than for import- ant facts. [As artists, both are only pleasing in their portraits. — Mr.]

A number of half-length figures, with a passive expression (Ecce Homo, Mater Dolorosa, Magdalen, S. Catherina, &c.), belong i)artly to Aurelio Luini, partly to a cer- tain Gian Pedrini, pupil of Lio- nardo [Best picture in the sacristy of S. Sejmlcro, at Milan. Another, p of 1521, in the choir of S. Marino, g at Pavia.— Fr.], partly to Andrea Solario. Their treatment varies greatly in merit ; in parts they are excellent (Pedrini's Magdalen, r


122


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


Brera), These special figures, moved by supernatural aspiration or b^ holy sorrow, begin with Perugino and the Milanese we have named, and from time to time be- come very common in art. We must compare them with those of Carlo Dolci, in order to recogDise their true merit.

[Andrea Solario (painted 1495 to 1515) deserves especial attention. Of his youthful period, when he enjoyed the teaching of G. Bellini,

«the signed picture in the Brera; No. 368, of 1495, the clear-coloured, very careful half-length figure of a Madonna, with S. Joseph and another old man in the landscape ; there, too, is the very beautiful male portrait. No. 300, formerly called C. da Sesto. [Also the St. Catherine and John Baptist, of 1499, in the Poldi-Pezzoli Collection at Milan. — Ed.] His works of the beginning of the sixteenth century show the influence of Mantegna, as the picture of the Crucifixion (1503); less so that of the "Ma- donna with the green cushion," both in the Louvre. Afterwards he appears closely related to Luini (an excellent signed picture of this kind, of the year 1515, in the pos-

^ session of hon Giacomo Poldi- Pezzolif at Milan). Unsigned pic- tures are often not recognised : thus, in the Totvn Gallery^ at

cBresoia, there is a little jewel— a monk in adoration before the Christ bearing the Cross. Less pleasing are the half-length figures of the suffering Saviour surrounded by coarse executioners, like that of the Borgkese Gallery at Borne, third

d room. No. 1. [As a portrait painter Solario was very distiDguished ; but the only accessible work of this kind in Italy is the Maximilian Sforza, of the Perego Collection, at Milan. — Ed.] An altar-piece at

^ the Certosa of Favia, is considered his last work, said to be completed


by Giulio Campi. One feels the approach of a new period, of which the broad and sketchy treatment, occasioned by the large size of the painting, is opposed to Solario's severity and conscientiousness. — Mr.]

MICHELANGELO.

MicJielangelo Biwnarroti (1475 — 1564). The appearance of Michel- angelo, a fateful event for architec- ture and sculpture, was not less so for painting. He looked on himself especially as a sculptor ; in one of his sonnets he says, on occasion of the painting of the roof of the

Sistine, essendo io non

pittore. " But for the expression of that ideal world which ne carried within himself, painting afforded materials so far more various than sculpture, that he could not do without it. At present the general experience is, that he who cannot enjoy him in sculpture, seeks him again, and finds the way to him on the side of painting.

How he constructed his forms, and what he meant by them in general, has already been suggested in treating of his sculpture. Look- ing at his painting, especial points of view have to be considered. Michelangelo did, indeed, learn his manipulation in the school of Gbir- landajo, but in his manner of con- ception he is entirely without prece- dents. It w^as against his nature to enter into any traditional feeling of devotion, any received ecclesias- tical type, the tone of feeling of any other man, or to consider him- seU as bound thereby. The accu- mulated fund of ecclesiastical art- usages of the Middle Ages does not exist for him. He creates man anew with grand physical power, which in itself appears Titanic, and produces out of these forms a fresh earthly and Olympian world. They move and have


Michelangelo — ITte Sixiine Chapel.


123


their being like a race apart from all earlier generations. What in painters of the iifteenth century is called characteristic, finds no place here, because they come forth as a complete race— a people ; but where personality is required, it is one ideally formed, asuperhuman power. The beauty of the human body and face only comes out clothed, as it were, in this expression of force ; the master wishes rather that his forms should give the highest ex- pression of life t)ian that they should be charming.

When we are no longer in pre- sence of these works, and have taken breath again, we may recog. nise what is wanting in them, and why one could not live with and under them. Whole vast spheres of existence which are capable of the highest artistic illustration re- mained closed to Michelangelo. He has left out all the most beau- tiful emotions of the soul (instead of enumerating them, we have but to suggest Eaphael) ; of all that makeslife dear to us, there comes out little in his works. Also the style of form which is his ideal, less expresses the simply sublime and beautiful in nature than the exaggeration of certain forms of it. No drawing, however grand, no expression of power, can make us forget that certain extremes of breadth of shoulder, long necks, and other such forms are arbitrary and sometimes monstrous. Cer- tainly, when in presence of his works we are always disposed to allow Michelangelo a ri^ht and law peculiar to himself, inde- pendent of the rules that govern all other art. The grandeur of his thoughts and cycles of ideas, the free creative power with which he calls into existence all conceiv- able motives of external life, make the phrase in Ariosto intelligible, "Michel piu che mortale angel divino.'*


Of his first great work, the car- toon produced in competition with lionardo for the Palazzo Vecchio, also an episode out of the war with Pisa, only faint reminiscences have descended to our times. BaccioBan- dinelli cut it in pieces out of envy.

In the flower of his age Michel- angelo undertook the painting of the roof of the Sixtine Chapel in a the Vatican (1508-1512) [the whole of which time was occupied with al- ternate periods of rest m executing it with help from assistants. — Ed.]. (Best light, 10 -12. ) The work con- sisted altogether in scenes and figures from the Old Testament, with especial reference to its promises. He divided this subject mto four parts— histories, single historical figures, ffroups reposing, and figures giving life to the architecture. The histories which require to be represented in a space given in perspective, not merely ideal, he arranged in the centre surface of the roof. We must except the four corner pictures of the chapel, painted on spherical three-sided surfaces, which represent the won- derful deliverances of the people of Israel, the history of the brazen serpent, of Goliath, of Judith, and of Esther. But wonderfully as special parts are conceived and painted, especially in the scene of Judith, still the eye has difficulty in these places in accommodating itself to such a situation for the representation of historical events. The prophets and sibyls, with the genii accompanying them, were placed in the curved pendentives; the croups of the ancestors of Christ partiy in the vaulted parts over the window,partlyin the lunettes which surrouna the windows. These parts are all composed according to an ideal feeling of space. Lastly, those figures which have been already well named *' the forces of architecture made living and per- sonal, he allowed to appear here


124


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


and there at intervals in the gene- ral plan as and when they were needed. Under the prophets and sibyls there are sturdy figures of children in natural colour, who lift the tables with inscriptions high in their hands, or bear them on their heads. On each of the side pillars of the thrones of the pro- phets and sibyls there are two naked children, always a boy and girl, in stone colour, imitating scidpture. Over the domed cavi- ties above the windows, the arch is occupied with recumbent or leaning athletic figures, in bronze- colour. The last are arranged almost symmetrically two and two, and, above all, are conceived with strict regard to architectonic efi^ect. At the last, where on both sides the colossal entablatures come near and leave space for the series of central pictures, there comes a series of nude male figures in natural colours, seated on pedestals, hold- ing, two by two, the ribbons at- tached to the medallion in bronze- colour with reliefs between them ; some also carry rich garlands of leaves and fruit. Their attitudes are most easy and natural; they support nothing, because, accord- ing to the ideal conception, there is nothing more to support, because, as a general principle, architectonic forces are not to be simply made visible, but poetically symbolised. (Caryatides or Atlantes, odc head leaning against another head, would have been, for instance, a sensu- ous representation. ) These sitting figures, considered singly, are of such beauty, that one is tempted to regard them as the favourite work of the master in this place. Biit a glance at the rest shows that they only belong to the architec- tural framework.

Iq four larger and five smaller four-cornered spaces, along the cen- tre of the roof, scenes from Genesis are depicted.


Michelangelo, first of all artists, conceived the creation not as a mere word, with the gesture of blessing, but as an action. So alone were obtained purely new motives for the special acts of crea- tion. The majestic form soars onwards in a sublime flight, at- tended by genii, who are enveloped in the same mantle ; so rapidly is the creation conceived that one aDd the same picture unites two acts of creation (the sun and moon and the plants). But the highest moment of creation, and the high- est eifort of Michelangelo, is the giving life to Adam. Supporting and supported by a crowd of those divine powers, the Almighty ap- proaches the earth, and through His own stretched-out forefinger sends into the extended forefinger of the already half -living first man the spark of His own lire. In the whole domain of art there is no other example of such an intellec- tual living expression of the super- sensual by a perfectly clear and speaking sensuous act. The form of Adam, too, is the noblest type of humanity.

All later art has felt itself swayed by this conception of God the Father, yet without being able to attain to it. Kaphael (in the first picture of the Loggie) entered the most deeply into it.

The scenes following, out of the life of the first man, appear the more powerful for the simplicity with which they represent the original state of existence. Sin and Punishment are with startling unity combined in one picture. Eve, in the Fall, shows what an eye to beauty lay at the command of the master. As a composition with a small number of figures, the In- ebriation of Noah is the very acme of what can be accomplished. The Flood (the painting with which the work apparently oegan) contrasts certainly not very happily with


Michelangelo — TIk Last Judgment.


125


the proportion of the other pictures, but is rich in the most marvelloas single incidents.

The Prophets and Sibyls, the greatest fignres of this place, de- mand a longer study. They are by no means all conceived with the lofty simplicity which comes out €0 overpoweringly in some of them. The object was to elevate twelve living forms by the expression of a higher inspiration, above time and the world into something su- perhuman. The power expressed in their figures alone did not suffice ; different expressions of ideas in action of the highest spiritual import, yet at the same time externally appreciable, were needed, . Perhaps this surpassed the powers of art. The genii which, two and two, accompany each figure, do not represent the source . and spring of Inspiration, but servants and attendants ; their part is to exalt the figure by their presence, to mark it as super- human ; they are invariably repre- sented as subordinate to it. Jere- miah consumed with grief is an in- comparable excellence; or Joel, moved while reading with the strongest inner feeling; Isaiah awakmg as from a dream ; Jonah with the expression of a powerful new-found hfe ; the Sibylla Del-

ghica, who already seems to see efore her the fulfilment of her prophecy, of all the master's crea- tions the one which expresses power and beauty in their highest union. Apart from the inner mean- ing, the drapery is always to be carefully considered : it differs from the ideal drapery of the Apostles by an intentional (Oriental) nuance. It is exceedingly beautifully hung and placed, in the most complete harmony with the position and movement, so that every fold has its reason (perhaps here and there too consciously considered). (C ertaio dull flesh tones were pecu


liar to Michelangelo, and are found again in his only easel pic- ture, of which further. )

Of the ancestors of Christ, those in the lunettes show the most masterly ease in monumental treat- ment of the most disadvantageous situation. Without any history, as most of them are, they exist only in reference to their divine descendant, and wear, therefore, the expression of calm, collected expectation. Here, too, there are some wonderfully beautiful simple family scenes. But in this respect single groups in the three triangular curved spaces are still more remark- able ; among those of the parents sitting on the ground there is more than one motive of the highest order, though the expression never comes up to deep feeling or any active emotion.

This work was due to Pope Julius III. By alternate pressure and concession, by contest and by kindness, he obtained what per- haps no one else could have done from Michelangelo. His memory deserved to be blessed by art.

Many years later — (1534 — 1541), under Pope Paul III,, Michelan-a gelo painted on the end wall of the chapel the Last Judgment.

The first question must be, whether we can in any way con- sider this a subject possible and desirable to represent. Next, whether one can accept any repre- sentation which does not captivate the imagination by a strong imme- diate impression, as, for instance, a subtle effect of light (in John MartiiVs manner) : this was here impossible, from the work being executed in fresco. Lastly, whether one possesses the physical strength to examine conscientiously all this immense picture (in parts greatly injured) according to its grouping and single motives. It must not be judged by the first, but by the \ last impression.


126


Painting of the Sixteenth Ccntunj,


The chief defect lay deep in the very nature of Michelaneelo. As he had long severed him- self from all that may be called ecclesiastical types and religions tone of feeling, — as he always made a man, whoever it was, in- variably with exaggerated physical strength, to the expression of which the nnde essentially belongs, there consequently exists for hmi no recognisable difference between the saints, the happy, and the damned. The forms of the upper groups are not more ideal, their motions not more noble, than those of the lower. In vain the eye looks for the calm Glory of angels, apostles, and saints, which in other pictures of this subject so much exalt the Judge, the principal figure, even by their mere symmetry, and in Orcagna and Fiesole create a spiritual nimbus round him by their marvellous depth of expres- sion. Kude forms, such as Michel- angelo chose them, cannot serve as exponents of such feelings. They require gesture, movement, and quite another gradation of motives. It was the last at which the master aimed. There are, indeed, in the work many and very grand poetical thoughts : of the iipper groups of angels with the instruments of mar- tyrdom, the one on the left is splendid in its rush of movement -, in the saved, who are flying up- wards, the struggle of life wrestling itself free out of death is marvel- lous; the condemned are repre- sented hovering in two groups, of which the one, driven back forcibly by fighting angels, and dragged downwards by devils, forms a grand Titanic scene, while the other con- tains that figure, the very image of utter misery, which is being dragged down as by a weight by two evil spirits clinging to it. The lowest scene on the right, where a demon with a lifted oar chases the un- happy souls out of the bark, and


they are received by the servants of neU, is, by a magnificent auda- city, translated out of the indeter- minate into a distinct sensuous event. But clearly as this poetical intention comes out on nearer con- sideration, yet the predominant idea was to produce a picture. Michelangelo revels in the Pro- methean pleasure of calling into existence all the capabilities of movement, position, foreshorten- iiig) grouping of the pure human form. The Last Judgment was the only scene which gave complete freedom for this, on account oi the' floating of the figures. From a picturesque point of view also his work is sure of undying admii*ation. It were needless to enumerate the incidents singly: no part of the whole great composition is ne- glected in this respect ; every- where one may ask for the where and how of the position and move- ment, and an answer will be ready. Although the group surrounding the Judge may excite some feeling of repulsion by the exhibition of the instruments of their martyrdom and their brutal cry for revenge : though the Judge of the world is only a figure like any other, and in truth one of the most constrained ; yet the whole work remains alone of its kind upon earth. *

The two large wall pictures in the neighbouring Cappella P(wlina, cu the Conversion of Paul and the Crucifixion of Peter, of the latest time of Michelangelo, have been disfigured by a fire, and so ill- lighted (perhaps the best in the afternoon), that one understands them better from engravings. In

♦ Of the coudition of the work before it was painted over, which was done by Daniele da Volterra, by the order of Paul IV., a copy by Marcello Venusii (or Sehas- tian del Piombo) in the Museum of Na- ples, pvee the best description, in spitd of obvious liberties tliat have been taken with it


Miclielangelo.


127


the firs the gesture of Christ ap- pearing above is overpowering in its force. Paul cast to the earth is one of the most excellent motives of the master. *

It is well known that no easel pictures exist by him, with the single exception of an early circular picture in the Tribune of the a Uffizi.f The intentional difficulty (the kneeling Mary lifts the child from the lap of Joseph, sitting be- hind him) is not quite overcome : no one ought to paint Holy Fami- lies with a feeling of this kind. The background is, as in Luca Signo- relli, peopled with figures in action without any clear connection. The little John runs by the stone para- pet with a mischievous look. h In the Buonarroti Palace at Flo- rence there are exhibited a number of drawings, among which one of a Madonna nursing the Child is espe- cially beautiful : an earlier sketch of the Judgment ; a large picture of the Holy Family, perhaps begun by Michelangelo, but which from the coarseness and incorrectness of the drawing can hardly have been € painted by himself. In the Br era 18 the picture found in Eaphael's possession (and ascribed to him in spite of the inscription in his own nand, **Michelleangelobonarota), the pen and ink drawing of the so- called Bersaglio de' Dei : here nude figures, plunging ' down from the air, drawing their bows aim with the greatest passion at a terminus.


  • Between the Michelangelo of the Six-

tine Chapel (1509) and that of the C. Pao- lina (1542>, there is so immense a deca- dence, that it is no sin against the genius of the great master, to feel the last wall- paintings unpleasant, even altogether un- enjoyabie.— Mr.

t In England there are two genuine easel pictures, in the National Gallery, the (unfinished) Madouna with the Child, and four angels, known through the Man- chester Exhibition, formerly in the pos- session of Lord Taunton, in London ; and a lately acquired deposition, also un- finished.— Mr.


protected against their arrows by a shield, whUe Cupid slumbers on one side; a splendid group of kneeling, running, and nying figures, all combined into a won- derful picture. Raphael may have found it an interesting task to have this executed in fresco by one of his pupils (reversed, apparently from an engraving ) ; at least, this is the subject of one of the three frescos which have been trans- ported from the so-caUed Villa of Raphael to the Palazzo BorgJiese at d Bome (9th room).

Other compositions of his only exist as executed by pupils. I do not know whether the picture of the Three Fates in the Palazzo PUti e (executed by Bosso Fiorentino) be- longs strictly to this category ; Midbielangelo would probably have conceived such a subject more energetically. Several examples {e.g,, Palazzo Sciarra and Palazzo/ Corsini at Bome) are preserved of a Holy Family of peculiarly solemn intention ; Mary, sitting on a kind of throne, lays aside her book and gazes at the child fast asleep lyinj; grandly upon her knee ; from behind look on, listening, Joseph and the little John. In the sacristy of the Vatican, an Annunciation, executed g by . Marcello Venusti; Christ on the Mount of Olives, divided, not very happily, into two incidents among others in the Palazzo Doria h at Bome. Of the Pietd. and the Crucifixion I can mention no ex- ample in Italian collections, nor of any of the mythological composi- tions, Ganymede, Leda, Venus kissed by Love, — of the latter a repetition in the I^aples Museumi by Angclo Bromino ;* there also is the very beautiful original car-


• Of the painted portraits of M. An- gelo, the one in the Capitoline Gallery (accon^ing to Platner by Marcello Venustt) IS certainly the best. That in the Ufflzl seems to be certainly a work of the 17th century.


128 Painting of t/te Sixteenth Century.


toon. A liigher yalae naturally attaches to sach pictnies as Mi- chelangelo had executed under his own supervision, principally by


example was in painting also most dangerous. No one would have dared to resolve what he did and carried through with lus gigantic


S.delPiombo. The most important , power, but every one ^pished to of these, the raising of Lazarus, is ; produce such effects as his. After

a in London ; next comes the Scourg- I his death, all principle in all the ing of Christ, in S. Pictro in Mon- \ different arts was overthrown ;

b torio, at Borne (left chapel to the | eveiyone strove to reach the abso- right, painted in oils on the wall) : i lute, because they did not under- here the painful subject is grandly { that what in him appeared uncon- given : the moving executioners | trolled, in fact, took shape from his bring out the suffering principal [ inmost personality, figure into wonderful relief. The i surrounding paintings are said to I

have been also executed from | ^^^ BARTOLOMMEO.

Michelangdo's sketdica (A ^ \ Florentine painting has not yet smaU repetition in the P«/ar^o^or. | cached its highest bloom in lio-

c.^Ae«c, 3rd room. No. 48.) Lastly, j nardo and MicheUngdo. The 18 the Descent from the Cross, by , manifold impulses of life which ^mele daVolten-a in the TrtnUa ■ ^^ fifteenth century awakened

d de MoiUi (Ist chapel on the left) , g^^^ formed in these sacred homes It IS impossible not to suppose that I ^^ ^ attain a perfection in two Michelangelo design^ the best ^^^ g^^^ masters, which is spe- thmgs m It, since aU the remaining , ^^ j^ j^ j^^^, and is quite inde- works of Daniele (with the single pendent of the two first, exception of the Massacre of the ^he one is Fra Badolonunco

e Innocents m the Tr^um^ of the (properly Baccio delta Porta, 147a- ^:^20 are immensely ipfenor to ^bll), originaUy a pupQ of Cosimo this. The sinkmg down of the body, KosseUi; he owed to Lionardo his round which the people standing deliverance from the chains of the on ladders form as it were an fifteenth century; his positive* aureole, IS too wonderfully beauti- qualities are his own. He was the ful, and their movements are too ^^ ^vaX^r capable of fully con- excellenily thought out and ar. ^^ ^^^ ^ arousing the

ranged, for us not to beheve this is ^^^ fugling which springs out of Michelangelo s own. The lower ^he harmonious union of grand group also round the famting characters, pure, imposing drape- Madonna is excellent, but already ^es, and grouping, not simply sym- sets the pathological interest m the metrical, but arranged in architec- place of the purely tragic. Ihe

whole picture much injured and • The two wonderfully beautiful little restored. easel pictures in ttie Utfizi (Adoration of

Michelangelo had, properly tlie Child and Presentation in jthe Temple) -..^^i,;.,^ JtL «^i.^^i . Va Z-u^^^n^^A Jire regarded as early works, of the time speaking, no school ; he executed ^^rethe master had entered the convent

his frescos without assistance. of S. Marco (therefore before l.iOOX Re- Those who (chiefly in his latest peated study of the pictures makes one time) in some degree attached lessandlessable to agree with this assumed buucy xu •'"*"^. ««5'^^ ^^ tiate. [Yet these littie pictures are alto-

tnemseives to nim we shall meet gether in the style of Fra Bartolommeo.— again among the mannerists. His Kd. ] The certain series of the works of the

Frate then Iwgins (exclusive of the Last • [*• Without assistance." This is one of Judgment in S. M. Nuova of 14SS— i>0) with the marvellous statements which modem ! the Matlonna di S. i3ern;mlo, of loOti— 7, in research has proved to be false. —Ed-] . the Academy.


li'a Bartolotnmeo.


129


tonically built-up compositions. His personal feeling has not always been strong enouch fully to give life to this great framework ; and in this he is inferior to Lionardo, who always gives beauty, life, and character combined. Also he v^ould not have been equal to dramatic compositions. But what is wanted, in the stricter sense, for an altar-piece has been repre- sented by no one with more perfect sublimity.

The freedom and grandeur of his conception of character can be best studied in detail in a number of beads of Saints in fresco in the

a. Academy at Florence; in addition to which is a splendid Ecce Homo

/>in the P. Fitii. Though not pos- sessing Lionardo's endless energy, they are yet pictures of human beings grandly conceived, some- times with a truly heavenly ex- pression. Two circular fresco pic-

<j tures, also in the Florence Academy , Madonnas, are remarkable as pro- blems in lines ; obviously his chief sfcudy was how to arrange the four hands and the two feet beautifully. For the expression of individual faces, his Descent from the Cross,

€l Fal, Fitii, is his masterpiece. What effect there is in the two profiles of the nobly formed Christ ^nd the all-forgetting Mother, who impresses the last kiss on his brow ! With what unerring dramatic cer- tainty is the grief of John marked by the additional element of physi- cal straining ! No lamenting out of the picture, as in Van Dyck, no intentional heaping up of the im- pression by crowding the figures, as in Perugino.

His remaining pictures are al- most entirely grand constructions, severely symmetrical on the whole, yet very beautiful and graceful in detail When the characters are produced from his own inner feel- ing, they are all works of the first rank.


Unhappily, the only lar^e scene of this kind, the fresco of a Last Judgment, in S. M. Nuova, in ac partition of the court left of the church, is nearly effaced. [Raised from the wall and removed to a safe place inside the convent in 1871.] Yet one can recognise in the beautiful upper half -circle of Saints, with a slight perspective direction towards the back, the same inspiration by which Raphael produced the fresco of S. Severo, in Peruffia, and the upper group of the Disputa (1508). Originally finished in the year 1499, this most interesting piece is valuable, as being the first work of Italian painting in which the Glory unites aU the solemn dignity of the most earnest creations of the Gothic style at its highest and sublimest point with the feeling for perspective belonging to the fifteentn century.

Of nis altar pictures, the one in the Cathedral of Lucca (furthest/ chapel to the left), a Madonna with two Saints, of the year 1509, is especially beautiful, and full of feeling. On the other hand, there is the grand late Madonna ^della^ Misericordia, in S. Rmnano, at Lncca, of ] 515, on the left, excellent in special parts, but as a whole less simple. Also, on the first altar to the left, the grand figure of Ood the h PaiheTy solemnly floating, adored by S. M. Magdalen and Catherine of Siena (1509), figures of the highest female beauty, standing out most effectively against the low horizon of the landscape in the clear tone of the air. A fine Madonna in fresco, framed as an altar-piece, in 8, i D(ymenico, at Fistoia. In S, Marco, at Florence (second altar on thei right), also an early, very large picture, which shows Fra Barto- lommeo's style of composition al- most in perfection ; the Madonna, noble and easy in position; the two kneeling women in profile, are types of symmetrical ligures^


130


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


never to be surpassed ; the angels still in the style of the fifteenth century, employed in holding up the curtain, but showing already the higher style of the sixteenth century; the colour, when it re- mains, is of a deep gold tone. In

a the convent adjoining is the simple beautiful lunette, above the back entrance to the Kefectory, Christ with the two travellers to Emmaus, in whom he made portraits of two members of the Order. [Now in the convent, having been sawn from the wall. — Ed.] In the chapel of

^tbe Gfiovanato there, a half-length of the Virgin; in the dormitory,

c five busts. In the Academy, the Madonna appearing to S. Bernard (of 1506-7), nas something hard in the heads ; here the group of angels round the Madomia is composed with the usual severe synunetry, but very beautifully placed in pro- file or three-quarter view, while at the same time their floating is ex-

Sressed with as much lightness as ignity : to be convinc^ of this one has but to compare this with the painters of ansels inunediately succeeding in the fifteenth century. The most perfect thing which Barto- lonmieo ever produced is, perhaps, the Risen Christ with four Saints d ( F. Pitti) ; the gesture of benedic- tion could hard^ be more grandly or solemnly represented ; the Saints are sublime figures ; the two chil- dren, supporting a round mirror, with the picture of the world (as a landscape), complete in the loveliest way this simple and severe com- position. There also is a large rich altar-piece out of S. Marco (where is now a copy), of 1512, somewhat commonplace in the character, and much dai'kened by the brown painting over in the shadows, but a marvel of composi- tion ; the angels supporting the canopy correspond very exactly to the semicircular group below (com- \^ve Raphael's Bisputa). In the


Uffizi there is a very small, circular e picture, No. 1152, the Saviour sup- ported in the air, floating upon two anffels and a cherub, very re- markable as construction ; but still more so is the large brown under- painting of the picture of St. Anna, the Vir^ and many Saints, hap- pilj quite finished in the under- pamting, and also in the thoroughly beautiful and striking characters, so that the perfect architectonic idea is not only everywhere clearly set forth in a lively manner, but also filled with the noblest indivi- dual life.

Of single figures, the colossal St. Mark (P. i^i) is the most im-f portant. But here the Erate fiUls into the same perversion which we find in Michelangelo ; he creates an immense subject for merely artistic reasons ; in the head, also, there is something falsely superhuman; but the draperv, which was really the principal object, is a marvel- lous work. The two Prophets in the Tribune of the Uffid have also gr something not quite simple; the two standing Apostles, in the Qairinal at Itome, which Raphael * h finished, I have not seen since the preparations for the last conclave, m 1846, and then only hastily. The figure of S. Yincenzo Ferre- rius, in iAiiQ Academy, Quadri Grandi, % No. 69, is a most splendid picture, which combines character, expres- sion of the moment, and Titian- esque power of colour ; the room of sketches likewise contains excellent single figures by the Frate.

In the Museum of Naples is the/ great Assumption of the Virgin^ painted from his sketches, and partly executed by himself ; the great Madonna enthroned with seven Saints in the Academy at Florence, Quadri Grandi, No. 65, is only the work of pupils. So the k PUtd, Qu. Gr. No. 74, by the feeble I

I * This la doubted by Crowe and Cav.


Andrea del Sarto.


131


PlatUilla Nell% after Fra Bartolom- meo's composition.

Of his pupils, only Mariotto Al- bertinellij 1474-1516, is important. Perha^ before he knew the Frate, lie painted the beautiful circular

a picture in the Pal. PiUi, the Ma- donna adoring the Child, while an ansel holds out a cross to it. Then follows under the early influence of the Frate the altar fresco of Christ ^ crucified in the chapter-house of the Certosa; lastly, the Visitation in <Jthe Uffixi, with only two figures, composed with real f eding for har- mony, of his best time, and the Madonna enthroned with two kneel- ing and two standing Saints in the

^ Academy — works of which only the greatest master could be capable. In the remaining pictures of the same collection he enters with com- plete earnestness into the manner of construction of his master ; with the greatest success in the "Tri- nity ; " more stiO v, but in part with the most beautiful and noble ex- pression, in the laige Annunciation

<5 (1510). In the TuHn GaXUry, No. 584, the circular picture of a Holy Family [according to Qit. and C. by Bugwrdini under the influence of Mariotto.] A number of pictures of 1510-1512 are the joint work of Fra Bartolommeo, Mariotto [and others], which generally, besides the date, bear the sien of two rings joined with a littte cross ; in the

/ Siena Academy ^ Quad. Diversi, No.

.7 91, Sciarra Qallery^ r. 4, No. 1;

li'^Borghese Gallery, 2, No. 31; Pal.

\ Corsini; Madonna with two Saints

J of 1512, in S. Caterina at Pisa; others also at Florence and elsewhere. — Mr.]

The nun PlavMlla Nelli is only interesting when the forms of the Frate (whose drawings she in- herited) are clearly visible in her pictures. The good Fra Paolino da Pistoja usuafly falls into the weak Peruginesque style (Madonna

Jtdella Cintola in the Florentine


Academy; Christ Crucified, with Saints, in the cloister of iS^. Spirito I at Siena). [This last is after a draw- ing of the master, but weakly ex- ecuted, conventional, and without feeling; only endurable for its pleasant colouring. — Mr.]

ANDREA DEL SARTO AND HIS CONTEMPORARIES IN FLORENCE.

AloDg with Fra Bartolommeo, An- drea del Sarto (1487-1531) asserts a greatness of his own. A wonderful mind, though partial in its gifts, and one of the createst discoverers in the domain oi technical art.

He is on the whole deficient in what we may call souL His im- pulses are essentially artistic in their nature; he works out pro- blems; hence his indifference to the higher beauty of expression, the constant adoption of a particu- lar type, which makes his Madon- nas and his angels so recognizable, and is even felt in the character of his heads, in the speciid form of the skull, of the eyes, of the chin. Where this suits the subject, its effect is sublime; for instance, he gives to the young John the Baptist m {PitH, No. 265) the severe pas- sionate beauty which is essential to this figure ; sometimes he adopts a high sensuous loveliness, as for instimce is exemplified in the ansel accompanying Gabriel in one of uie n three Annunciations in P. PUti, No. 97 (unhappily much painted over) ; also there are some Putti by him which are inferior to none of Cor- reggio's in beauty and naivete, as e. g, in the splendid Madonna with S. Francis and S. John the Evance- Ust, of 1517, in the Tribum of the o Uffizi; they cling to the feet of the Madonna while the merrv Christ > child climbs up to her necK.

Andrea is certainly iJso the greatest colourist produced by the country south of the Apennines in the sixteenth century. As he did

K 2


132


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


not work on a method already formed in a school, but had each time to make out his principles afresh by his own effort, and his conscientiousness not seldom failed, his works are very unequal in colour- ing ; thus, along with the wonderful picture in the Tribune mentioned above, with the gold tone of colour,

« the laj*ge Holy Family in the Pa- lazzo Pittif No. 81, the two simple and beautiful portraits in which light and colour and character are

& so fully harmonised ; * {P. Pittiy Uffisd), [The most beautiful cer- tainly is his own portrait. No. 1147, in the Uffizi, painted in a masterly manner, with liquid medium as in distemper on fine canvas ; No. 66, in the Pitti, is a repetition not quite equal to this, heavy in tone and somewhat mistreated, but still charming. — Mr.] ; we find, besides these, some paintings very motley in colour, and yet dull. Never- theless Andrea, first of all the Florentines, has attained a certain harmonious scale, a deep, often lu- minous transparency of colours; he also first allowed to colour a co- determining influence in the com- position of the picture. Not for nothing do his draperies fall in folds so effective in their breadth. One must confess that they are enchantingly beautiful in cast and contour, and seem unconsciously to give us the complete impression of the living figures.

But in the essential points his composition is as severely architec- tonic as that of Fra Bartolommeo, to whom he clearly owed his best qualities. Here too there is real symmetry concealed under con- trasts. But, as he had not the feeling of the Frate, the framework

  • Which of them represents himself,

we leave undecided. That with the lady (P. Pitti. No. 118) is very stiflf for the com- I>aratively late period. The had drawing in the hand, and the lifelessness of the head of the lady, make one\loubt


sometimes remains unfilled. How far inferior to that of Fra Barto- lommeo is his beautifully painted Descent from the Cross, P. Pittiy c No. 58, 1524. The motives, classi- cal in lines and colours, are al- most nothing as to expression of mind — wealth without purpose. Also in the beautiful Madonna with the four Saints, 307, of the same year ; the unsatisfying cha- racters contrast with the solemnity of the whole. Of the pictures in the P. Pitti the Disputa della Tri- d nit^ No. 172, shows the most intellectual life ; it is a Santa Con- versazione, more serious and con- nected than most of the Venetians, and is likewise a grand picture of the first rank. The two large As- sumptions are both late, resemble each other greatly, and have much that is conventional, but also great beauties (No. 191, left unfinished, and No. 225). This want of feeling often strikes us, especially in the Holy Families, along with the great artistic merits ; sometimes it seems as though the two mothers and the two chudren had no near relation to each other. Of these, besides the Florentine collections, the P. ^ Borgheae at Bome possesses several ; also a beautiful and genuine pic- ture in S. Oiacomo dcgli Spa^u/olif at Naples, right of the chief door ; one in Turin. [Of the pictures in g the Palazzo Borghcse I consider only one, third room. No. 28, as genuine. ^ Among the Holy Families, No. 81, in the P. Pitti, is refined and power- i ful. A genuine replica of it in P. Brignole Sale in Oenoa.^Mr.] j

As a historical narrator Andrea has produced immortal works. The frescos in the entrance-court of the Annunziata exhibit indeed partly^ the same, almost too severely archi- tectonic symmetry; in the three first pictures to the left, subjects from the legend of S. Filippo Benizzi, finished before 1510, tne group is formed in rows, mounting


Andrea del Sarto.


133


to a pyramid; there is Dever any sufficient expression of a truly dra- matic grand action ; in the Ado- ration of the Kings (last picture oh the right), the chief group will be found stiff. Nevertheless these paintings exhibit the most charm- ing variety of new motives of life ; the painter gives us the true en- joyment of seeing simple expres- sions of life very pure and perfect in form, noble in proportions, and beautifully arranged without any feeling of crowding. In consider- ing details a number of the figures of the first, second, and fifth picture impress themselves indelibly; in spite of all injury, we recognise in the last named (Clothing of the Leper), in the form of S. Filippo, one of the highest creations of the golden time. The Birth of the Virgin (last picture but one on the right) is the latest conception of this subject in which it seems to bloom out into pure beauty ; even Domenico Ghirlandajo seems nar- row and harsh by the side of this wonderful richness. £xcept the pictures of the elder masters {Ales- sio Baldovinetti^s Birth of Christ, last picture on the left, and Cosimo SmaelWs Investiture of S. Filippo, the last but one on the left), the pupils of Andrea Lionardo have here given us the very best. Next to him is Frandabigio in the Mar- riage of the Virgin (injured by the weU-known blow with|a hammer) — a work inspired by careful and in- dustrious study of good models. In the Visitation by PorUormo, which is by far his greatest work, the ideal of Andrea and Bartolom- meo is elevated by the highest ex- penditure of power into a new whole. Only the Assumption of the Virgin by JRosso certainly shows the style of Andrea run wild.

Besides this, in his later time (1516-27), Andrea produced the only Last Supper which can be even distantly compared with Lionardo


— ^the large, in part beautifully pre- served, in part much-defaced fresco in the Kef ectory of the former Gon- a vent of ^S'. Salvi, at Plorence. (Ten minutes from the Porta della Croce, on the left from the road.) The moment chosen is when Christ takes the piece of bread to dip it into the dish, while Judas, alone of them all, has already a piece of bread in his hand. The characters are noble, and strongly marked with life, but far removed from the sublimity of those of Lionardo. which, each in its kind, represent a complete range of expression car- ried to the highest conceivable point. Andrea also, for the sake of the certainly extraordinarily powerful picturesque effect, gives his personages very various, some- times far from ideal, draperies ; a variety of which the eye can feel the beautiful result long before it is aware of the cause of it. Here, as with Lionardo, the play of thehands. which alone express the various feelings, is indescribably living, how Christ soothes the questioning John, how Peter laments, how Judas is closely pressed. (Best light, afternoon.) Frandabigio in this subject (Last Supper), in the Refectory of S, Giovanni della h Calza, in Florence, has not nearly equalled del Sarto.

The Madonna del Sacco also, in a lunette of the cloister of thee Annumiata^ 1525, gives the highest point of Andrea's colouring and rendering in Fresco, except his Last Supper.

Lastly, there is a series of monochrome frescos in brown, by his hand, in the little court of the fraternity dello Scaho (nearcf S. Marco : it is only shown by one of the Cnstodi of the Academy, who must accompany the visitor thither). The subject is the life of the Baptist. With the excep- tion of two early ones, and two executed by Fratmabigio, the


134


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


whole of these oompositions are, in spite of their plainness, among the most powerful and freest crea- tions of the mature time of Andrea. The stii&y architectonic character of the earlier frescos in the An- nunziata is here lost siffht of in pure spirit and life. Tne condi- tions of monochrome, which ex- cluded all more delicate working of his faces, all charm of colour, appear to have stirred up the master to do his very best. Among the earlv ones, the Baptism of the People by John is a higher (indeed the highest) conceivable grade of the weU-known fresco of Masaccio ; among the later ones, the Visita- tion, the Beheading, and the Bring- ing in the Head are the best; among the allegorical figures, the Garita9, which far surpasses the picture in the Louvre. [It is re- markable that Andrea here adopted several figures from A. Durer's engravings in his compositions, as the Pharisee listening to the Preach- ing of John, a woman seated in the Baptizing of the People, and others.] On this inspiration is also painted the spirited little PredeUa, with the histories of four

^Saints, in the Academy (where there is nothing else remarkable by Andrea except the picture of the four Saints). The two Stories

^ of Joseph (P. PiUi) give no idea of his capacity.

Beyond the limits of Florence, the Cathedral of Pisa, in the choir,

^contains a number of splendidly painted single figures of Saints of 1524.

Of his pupils and followers, the best have already been named. By Frandabigio (1482—1625) there are some pieces (long narrow pictures), with little ngoxeB, in c^the Uffizi and the PiUi; a good portrait of a man in a hat (1517) cin the Fal. Capponi.* Fontormo

  • Apparently a portrait of himself ; also a

veiy beautiful portrait of 1514, in P. Pitti,


(FtuttormOf 1494—1557) is only

ftrized for his likenesses (P. FiUi:f ppolito Medici; V^izi^ the elder (^ Cosimo, in profile, admirably recon- structed upon a fifteenth century portrait). Of his other works the earliest are the best, at least in the colouring (Vffixi: Leda with the A four Children in a landscape ; Cap- % pella de* Fittori at the Annwvziata; fresco of a Madonna with Saints, still quite in the manner of the master; Pinacoteca at Bologna :y Madonna with the Child, standing behind a bench). * The later works appear mannered, through the in- troduction of forms only for the sake of their real or supposed beauty. S, FelicUdf in Florence (firsts chapel on the right): Descent from the Cross ; F. Fitti^ the I Forty Martyrs, with histories (Uffizi), (very scattered). Domenieo m Fidigo was misled by the effects of colour and light of Andrea ; his forms became, on this account, un- decided, his drawing faint. Fal. Fitti: a holy family; a Madonna re nursins. Fal. Corsini, in Florence: o several paintings. As one of the earliest portrait-painters by pro- fession, he might, perhaps, lay claim to more than one likeness which now passes as the work of his master. Angela Bronzino^ 1502 — 1572, pupil of Pontormo, must, as an historical painter, be placed among the mannerists. But, as a portrait painter, he is inferior to none of his contemporaries, not even the Venetians, far as they surpass him in colouring, which in him is always somewhat chidky. In his manner, Fal. Doria^ B.tp Borne: excellent portrait of Gia- nettino Doria ; Naples Museum : q the two Geometricians ; also, cer- tainly by him, P. FiUi, No. 434^ r the Engineer, grand, after the

No. 48, with a pleasing calmness of expres- sion, and a look ftill of feeling.— Mr.

  • The latter must belong to Giuliano


Rossi — Ghirlandc^o — Ridolfo — Qarbo — Sogliani. 135


manner of a Sebastian del Piombo ;

a Uffizi ; the young Sculptor ; a Lady in a red dress ; a Youth with a letter; a red-bearded Man in a porch ; all painted as if for the sake of giving their special character- istic : the Lady with a Child, on

6 the other hand, a mere portrait, perhaps of a Medici.* Pal. Cor- sini : several portraits. Pal, del

e CommunCf at Frato : Medici por- traits, of the school of Bronzino. Similar inferior ones, with later ones, in the passage which leads from

d the Uffizi to the FotUc Vecchio.

Basso de* Rossi {Rosso Fioren- tinOf died 1541, in France) ; also a follower of Andrea. He very early shows the way which the deca- dence would take. The forms of Andrea are made by him alluring, even to sensuality, in order to give overpowering effect to the compo- sition only by great masses of

e light and colour. Fal. FiUi : large Madonna with Saints. S. Lorenzo,

/'second altar on the right: Mar-

ff riage of Virgin. S. Spirito, on an altar, left : Madonna enthroned with Saints (copy).

Some other masters of the earlier Florentine schools still continue to paint at this time. Ridolfo Ghir- landajoj the son of Domenico, and later pupil of the Frate, has, in two

h pictures in the Uffizi (S. Zenobius, resuscitating a dead boy, and the Burial of S. Zenobius), either given proof of a great talent, or made a very lucky hit. Movement, group- ing, heads, and colour are quite equal to the golden time; never- theless some negligences in the drapery betray, by the want of seriousness, the future manner- ist : an excellent, true, though harsh

i female portrait, in the Fal. FiUi (1509), shows what he could do in execution if he chose, f The

  • Probably by his nephew, AUatanAro

Allori.—'M.T.

t In this and the following year the example of Raphael, with whom he was


frescos in the Sala de Gigli of the/ Falazzo Vecchio (Patron Saints and Heroes) already appear to be the production of an exhausted fancy, which throws itself back on the fifteenth century. Other things are pure mannerism. Thus, a Madonna del Popolo, painted by Bidolfo and his uncle Dam'de, ia k S. Felice, [His most beautiful work known to me in Italy, over the entrance of the Cathedral &tl Frato: the Madonna floating above her grave, filled with roses, reaches her girdle to S. Thomas ; at the side are Angels and Saints. — Mr.]

By Michele di Ridolfo, among others, is the picture of the Thou- sand Martyrs, in the Academy; m, simply a careful study of the nude.

By RjaffoAlino del Garbo, a scholar of Filippino somewhat be- hind the time, who later strove in vain to acquire the great style, there is a Kssurrection (Academy), his only early picture 9& of importance; in the Sacristy of S. Lorervzo, a Birth of Christ. Ino the Cappella. Carafa, in the Minerva, p at Some, begun by his master, he painted the roof, now much in- jured. [We refer the reader to C. and C. 's critical investigation of the relation of the various Raphaeh of FloreTice. To Raffa>elino del Oarho certainly belongs the Ma- donna between Saints, of 1505, on the second altar on the left, in the left transept of S, Spirito, at Flo-^ renoe. — Mr.]

Giovanni Anioiiio Sogliani, a pupil of Credi, has, in his most beautiful picture, on an altar on the left in S. Lorenao, representing r the Apostles awaiting martyrdom, nearly equalled his master and almost even Andrea del Sarto. The Predella also, by th e very rarely seen painter Bacchiaxxa,, is a thought- ful work. In the Academy, be-»

in friendly relations at Florence, exercised the most beneficial influence on Bidolfo. — Mr.


136


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


sides inferior pictures, there is a Madonna enthroned, with Tobias, his An^el, and S. Augustine, also

a much like Credi ; in the Uffizij a Madonna in a landscape, merely well painted ; in the sacristy of

h8. JacopOj a Trinity with Saints, which are good, and in p»art quite noble. [A beautiful picture of

c8. Catherine in the Torrigiani Gallery , at Florence. — Mr.]

Oiuliano Bugiardini, an artist who succumbed to very various in- fluences, follows D. Ghirlandajo in

d the Birth of Christ {Sacristy of S, (*roce), and afterwards approaches Lionardo in his treatment ; a Ma-

f donna nursiuff, in the Ujizij No. 213 ; one of his best pictures ; a large Madonna enthroned, with 8. Catherine and S. Antony of Padua,

/in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. At last Michelangelo overset his imagination. The well-known

^Martyrdom of S. Catherine, in 8, M. Novella (Cap. Ruccellai, near the Cimabue), is really the mart^- dom of the conscientious artist hmi- self, and an instructive memorial of the fermentation into which certain minds were .thrown by the master of the Last Judgment. We may conceive the whole misery of hunt- ing for motives. [Still Fra Bartol- lonmieo is to be mentioned as his principal model, for whom, accord- ing to Vasari, he used to complete pictures begun by himself ; among

h others, the Pietft, in the PitH, No. 64. His unsigned pictures often bear tiner-sounding names ; as the Madonna del Pozzo, ascribed to Ka-

i phaeL in the Tribune of the UJizi, undoubtedly his work* ; so, also, the circular picture of the Holy Family with the Baptist, No. 1224, caUed Kidolfo Ghirlandajo. Further : John the Baptist, in the right side

J aisle of S. M. delle Qrazie, at Milan; two pictures in the B&r^

  • [The Madonna del Pozzo is clearly by

Francia Bigio, to whom Vasari assigns it. —Ed.]


gheae Gallery^ at Rome, second >& room, Nos. 40 and 43 ; in Turin, the I great Annunciation, No. 588, and a Holy Family, No. 684.— Mr.]


RAPHAEL

It misht seem almost superfluous to speak here of KaphaeL He always gives so much that is ever- lasting ; unasked, he spreads his beauties before us with such direct- ness that every one who sees his pictures can find his way without a guide, and can carry away a lasting impression. The following suggestions are but intended to clear up the sometimes hidden reasons of this impression.

What is usually called fortunate in Raphael's life (1483-1520) was so only on account of his special cha- racter, and because his nature was so thoroughly strong and healthy. Others might have been wrecked in like circumstances. Soon after his father's death (Giovanni Santi, died 1494), he entered the school of Perugino, and worked under him till 1504. Thus his youth was sur- rounded only bv pictures of exag- gerated expression of feeling, and of almost mathematical symmetry. The school might be considered as behindhand, and very undeveloped^ as to any questions of variety of drawing and composition, of the study of the whole human form; and even the expression was then passing in the Maestro Perugino into a mechanical repetition of what was considered as tender and beau- tiful It seems as if Baphael had not noticed it. With the most wonderfully childlike . faith he enters into Perucino's (then only fictitious) mode of feeling, and en- livens and varies the decaying life. When he paints as assistant m the pictures of the master, one seems to recognise the characteristics oi


Maphael — Florentine Period.


137


Perugino's own best youthful time,* as he ought always to have painted ; so, also, is it with Raphael's own earlier works. In the Coronation

a of the Virgin ( Vatican Gallery) we see, for the lirst time, what Peru- eino's style could reach ; how dif- lerent, how far superior to his master is Raphael in the whole result, in the divine purity with which he expresses tender devo- tion, beautiful youth, and inspired old age, besides that he is al- ready far more refined in drawing and drapery. The little Predella

h pictures of this altar-piece in another hall of the same gallery already show a freedom in forms and man- ner of narration almost Florentine. Also, in the Sposalisdo (Milan,

c Brera)f with the date 1504, Raphael goes far beyond the composition of his school : the most perfect sym- metry is picturesquely relieved by the most beautiful contrasts ; the incidents of the Ceremony and those of the action (in the suitors breaking their rods), the lively group, and the serious lofty archi- tectural background, with which other Peruginesques, as, for in- stance, Pinturicchio, play so child- ishly, produce together an almost purely harmonious whole. The expression of the heads will, per- haps, be found less sweet than in many of the engravings. The little Madonna Connestabile, now

ditk possession of the Emperor of

  • This is seen esjpecially in Raphael's

Bhare in the Adoration of the New-born Child, in the Vatican Gallery (4th room. No. 26, II Presepe delle Spinetta). For the head of Joseph is altogether regarded as his work ; the heads of the angels and of the Madonna are certainlv either by him or by Lo Spagna. [The whole work is by Spagna.— EcL] In the Resurrection, also to be found there (IV. 24), the sleep- ing youth on the right must at least be ascribed to him. [In the Sacristy of S. Fietro at Perugia, the John kissing the Child Christ is a copy after Peruglno's large altar-piece in Marseilles, of 1512 — 17, therefore not by Raphael.— Crowe and CavalcaseUe.]


Kussia, one of the greatest jewels of painting of miniature size, is better conceived, in a circular shape, and more beautiful and easy in attitude than any similar picture of the school ; in the perfect charm of the two figures, and the en- chanting spring landscape with the snowy hills, one forgets to com- pare. * One may say that Baphael, when towards the end of 1504 he abandoned this school, had not only entirely adopted all the good sides of it, but in general expressed its especial character far more purely and loftily in his works than any of his contemporaries ia the school.


FLORENTINE PERIOD.

He betook himself to Florence, which just then was the gathering- place for the greatest artists of Italy. Michelangelo and Lionardo» for instance, were there, producing in their (lost) cartoons the greatest wonders of historical composition : it was a great moment of fermenta- tion in art. Any one wishing to understand it should look into the left transept of S, Spirito in Flo-e rence, on the second altar to the left, for the pictiure with the date 1505, which is now commonly as- cribed to Ingegno [Rafaellino del Garbo, see p. 135 q]; in the Ma- donna with Saints our eyes are mocked by four or five painters of different schools.

Baphad did not allow himself to be distracted. He soon found among the Florentine painters, aa it seems, the one who could most

• The pictures ftom S. Trinita at Citta di Castello (Trinity and Ciieation of Eve)» now in a private house, Casa Berioli della Porta, are much injured. The Madonna in the Casa Alfani at Perugia is a very early Peruginesque.— Mr. [It passed ftom the Casa Alfani to the Casa Patrizi at Temi, but is only a reduced copy of Peru- glno's Madonna at the Vatican, and cer- tainly not by Raphael— Ed.]


138


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


help bim on his way, the great Fra Bartolommeo, who not long before, after an interval of several years, had again returned to painting. He was mostly employed on the same subjects as the Peragian school, namely, votive pictures; only he accomplished pictorially what they had left undone ; he not only arranged his saints and angels synmietrically near and among each other, but he constructed real groups with them, and enlivened them by contrasts and by fine de- velopment of physical forms. His influence on Kaphael was decisive ; if we calculated it, the result might be that Raphael owed to him his strongest impulse towards a severely architectonic and yet quite living manner of composition.

The earliest sign of this influ- ence (see p. 123 e, the remarks on the Last Judgment in S. M. Nuova) is seen in the fresco picture with which Raphael adorned a chapel of

<^ the cloister of S. Severo in Femgia. The perspective foreshortening of the half-circle of saints, who are enthroned on clouds, goes far be- yond the Peruginesque horizon ; here we have not only variety of character and position, but a higher harmony and a grand free- dom. The contrast of the upper Peru- ginesque and the lower Morentine angels clearly express the division in the artist's mind at the time.

In his easel pictures (presumably) of the years 1504-1506 ne preserves more of the old manner ; so in the

^ Madonna del Gran Duca, Pitli Gal- lery. This has quite the clumsy, stiff drapery of Perugino; but in the noble expression of the head, and in the beautiful arrangement of the child, is one of the greatest expressions of Raphael's power of feeling, so that we incline to prefer it to many later and more perfect Madonnas.

Raphael lived from 1506-8 in Florence for the second time, and


this period already was very rich in important pictures, of which the greater number have gone into forei^ countries. Yet those re- maimng in Italy afford at least a sufficient clue to his inner develop- ment.

Now we see him make a choice : starting from the firm ground to which the Frate had helped him,* he attempts with the surest tact only what he feels internally suited to him. The fulness of life, which is the theme of most of the Flo- rentines of that time, touches him too, but only as far as it does not trench upon the highest things — the expression of the soul and the fundamental principles of pictu- resque composition which gradu- ally grew in him to a sure form.

Compare only his Madonna of that time with those of the Floren- tines ; even those of Lionardo {Vierge aux Jtochers, Vicrge aux BcUanceSy in the Louvre) will cive the feeling that they are less loftily conceived, and are bnned with some mundane occupation, to say nothing of the rest. Raphael hais an advantage, to begin with, in the careful construction of his groups, and still more in the lofty gravity of his form, which keeps him from all mere accidental traits of life. In intention his Madonna is nothing more than a beaatifol

  • The Just measure between the two

artists is especially difficult to reach, when, on one hand, we consider Ra- phael's Holy Family of this period, in the Pinakothek at Munich, and on the other, the two Holy Families of Fra Bartolom- meo, in the P. Corsiui at Rome, Na 26, in the 8rd room, and in the P. Pittl, Na 256, first of the back rooms. Did Raphael first create the perfectly pyramidal group of the Virgin, the two Chfldien, Elizabeth and Joseph standing above to complete it; and did the Frate copy it incom- pletely, leaving out one figure? Or did Raphael complete tlie incomplete idea of the Frate by his addition? The decision is doubtful, but the connection of the two pictures obvious. I am inclined to adopt the first hypothesis.


Raphael — Florentine Portraits.


139


woman and a mother, as also with the Florentines : his purpose (except- ing in the votive pictures in espe* ciu) is not more for edification than theirs ; if, therefore, one finds the highest therein, there must be other reasons for it. The answer may be found in the

a Madonna del CardelUno (in the Tribune of the Uffizi) ; the simplest conceivable pyramidiil group, just enlivened by the action with the goldfinch: perhaps the full value of the picture will be sought in the charmmg form, the pure expres- sion; but these wouM have less effect, they would perhaps be en- tirelv lost, but for tne finely calcn^ latea harmony of the details in form and colour. In Raphael the detail strikes so powerfully that one thinks it the essential part; yet the charm of the whole is infinitely the most distinctive point.

The well-known Belle Jardiniere, in the Louvre, is a higher step in the same line, with the Madonna del Cardellino.

b^ The Madonna del BaZdacchino^ in the Palazzo Pitti, remains a puzzle. Raphael left it unfinished on his journey to Rome ; later, when his growing fame called fresh attention to the picture, the paint- ing was continued we ^ow not by whom. At last Ferdinand, son of Cosmo III., had it touched by a certain Ca^ssana with an appearance of finishing chiefly by means of brown glazmgs. The remarkablv beautiful attitude of the child with the Madonna (for instance, that of the hands), the figures on the left arranged in the grand style of the Frate (S. Peter and S. Bernard) belong surely to Raphael ; perhaps also the upper part of the body of the saint on the right, with the pilgrim's staff; on the other hand, the bishop on the right might be composed by quite another hand. The two beautifully improvised


children on the steps of the throne belong as much to the stvle of the Frate as of Raphael ; of the two Angels above, the more beautiful one is obviously borrowed from the fresco of S. Maria delle Pace, in Rome, from which it appeara that the fiAt finisher did not touch the picture till after 1514.

FLORENTINE PORTRAITS.

In his Florentine portraits, Ra- phael already stands forth as the §reat historical painter, who can istinguish the characteristic from the accidental, the permanent from the transitory. Here, perhaps, alone, we can trace the influence of lionardo on Raphael in the concep- tion as well as in the careful modelling which regards no detail of form as too trifling when it con- cerns the general and full charac- ter. If we pass over two very beau- tiful heads of monks at their devo- tions in the Florentine Academy c (Sala de' piccoli Quadri), which mi^ht be of the first Florentine period [certainly by Penigino, £d.] the portraits of Angelo and Maddalena Doni (in the Pal, Pitti) d would be his earliest known works of this kind (1505). The one of the wife shows an unmistakable similarity with the Gioconda of lionardo (in the Louvre) not only in outward things, but in its inner character. Much is formal ; for in- stance, the position of the hands, also the colour; only the concep- tion of the character and the posi- tion is quite natural Of all his contemporaries, only Lionardo and, perhaps, Giorgione could have pro- duced anything so good.

The portrait in the Tribune oie the Uffiait also called Maddalena Doni, resembles the other picture like an elder, somewhat invalid sister, and miffht have been painted earlier, — perhaps, soon after his arrival in Florence, when Raphael was still Peruginesque in his ideas.


140


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


and had not yet seen the Gioconda. It is so beautiful a picture, and so characteristic (for instance, in the arrangement of the hands), that the doubts of its genuineness

a hardly seem justified. Eapkael's own portrait, in the collection of portraits of painters there, is any- how undoubtedly genuine (of the year 1506?), easy and graceful in position, and masterly in painting. [This picture, which has suffered greatly, still appears somewhat timid in the execution ; also the young man looks hardly more than twenty-one, and accordingly it would be from 1604 or 1605. — Mr.]

b Lastly, the Fitti (No. 229, Hall of the Iliad) contains the portrait of a lady of about thirty-five, in Florentine costume, which is as- cribed to Eaphael, and in any case is of first rank. It appears to be painted by a future master of chiaroscuro, which Kaphael never was ; also the surfaces of the linen, and the damask sleeves, show rather the manner of Andrea del Sarto. The modelling is wonder- fully beautiful and careful, such as is not seen in Andrea's later works. The foreshortening of one hand would certainly have been far better given by Baphael, who was in this respect so advanced. The character of the head gives a whole story of early life, full of love and goodness. [Comparing it with the portrait of Maddalena Doni, we still can but ascribe the portrait just spoken of to Baphael. The likeness in the hands and the head is striking. — Mr.]

In the year 1507, Raphael also painted his first large historical picture of action ; it is the Entomb- cment, in the Borghese Gallery, at Bome — a work of the highest ten- sion of all his powers, not yet free from certain awkwardnesses (for instance, in the arrangement of the feet), with special forms of face,


which point to a fixed ideal, and therefore one approaching to a mannerism, from which Raphael was again to work himself free. But it is a never-ending marvel for arrangement of lines, for dramatic and picturesque contrasts, and for expression. It is enough to trace the distinctions of physical effort and intellectual sympathy, to place Raphael above ail his contempo- raries. The body of Christ is, in form and foreshortening, entirely noble. The Predclla belonging to^ it, representing in grey colour the figures of Faith, Love, and Hope, in circular pictures on a greenish ground, each with two boy-angels at the sides, is in the Vatican QaU lery. They are apparently mere sketches, but in the composition and the demeanour there lies an expression as telling as could be desired. With the least possible means, the greatest effect is here produced. (The upper lunette, God e the Father with Angela, is still to be found in S. Francesco de* GonveTitvMliy at Perugia, where once stood the whole work ; but not over the copy of it by Arpino, but over an altar-piece on the right- hand side, the Birth of Christ, by Orazio Alfani, The genuineness of this is doubted. In the Pina4x>tecaf there, No. 42, a copy by Anvedei. Another copy by Fraticesco Fenni, g in the Gallery at Turin. )

By this distinguishing work Ra- phael proved himself the one who alone, besides Michelangelo, could worthily carry out the ideas of P6pe Julius II. In 1608, the Pope called him to Rome, where, for the twelve remaining years of his short Ufe, he displayea the inconceivably rich productiveness which stands alone as a moral marvel. It is not the height of genius, but the power of will, which is the grandest : the first would not have kept him from mannerism ; it is the last which never suffered him to rest on hia


Map/iael — Madonnas.


141


laurels^ but always urged him to liigher modes of expression. The great number of commissions, the fame and the exceeding beauty of his works, soon gathered a school round Eaphael ; . to this he was obliged, in later times, to confide the execution even of really great undertakings ; they were men of most various gifts, sometimes of in- ferior character ; but as long as the powerful reflection of the character of the master rested on them, they created in his spirit. Tlieir rapid decline, after his death, shows again, in a reversed sense, what he must have been.

RAPHAEL'S MADONNAS.

We begin with the easel pictures still existing in Italy, which, in spite of the master's becoming gra- dually accustomed to fresco during this time, fully preserve their spe- cial character, so that in them are worked out the highest problems of oil painting which lay in Ra- phael's line. The most conscien- tious of artists, he was never satis- fied with the technical results of what he had done. But if one re- quires of him the glowing colour of Titian and the chiaroscuro of Corre^o, this shows an entire misunderstanding of his true value. None of his pictures would gain essentially by the addition of these qualities, because none depended on them for their success. What one must regret is the later dark- ening of his shadows, which cer- tainly must have been much lighter at the time when they were com- pleted. The proof of this is in Andrea del Sarto's copy from the a portrait of Leo X. in the Naples MiLseum ; executed with colours chemically better in the shadows, it shows how the original, in the P. Pitti, must have been harmonized.

The Madonnas of this Roman time are mostly in foreign parts.


Of the Madwuia di Casa d'A Iba, a b circular picture, with whole figures in a landscape, the Borghese (gal- lery, for instance (No. 38), contains an old copy, — a charming reminis- cence of the Florentine Madonnas, only with more action. The Ma- donna della Tenda, in the Turin c Gallery, is a replica, not by him- self, of the picture in Munich ; as the so-called R^veil de I'Enfant,* in the Naples Museum, like that in d the Torrigiani Gallery, is only a copy of tlie famous specimen in England in the Bridgewater GiJ- lery. The infinite grace of this picture, by which it takes a dreamy hold of the imagination of the spec- tator, is owing less to the very beautiful forms and features than to the exceedingly perfect lines, to the sweep of the movement of the mother and child, to the disposi- tion of the light.

No single one of these pictures directly indicates that the Mother of God is intended. It is only the pure beauty of the woman and child which awakens the thought of the supernatural. After 1500 years, art has again reached a height at which its forms of them- selves, and without any additions, appear something eternal and divine.

And now Raphael descends and paints perhaps merely the most beautiful Italian woman in the form of the Madonna della Sediae {Pal. Pitti), Apart from the charm of form, and for composition never equalled in the world, the expres- sion of maternity here is peculiarly striking in connection with the beautiful peasant costume. It is the favourite picture of women.

Of the Holy Families, one of the best, as it seems, has vanished with- out a trace, — ^the Madonna from the shrine of 8. Maria del Popolof

  • The name is not suitable ; the child

is already quite awake, and pulls playfully at the moUier'B veil.


142


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


(usually called of Loreto). The one in the Louvre is not better than some other good school copies, of

a which, for instance, the Naples Mttsewm contains one. The best (?) is in the possession of the Lawrie

h family, in the Palazzo Pandatichi, at Florence. The motive is well known ; Mary lifts the linen cover- ing from the child that lies on a bench and smiles at her, while Joseph looks on ; in the background a green curtain ; the two prmcipal figures hardly less than life-size. It is a domestic scene, but free from the prosaic detail of the northerners, and the showy Re- naissance ornament of the Floren- tines, expressed in the noblest forms and lines.

e The Madonna delV Impannata (the doth window), in the P. Pitti, is also partly composed and executed by Kaphael. Mary, Eliza- beth, the young woman on the left, and the child, have been originally sketched for a circular picture, which would have reached down- wards as far as the knee of Eliza- beth (in which case, Mary's stand- ing on another level from the others would not have been so striking), or what secret of the studio is here hidden ? The whole figure of John sitting outside the group is in any case a later idea, even if Raphael himself preferred it so. There is a discussion as to the parts painted by him, which I leave to be de- cided by others. The incident is most charming ; the two women have brought the child, and hand it to the mother ; and while the l)oy turns, still laughing, after them, he takes fast hold of the mother's dress, who seems to say, '*Look, he likes best to come to me." d The scene in the Madonna del IHvino Amore {Naples Museum) is more solemn. Elizabeth wants the child Christ to bless the little John kneeling on the left, and leads him


gently by the hand. Mary prays as if confirming it ; she has let go her hold of the child on her knee, rightly, for, if he is capable of blessing, he must also be able to sit firm. It is just in traits of this kind that later art is so poor. The execution must be the work of pupils.*

Close by, hangs Giulio Romayio^a Madonna della Gatta^ a repetition, c given in his style, of the " Perla " of Raphael, which is gone to Ma- drid. The additions made by the pupil are mere desecrations, such as the cat, the transformation of Eliza- beth into a gipsy, and various other changes. It is the same with the Madonna della Lucertola (P.f Pitti) [No. 57, called G. Jiomano, but by the hand of a Fleming. — Mr.], only that apparently even the original, reputed to be a Raphael, also in Madrid, was not altogether invented by the master. More beautifully and carefully painted than the Madonna della Gatta, still the Florentine picture strikes us as a collection of motives (a so- called pasticcio) after Raphael.

But few votive pictures, in which the Vir^n appears enthroned or in gloiy, exist by Raphael The earliest of them, still with a recog- nizable Florentine tone, is the Ma- donnxi di Foligno, in the Vatican g Qalleryy of the year 1512. As the Mother of God, with Saints, this picture accomplishes exactly all that the Florentines would will- ingly have achieved : a highly elevated spiritual life in the saints ; the most inward relation to the believing beholder, as well as to the Virgin ; the last, for the rest, only as ideal mother, not as the queen

  • The sculptor AUsaaiidro Leopardo has

also shown correct feeling on this point, if the Madonna della Scarpa in S. Marco at Venice is by him. The child, sitting oa her right knee, is Just preparing to give the blessing, and she lets go her hold of him.


Raphael — Madonnas.


143


of heaven ; the child with atouch of reBtlessness ; and yet both as much above the Madonna del Baldacchino, as the accompanying Saints of the picture are above those of the last named. And what Florentine child- angel, what earlier child's figure, even of Baphael's own, could come up to the (uvinely sweet angel-boy who stands with the inscription ta- blet in&ont between thesaints ? The kneeling donator, Sismondo Conti, is quite worthy of the contempo- rary portraits of Kaphael, and also touched with a cheerful, solemn devotion, which is wonderfully dis- tinguished from the ecstacy of S. Francis, the excitement of John and Jerome.

Later, in the Siztine Madonna (at Dresden),* Kaphael attained aad certainly aimed at something h^her ; the expression of the su- pernatural is produced not merely b^ the idealized form, but by the visionary treatment of space, the advancing forward upon the clouds, and the grand, solemn flow of the drapery. In the Madonna di Fo- ligno even, the principal figure, seated, floating, is treated as though in a defined space, and all the rest is altogether earthly and real A picture which, from its character as a banner for a proces- sion, ought to form an exception (as is supposed, with some ap- parent reason, of the Sixtine Ma- donna), cannot, however, be a rule for altar-pictures. Q Of the Madwina del Peace, which came to Spain from Naples with so many masterpieces iinder the Spanish viceroys, there is still an old copy in S. Paolo at Naples, in the passage from the church to the sacristy. In this most charm-

• The copy In S. Sisto at Piacenza, which is said to occapy the frame of the origbial, bat appears incomprehensibly small, is by PieranUmio Avanzini, be- ginning of 18th century. A very remark- able development of the compositions in a. Severo at Naples, 7th chapel on left


ing composition Mary is again thrown back in the midst of the saints, as in the Madonna del Bal- dacchino ; but the lofty conception of form, the pure flow of the com- position, show the later, completer time of the master.

Thus Baphael, with the single exception of the Sixtine Madonna, has m his Virgins always glorified the female character with all hia power, and taken the chance whether or not in her should be re- cognised the Mother of God, the Queen of the Angels, the Mistress of Heaven, surrounded with all the glow of mysticism. He always uses as little symbolism as pos- sible ; his art does not depend on associations which are beyond the sphere of form, thoroughly as he had mastered the expression of the S3nnbolical in its proper place, as ia shown bjT the frescos in the Vati- can. His child Christ, also, with the single exception of the grand mysterious boy on the arm of the Sixtine Madonna, is animated by the purest spirit of infantine beauty. Italy ia richly gifted in this respect, so that the painter often finds the choice hard, and, since Lippo Lippi and Luca della Kobbia, art had striven un- weariedly to give the highest in- spiration of the childish form ; Kaphael came and drew the con- clusion. His child Christ and his child St. John show, with the ex- ception of his earliest Peniginesque sentimental pictures, nothing but the most beautiful youthful life, the healtiiy expression of which is only carried to the border of play- fulness, and does not, till Giuho Eomano (and elsewhere in A. del Sarto), pass into the fanciful, fall- ing lastly in later generations into the sentimeDtaL

The simple beauty of existence, which is the essence of the child, ceases "w^th the first exhibition of activity. Raphael has no repre-


144


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


sentation of the twelve-year old teacher in the Temple,* bat there is one of the inspired boy John ; amonff many copies, one at least

oold, m the Tribune of the Uffizi at Florence; one (Flemish) copy

^in the Pinacoteca at Bologna. An original picture of the inspired boy John, di£ferent in the composi- tion from the above, has lately been exhibited in the Ix)uvre (No. 368 bis). The powerful, severe expres- sion of the oeautiful head, and the extremely effective contrast be- tween the erect sitting posture and the diagonal movement, lead us to overlook the mixture of youthful with adult forms here apparent. On the whole, we shall agree with Raphael (even against Titian) in re- presenting the Baptist, as a single figure, as quite young ; this beauty is the only right equivalent for the scene of the Preaching of Repent- ance, except when by the addition of other figures quite a new con- sideration is brought in. The curved line of the reed cross, to which John points, harmonizes the whole composition.

PICTURES OF THE ROMAN TIME.

Lastly, there are three works of the Roman time which, each in their way, are incomparably grand in their representation of the su- pcmaturaL

The one is symbolical — ^the vi-

• An unlucky snbject, since the pur- pose can never come out clearly in the representation : we learn indeed from the Gospel, but never from the picture, why the scribes are so disturbed; the argu- ments which produced this effect cannot be painted. (How Lionardo managed it, see antea). We should learn much if we could discover what subjects Raphael would not paint, in spite of the wish of others, and for what reasons he rejected them. There are no pictures of martyr- doms by him ; the nearest approach to this is the Bearing of the Cross (the Spasimo di SiciUa), besides the early Cruciflxion, from the Fesch Gallery, belonging to Lord Dudley (Ward).


sion of Ezekiel, in the Pakuszo c FUti, small, most carefully exe- cuted, though not like a miniature.* The Middle Ages had given a symmetrical form to the symbolB taken out of the Old Testament and the Apocalypse, according to the words, imposing from the reality of the belief, and to our feeUng overpowering by the asso- ciation of ideas, which are com- bined with such utterances of the ancient church. Raphael under- took the subject, and transformed it in the spirit of the grandest beauty as far as it was possible with the coarse symboL By the shifting backwards of the form of God the Father he first produces distinctly the expression of float- ing ; the lifted arms, supported by two child-angels, cive the feeling of an all-poweiiul blessing: Qc3i the Father sits enthroned on the eagle above, and the lion and bull on which His feet rest are only subordinately introduced : they look up next to the adoring AugeL of Matthew; Grod the Father only- looks at the last. We may call this different treatment of the four sensuous images arbitrary ; would that there were more of such arbi- trariness ! The picture would be of about the time of the first part of the Loggie.

The second work gives the bu- pernatund by its reflection in a company of saints ; the famous S. (ISeciiia (in the Pinacoteca of "B^^ lognsL, painted about 1515). On the earth lie the worldly musical in- struments, half broken, unstringed ; even the pious organ faUs out of the hands of the saints ; all are listening to the choir of angela only indicated in the air above. BAphael gave song to this wonder- fully improvised upper grou^ whose victory over instruments iB


  • Its genuineness has been doubted of

late.


Maphael — The Transfiguration.


145


here substituted for the conquest, itself impossible to represent, of heavenly tones over the earthly, with a symbolism worthy of aU admiration. Cecilia is wisely repre- sented as a rich, physically power- ful being ; only thus (not, e.g., as a nervous, interesting being) could she give the impression of full happi- ness without excitement. Her regal dress also is essential for the desired object, and increases the impression of complete absorption in calm delight. Paul, inwardly moved, leans on his sword ; the folded paper in his hand indicates that in presence of the heavenly harmonies the written revelation also must be silent, as something that has been fulfilled. John, in whispered conversation with S. Augustine, both listening, variously moved. The Magdalen is, to speak openly, made unsympathetic, in order to make the beholder rightly conscious of the delicate scale of expression in the four others, — for the rest, one of the grandest, most beautifid figures of Kaphael. The true limits within which the inspi- ration of several different person- ages has to be represented, are in this picture preserved with a tact which is entirely foreign to the latest painters of the Feast of Pen- tecost. (Tolerably preserved and restored, with the exception of the coarsely over-painted SKy. )

The third picture, the last of Kaphael which he left unfinished (1520), is the Transfigiiration, in <" the Vatican Oallery. Here, by a dramatic contrast which one may call monstrous, the supernatural is far more forcibly put before us than by all the glories and visions of other painters. Two entirely different scenes are combined in the picture — a piece of audacity not to be recommended to every one ; it only occurred here, and for this end. fielow, on the mountain, are the people who have brought the


j possessed boy, and the disciples, puzzled, compassionate, excited, I even looking for help in the book, I and earnestiy pointing up to the ' mountain, whither their master had gone ; the possessed one himself • especially remarkable as one of the

few forms from the realms of dark-

I ness produced by Raphael, and which with the most horrible ex- pression, yet showed so strikingly his lofty moderation; the woman lamenting on her knees in front is as it were a reflection of the whole incident.

Kot one of them sees what hap- pens on the mountain, and the Bible text did not allow it ; the connection of the two scenes exists only in the mind of the spectator. And yet one would be incomplete without the other ; one has to onlv cover the upper or under part witn the hand to see how much the pic- ture forms a w^hole. Above floats the Christ, and, as if drawn to him by a magnetic power, Moses and Elias float likewise ; their motion is not independent. Below lie the dazzled disciples, and on the left one sees S. Stephen and S. Law- rence, apparently only as patrons of the church for which the picture was originally intended. The form and expression of Christ reveal one of the great secrets of art, which sometimes elude the endeavours of centuries. The conception of the Transfiguration on Mount Tabor, formed by the imagination of the believer, is absolutely incapable of representation, for it pre-supposes a brilliant self-contained illumina- tion of the form, and therefore the absence of all shadow, as well as of all modelling ; Kaphael substituted the floating. * Also the Transfigura- tion is conceived entirely as an ex- pression of power in relation to the

♦ Even in Giovanni Bellini, in the re- markable picture (p. 88 a) ot the Naples Museum, Christ, Moses, and Elias are still represented standing on the mountain.

L


146


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


spectators. Raphael, on the con- trary, did not aim at eimressing the greatest possible srandeur, which could not but produce a hard effect through its cold symmetry, but the highest happiness. His Christ is all joy, and thereby also in himself nobler than he could have been made by any expression of power : he is so quite independently of the colossal contrasts with the frightened disciples and with the scene of woe below. Ad immense force is given to his gaze lifted up- wards by the enlargement and the great distance between the eyes \* Kaphael in this went no further than the Greeks, with whom the normal form was often more or less altered to give effect to some charac- teristic feature. Let any one who is dissatisfied with this figure of Christ try to conceive clearly in what it fails, and what it is we may require of art. It is possible that many minds may feel that the Judge of the World in the Campo Santo, the Christo della Moneta of Titian, the Christ in Raphael's Dispute, move other and stronger feehngs, deeper lines of thought ; but for this subject, the Trans- figuration on Tabor, the master has here given it so noble a form that we must rejoice to be able to follow him in any way. The lower half was nearly all executed by pupils, but certainly on the whole corresponds with RaphaePs inten- tion, excepting of course the blackened shadows. The unusual form of colouring combined, at least in the upper group, with the almost Venetian harmony, shows that to the last moment of his life Raphael was constantly endeavour- ing to master new methods of re-


• A similar treatment of the eyes ap- X)ears in the Sixtine Madonna, but per- haps nowhere else in Raphael ; he reserved such means for extreme cases. In one of the Saints in the Transfiguration this fonn is certainly given by the hand of a pupiL


presentation. As a conscientious artist he could do no less. Those who reproach him for it, and speak of degeneracy, do not un- derstand his inward nature. The ever-noble spectacle of Raphael's self-development as an artist is in itself worth more than any adherence to a particular stage of the ideal, e. g., such as the point of view of the Dispute, could be. And, further, in art no one can linger behind with impunity ; mannerism lies in wait to take possession of the inactive artist.

Of the commission for the picture we know nothing special. It is possible that Cardinal Giulio de' Medici required nothing but a Saviour with S. Stephen and S. Lawrence, and that Raphael added the rest. Already Fra Bartolom- meo had in his most beautiful picture (p. 130 d) represented the Saviour with four Saints, as the risen Lord ; Raphael went a step higher, and represented him glori- fied On the very next page in the Gospel stands the story of the possessed boy : what a moment it was when the artist received the thought of combining the two scenes !


PORTRAITS OF THE ROMAN TIME.

The Portraits of the Roman time of Raphael form a series of quite a different kind from those of Titian, of Van Dyck, and others, who were especially famous as portrait- painters. Painted in the interv2ils while he was producing the greatest historical pictures and frescos, they are most various in their con- ception ; each bears the reflection of the tone of feeling which ani- mated the historical painter at the special moment. It is well known that in his frescos also he was liberal of portraits.

Of the portraits existing in Italy we must first name Pope Julius II.


Roman Portraits,


147


a (in the Pal, PiUi; that in the Tri-

h bune of the Uffizi is considered as an old copy, and is so excepting the head, the great excellence of which can only be explained by its being Eaphael's own work). The treatment is wonderfully beautiful, and rich, in spite of its simplicity ; the character so given that this picture is the best key to the right understandiDg of the history of the powerful old man.

c Leo X. with the Cardinals de' Kossi and Giulio de Medici, in the P. PittL The copy by Andrea del Sarto in the Naples Museum (p. 141 a) is there always treated as the original, while beyond Naples there has long been no doubt on this question. Somewhat above natnral size, so that, e, g., the noble hands of the Pope do not appear as small as in proportion they are meant to do. The two attendant Cardinals can be seen in other early portraits of Popes. The character of Leo X., here and in the frescos, shows a re- markable harmony, which is true also of Julius II. By the changes of light, and treatment of the ma- terials, the four different reds form a harmonious scale. There is a solemn architectural background. The accessories (bell, book, mag- nifyinff-glass) are slight but essen- tial indications of character. ^ Cardinal Bibbiena (in the Palazzo Pitti) : the worn and sickly charac- ter is grandly and intellectually given ; in his aristocratic kindliness there is a parallel to Van Dyck's Cardinal Bentivoglio (also there), which appeai-s far less simple. Fedra Inghirami, a Koman pre-

c late and antiquarian {Palazzo Pitti). The Thersites of Raphael : in this case he, like all squinters, wished to be painted either in profile or with tbe omission of the squint ; * but Raphael did not avoid the

• Guercino pninted, in his own portrait in tbe UfRzi, one eye in the deepest shadow.


characteristic point, but gave the stiflf eye a direction and form which should express intellectuid investi- gation. The corpulence is given as nobly as may be; the hands are only those of an aristocratic priest. Probably a memorial of the respect of his colleagues, of the time when Raphael was studying Roman antiquities.*

"Bartolus and Baldus,'^ more/ properly Navagero and Beazzano {Palazzo Doria at Borne). Two half-len^h figures in black dress in one picture ; in spite of modern doubts, certainly genuine. (? ?) Who could induce two remarkable men to allow themselves to be painted together, unless the artist desired to preserve the likeness for himself or for a greater man, per- haps the Pope? The style of a historical memorial is more visible here than in other portraits — a free grandeur, which seems ready for any deed, and would be in its place in any historical picture. The exe- cution, as far as it is untouched, is extremely good.

The Violin Player {Palazzo g Sdarra at Borne [now in England] ). Raphael certainly painted no Vir- tuoso in 1518 as a private com- mission. Probably a favourite of the music-loving Leo X. Extremely interesting, so that the fancy of itself imagines the life-romance of this unknown person. The fur worn by the youth is treated with delicacy.

Of the portrait of Joanna of Aragon all the best examples are in the north. [The only original is in the Louvre. In the Palazzo Doria there is a clearly Flemish^ copy. — Mr.]

The improvisatrice Beatrice

  • There is much doubt about these two

paintings. MUndler traces a weaker hand also in the head of the Ufflzi portraits; others believe the Pitti picture to be tJio work of a Venetian artist There is a double of it in the collection of the family at Volterra,

L 2


148


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


(called the Fomarina, ia the a TribuTU of the Uffizi, dated 1512). A marvel of finish and colouring, of the time of the Madonna oi Foligno. Apparently an ideal heacC till one observes that a not quite beautiful relation of the mouth and chin is concealed by a fortunate adjustment.

Long ascribed to Sebastian del PUmho [as whose work I still re- gard this wonderful production. Com]^are the altar-piece in S. Gio- vanm Crisostomo m Venice, and especially the Magdalen in it. — Mr.] Excdlently preserved.*

The true Fomarina, Raphael's beloved. The duplicate recognised as original, with much restoration, h in the Palazzo Barherini at Borne ; elate repetitions in PaZa^zzo-Sdarra <iand in the Palazzo Borghese. [Second room. No. 64, the last obviously by Sasaoferrato, — Mr.] In composition obviously a very beautifiu nude academy picture; the position of the arms and the head-dress are arranged by the painter, and do not attempt to characterise the individual. The type, of the long-preserved Roman style of beauty is freely employed in several historical compositions of Raphael, without actually sup- posing any special model t

  • The same woman is clearly represented

in a beauttftil pictnre which in the Gallery of Modena is attributed to Giorgioru ; only here the hair is golden, with a flower in it To me the picture appeared like a Falma Vecchio. On the parapet is the initial V. [Whether the picture represents the same woman appears to me dijficult to decide; it is, for the rest, decidedly Fer- rarese, and I consider it a work of B. Garo- /ato.— Mr.]

t The very heantiftil portraits of the Cavaliere Tibaldeo and ute Cardinal Fas- seiini, in the Naples Museum, are now not given to RaphaieL The Cesare Borgia, wrongly attributed to Raphael, in the P. Borghese at Rome, may oe a very good German picture. [I think it is by Far- m^^ianina— Mr.] [The female portrait in the Stanza dell' Educazione di Giove of the F. Fitti, No. 245, is in my opinion an undoubted and well-preserved original of


FRESCOS OF THE STANZE.

Among the historical monuments which Bapha^el executed for Julius c II. and Leo. X., the paintings in the chambers of the Vatican (le Stanze) take the first place. The inexhaustible richness of these works, and the impossibility of ex- plaining their subject or their value shortly in words, must limit us to a series of single remarks, and cause us to omit in general what is found in all the guide-books and what the eye takes in of itself.

The rooms already existed, and were already partially decorated (by Perugino, Sodoma, and others) when Kaphael was summoned for the purpose. They are far from

unsurpassable nobleness in the features ; clearly the model of the Magdalen in tl>»* S. Cecilia, of the Sixtine Madonna, and, as we may well surmise, rendering in a nobler form the real features of the Fomarina. The drawing of the right hand agrees with that of Joanna of Aragon ; the colouring shows the warm, local, true, light yellow peculiar to Raphael, with shadows of the most delicate pearl grey. — Mr.] Of course many pictures in the Italian galleries stiU erroneously bear the great name. The picture in the F. Fallavicini, at Genoa, is an originally good school copy, enlai^ged with new accessories, of the Madonna of the Naples Museum (Reveil de I'Enfant),

In the Madonna di S. Luca (collection of the academy of that name at Rome), only a part of the Luke ia regarded as Raphael's own work ; the rest hsurdly even as his own design. Crowe and Car. say Timoteo della vite. The Coronation of the Virgin fin the Vatican Gallery, the later picture) is notoriously executed by Giulio Romano and Francesco Penni. The first has clearly in the upper part fol- lowed, at least in some degree, a sketch of Raphael; one recognises touches which reveal the Vierge de Francois I. The latter, on the otlier hand, himself de- signed the lower group of the Apostles. [The catalogue wrongly reverses the re- lation.] Comparing it with the lower group of the Transfiguration, it shows most clearly the difference between the master and the pupiL [The Raphael in Parma is a work of Giulio Romano, the drawing for which by Raphael is in the Louvre.— Mr.] The Raphael in tiie Gal- lery at Modena is an inferior picture by a pupil of Perugino.


Camera della Segnatura.


149


being models as to arrangement, irregular (look, tor instance, at the roof of the Camera della Segna- tura), and not favourable in point of light. They are generally visited in the afternoon ; yet the forenoon has certain advantages ; and the openingofthebackwindow-shutters makes an essential difference.

The technical execution is extra- ordinarily various. According to a

§ood authority, the Dispute, and the chool of Athens in particular have been gone over at secco in very many parts, yet they are mainly all frescos ; the only two figures painted in oil on the walls, of Justitia and Comitas, in the Hall of Constantino, were not, as they say, by KaphaeUs own hand, but executed after his death. But in the frescos, the work of the master and the pupil, show the greatest difference of treatment, often in the same picture. Eaphael was never satisfied, and continually sought to find some new mode of wooing in the difficult art of painting. Of the four great frescos of the Stanza d'Eliodoro, each is executed in a different colouring : the highest possible point seems to be reached m the iminjured parts of the Miracle of Bolsena ; and yet no one will say the Heliodorus and the Liberation of Peter are in their way less perfectly painted.

The preservation is, considering the time, fairly good, except the pictures in the basement or skirt- ings, which Ca7'lo Maratta had really to paint afresh, and some ceiling pictures, seriously endan- gered by cracks. The greatest damage has occurred in the princi- pal pictures through partial clean- ing, and especially by reckless tra- cing over. This has happily been latterly forbidden. How far the most beautiful modem engravings are inferior in impression to the original pictures is seen by the first glance at the originals. The admira-


ble photographs from the originals, by Braun, at Dornach, give to those who have had the good fortune to see the originals the most beautiful remembrance of them.


.CAMERA DELLA SEGNATURA.

The lofty poetical ideas which are the groundwork of the frescos of the Camera della Segnatura a (finished 1511) were indeed given from without to the artist. Apart from the fact that Raphael hsmlly possessed enough learning to place and to give the right character- istics of the personages of the Dispute or of the Schoolof Athens, and that here the assistance of some important person of the court of Julius II. * is clearly felt ; apart from this, art had long before lent itself to such attempts. The master of the Cappella degli Spag- nuoli in S. M. Kovella at Florence, had represented in an architectonic setting the allegorical figures of the arts and sciences and their re^ presentatives in strict parallelism. Six generatioDS later, hardly fif- teen years before Raphael, Pin- turicchio, also an Umbrian, had in one of the rooms, of which he de- corated the roof for Alexander VL {Apartamento Borgio, in the Va- b tican, third room), represented allegorical forms enthroned in the midst of their disciples, on a landscape background, without speaking of other attempts. But Raphael first had the intelligence to transfer the allegorical females from the wall pictures te the roof in a golden mosaic sky. Here he could characterise them in a quite peculiar, ideal manner. It is well known how a later degenerate style of art put its pride in mixing alle- gorical and historical personages as

• Bibbiena, Bembo, Castiglione, Inghi- rami are su^ested. Also the whole of allegorical artand poetry, from the Trionfl of Petrarch downwards, comes in.


160


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


variously as possible with each other, and how it required the whole greatness of a Rubens to render such works agreeable to us, e.g., his life of Marie de Medi-


as


cis in the Louvre.

The remaining figures in the pic- tures may be called historical figures, for God the Father, the Angels in the Dispute, the Muses on Parnassus, ana similar representations, may be counted as such. The upper part of the wall, which is devoted to Jurisprudence, does indeed contain another allegory, but divided off in a separate place. All the figures could now be treated alike, in much the same style.

Why did not Kaphael in his pic- ture of Justice represent an intel- lectually moved company of fa- mous jurists, as he has done in the three other pictures with the theo- logians, poets, and wise men? Why, instead of this, two single historical acts of law-givinc? Because the only subject possiUe for a "Dispute, "of jurists would either have been external to the picture, that is, unrepresentable, or, if niade clear by practical con- ditions, would have fallen below tibe lofty ideal style.

After dividing off the allegorical part, the historically symbolical element remained the principal sub- ject of the four laree pictures.

Herein Baphael has set before us a dangerously attractive model. A ffreat number of pictures of ana&gous subjects have been pro- duced since then, partly by great artists ; they all appear derived from R^hael, or lar inferior to him. Why is this? Surely not simply because there has been but one RaphaeL

He had, to besin with, an advan- tage by his freedom in antiquarian considerations. Bound to very few traditional portraits, he had only to produce characteristic figures ;


in the Disputii, for instance, the costume was the only distinguish- ing attribute, which indeed was quite sufficient. He was not obliged to place the heads so and so, that they might be identified by learned allusions. This freedom was aa immense advantage in allowing the composition to be treated ac- cording to purely pictoiial mo- tives. They are almost entirely figures belonging to a past, more or less removed, which already had ceased to live except in idealizing remembrance.*

The action which gives life to these pictures could indeed only be represented by the greatest artist. But within his subject impossible things were not suggested to him, as, for instance, the spiritual com- munion of a learned congress, an academy of painting, or of any such persons whose charactenstic employment never is seen in conunon, and who, if they are painted together, always look as if waiting for dinner. In the Dispute Kaphael ^ave us not a Council, but a spiritual impulse which has brought suddenly together the greatest teachers of divine things, so that they have only just taken their place round the altar; and with them, some unnamed laymen whom the Spirit seized on the way and drew hither with them. These form the necessary passive portion, in whom the mystery realised by the teachers of the Church is re- flected in their excitement when the idea dawns on them. That the upper semicircle of the blessed (a glorified repetition of that of S. Severo) corresponds so entirely in

  • Concerning the meaning of the indi-

vidual passages in all the frescos, Platnei-, in his "Beschreibung Koms," pi 113 ff, gives an accurate acount. For the in- teresting views as to the subject, and the date of the execution of these works, lately put forward by Dr. Herman Grimm, we must refer to his work, " The Life of RaphaeL"


Raphael — Parnassus.


151


its contrast to the lower, is the simple, sublime expression of the relation by which the heavenly world overshadows the lower. Lastly, the idea of the Church im- presses itself here in the grandest way ; it is not a picture of neutral beauty, but a powerful conception of the faith of the Middle A^es.

The School of Athens is the direct contrast to this, without celestial groups, without mystery. Or is the wonderfully beautiful halL which forms the background, not merely a picturesque idea, but a consciously intended symbol of the healthy harmony between the povers of the soul and the mind ? In such a building one could not but feel happy. However that be, Ra- phael has translated the whole thought and learning of antiquity entirely into lively demonstration and earnest listening ; the few iso- lated figures, like the Sceptic and Diogenes the Cynic, make a con- trast as exceptions. That the sciences of calculation occupy the foreground below the steps is a simple idea, full of genius, which seems to be understood of itself. We find in the picture a most ex- cellent arrangement of the teachers, listeners, and spectators, easy move- ment in the space, richness without, crowding, complete harmony of the picturesque and dramatic motives, ri (Valuable cartoon in the Ainbro- siana at Uilan. )

The Parnassus is the picture of existence and enjoyment. Homer has the prerogative of loud, inspired speech ; Apollo, of sound ; all the rest only whisper. (Any one who objects to the violin must call none but Raphael to account ; for this anachronism is certainly not a forced homage to the fame of a contemporary violin- ist, whom some even make into the Pope's body-servant.) Pro- bably the painter considered the instrument a more living, speaking


motive for his ficure than an antique lyre would have been. The ideal costume is here extended with great reason to the modem poets, of whom Dante alone wears the inevitable hood. The mantle and the laurel, common to all, elevate the poets above the real- istic and historical. The muses are not divided among the poets for the sake of variety, but col- lected, as being their common foun- tain of life, on the top of the moun- tain. Nor are they accurately characterised in an antiquarian fashion : Raphael painted his own muses.

Of the two ceremonial pictures opposite, the Spiritual Law, that is, the Giving out the Decretals, is a model of composition and execu- tion in this difficult style. The number of figures is moderate; the expression of authority does not lie in the completeness of the following, — above all, not in the mass of people. The heads are al- most all portraits of contemporary personages. It is to be supposed that Raphael introduced them vo- luntarily, and with an artistic pur- pose. The allegory of Prudentia, Temperantia, and Fortitude, in the lunette (see Platner's analysis of it), is one of the best conceived ; in the details, it is not all very life-like.

Of the allegorical female figures on the ceiling, the Poetry is one of Raphael's purest and most charac- teristic conceptions. In the others, he has, by choice or necessity, very distinctly followed the suggestions of the allegorizer who assisted him ; thence, perhaps, comes the absence of cheenul oiaiveU. The comer pictures of the ceiling, historical incidents in a severer style, each relate to the subjects on the two waUs next to them : thus, the splendid Judgment of Solomon belongs at the same time to Jus- tice and Wisdom at once ; the Fall, both to Justice, and the relation to


152


Fainting of the Sixteenth Century.


God. One is somewliat puzzled by Marayas, and we have to seek a distant allusion from Dante to bring him into connection with Theology as well as Poetry. The Eve in the Fall, is an excellent example of the form of the nude in Raphael's mid- dle period ; so, also, the executioner in the Judgment of Solomon.

The pictures on the skirting for the most part composed and exe- cuted by Ferlno dd Vaga, in the place of some intarsiatura that has been destroyed, and later quite painted over, still show in a general way how Raphael conceived the decorative effect of the whole hall. The composition is, in parts, ex- tremely beautiful, but in small en- gravings just as enjoyable as in the place itself. (Only those under the Parnassus are by Raphael.)


Would that we were not so utter- ly ignorant of the circumstances under which these frescos were pro- duced. The great questions, how much was prescribed to the painter ? what did he add himself ? lor what parts did he with difficulty gain permission? what suggestions did he reject? can never oe answered. We do not know with whom he had to deal personally. But this much appears from the works themselves, that the purely ar- tistic motives in detail usually had the upper hand. When one sees in other pictures of that time, in Mantegno, Finturichio, Sandro, &c., the insatiable taste of his con- temporaries for allegories and sym- bols of all kinds, we feel convinced that Raphael kept his modera- tion through his own force, and that he selected, arranged, and subordinated as he would. What struggles the lower hsdf of the Dispute may have cost if, for in- stance, any theologian desired a complete representation of all the great teachers of the Church and


founders of orders ; or if anyone's favourite philosopher or favourite poet was to be introduced into the School of Athens or the Par- nassus !

Perhaps the only figure that ap- pears quite inactive in this hall is the young Duke of Urbino, who stands in the middle of the Uft half of the School of Athens. On closer inspection, we find that he is not only pictoriaUy required vith his white dress, but is also indis- pensable as a neutral figure be- tween the upper and lower group. And what does the quiet smile on this wonderful countenance say? It is the victorious consciousness of beauty that, along with all recocni- tion of other things, it will maintun its place in this motley world.

Kext to the ceiling of the Sixtine Chapel, the Camera della Segna- tura, which was painted almost exactly at the same time, is th«  first extensive work of art entirely harmonious in form and idea. The best Florentines of the fifteenth century (with the exception of lio- nardo) had allowed themselves to be carried away by the richness of accessories (subordinate personages, superfluous motives of drapery, splendid backgrounds, &c. ) ; then- figures neutralise each other by tLix nnmber ; their marked cha- racteristics divide the accents too evenly over the whole. Fra Bar- tolommeo, the first great composer after Lionardo, mov^ in a narrow, limited circle, and his feeling for life was not quite equal to his con- ception of form. Raphael is the first in whom the form is entirely beautiful, noble, and at the same time intellectually alive, without injury to the whole effect. No detail comes forward, is too pro- minent ; the artist understands ex- actly the delicate life of his great symbolical subjects, and knows how easily the special interest


Stanza (TEUodoro.


153


overweights the whole. And nevertheless, his single figures have become the most valuable study of all after-painting. No better advice can be given than (when necessary, with the aid of a glass) to contemplate them as often and as fully as possible, and to learn them by heart according to one's capacity. The treatment of the draperies, the expression of movement in them, the gradation of colours and lights, offer an in- exhaustible source of pleasure.

STANZA D'ELIODORO.

The Stanza d'Miodoro, probably altogether or almost entirely painted by Eaphael himself in the years 1511-1614, shows a great progress in the historical style. It is venturesome, but permissible to surmise that he longed for subjects full of dramatic movement. Perhaps more allegories would have beeu preferred ; perhaps, on the contrary, Julius II. wished to see his own actions represented in full external reality, scenes out of the war of the Holy League, the entry through the breach of Mirandola, and so forth. Both would have been out of his line, at least for KaphaeL He now gave contemporary history and allegory together, the first in the dress of the last. The Chas- tisement of Heliodorus is a symbol of the expulsion of the French from the States of the Church; the Miracle of Bolsena (the facts of which fall in the year 1263) be- tokens the victory over heretical doctrine at the beginning of the sixteenth century. After the death of Julius II. (1513) Leo X, at once accepted this kind of glorified re- presentation of his own history; perhaps Raphael had already made sketches for the two other walls which were then replaced by the Attila (Symbol of driving the French out of Italy) and by the


liberation of Peter (Leo X.*s de- liverance out of the hands of the French in Milan, when he was still cardinal). It was highly fortunate that the aesthetics of that day regarded allegory and allusion as the same thing, while the latter ought probably only to deal with historically conceived, individually life-like figures.

However one regards the ques- tion, concessions have been made here by one side or the other. The four actions lie historically too far apart, and are too unconnected with each other, not to suggest that Raphael painted somethingdifferent from what was originally desired. Also the complete want of internal connection with the four Old Testa- ment pictures on the ceiling in- dicates a change of intention, that must have come in with the new pontificate.

On the whole, the subject is one that progresses in a uniform style, and continues also in the remain- ing rooms, though certainly in an interrupted manner— the victories of the Church under divine protec- tion. Lastly, the treatment raises all these subjects, so that we only seek the highest in them, and at- tribute the highest meaning to them.

Raphael makes his entrance into the domain of dramatic painting with indescribable power and splen- dour : his first picture was the Heli- odorus. What a fresh impulse after the narrower symbolism of the Ca- mera della Segnatura ! He never produced a group with grander action than that of the celestial horseman, with the youths doating at his side Uke a storm, and the overthrown transgressor with his followers. Whence the apparition came, whither it rushed past, is shown by the empty space in the midst of the foreground which leaves the eye free for the group round the altar of the temple. People


154


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


rightly admire the foreshortening in the rider and in Heliodorus ; but this is only the masterly ex- pression for the essential thing, namely, the happy position of the figures themselves. The sroup of women and children, which are found repeated a hundred-fold in all later art, deserves also in this its original type to be accurately im- pressed on the mind. . Lastly, the Pope must have his due : enthroned on his sedan chair, entirely real and actual, he calmly contemplates the miracle, as though it was by no means unexpected by him. In the portrait of Marc Antonio, who accompanies as carrier of the sedan chair, we have the same proof that Baphael introduced his portraits sometimes at least according to choice.

The Miracle of Bolsena was a much more limited subject than the Heliodorus. The action of the miracle is confined to a small spot ; it is rather as if a dramatist were to make the turning point of his piece merely the exchange of a rin^ or some such hardly visible incident. But within this limit the greatest things have been accom- plished. The perception and the forefeeliuff of the miracle goes like a spiritual current through the de- vout crowd on the left, and the reflection of it lights up the women and children sitting on the steps below ; in the group of the Pope and his attendants there is calm certainty, as becomes the Prince of the Church familiar with thousands of miracles, and even the officers of the Swiss guard kneeling below must not vary too greatly from this expression. In themselves they are a model of monumental treatment of costume. The arrangement near and above the window, which is not even in the middle, seems to have been a real amusement to Raphael ; from the irregularity itseiE the most beautiful motives come out


as of themselves. But closer ob- servation will change this view, and make us think that there was a great deal of trouble and thought given to it. The double flight of steps, the semicircular shrines, the vestibule of the church, form in themselves an architectonically beautiful picture.

Attila and Leo the Great — a vigorous scene full almost entirely of norsemen— must it not be nearly impossible with so much animal life, so much expression of physical strength, to give suflicient promi- nence to the higher spiritual purpose? Certainly there was not much space left for the celestial apparition, but it was made the most of. Instead of Apostles enthroned on clouds, they are sweeping forward in a threaten- ing manner, as it were a superna- tural attendance on the Pope calmly retiring with his people. Attila, alone among the Huns, sees what is happening, and shows the most lively expression of terror ; among his followers the horses have more presentiment than the men ; they become wild and shy, which gives splendid action to the group ; i^ove them the sky grows dark, and a stormy wind waves the banners. In the form of the horses, the ideal of our present connois- seurs is certainly not attempted. Think of the horses of Horace Vernet in their stead ; here they would be unendurable, while in the Smala, &c., we rightly admire them. Attila's black steed is still quiet : the terrified gesture of the king must not seem to be in any way caused by the rearing of his horse.

The Deliverance of Peter, deve- loped in three acts in a highly ori- ginal manner. The keepers too are not undignified ; confused, indeed, but not clownish. In the scene on the right Peter is led as in a dream by the wonderfully beautiful angeL The effect of light is treated with


Stanza delV Incendio.


155


a grand moderation ; nothing essen- tial is sacrificed to it.

The allegorical pictures on the skirting contain, even in their pre- sent state, motives from Eaphael which cannot be altogether spoiled. In the four roof pictures one re- cognises a similar, only freer and more simple treatment of the same style, as that of the corner pictures on the ceiling of the former room : while these are conceived as mo- saics, that is, in architectural frames and with imitated mosaic gold ground, the former are ar- ranged as stretched out tapestries.


STANZA DELL' INCENDIO.

a In the Stanza delV Incendio there is perhaps nothing by Eaphael's own hand ; on the ceihng he allowed the paintings of Peru^no to re- main, in order not to give pain to his master. Besides this, the time of severe symbolical large composi- tions was past, as the subject of the ceiling pictures of the Stanza d'Eliodoro proves.

The connection here is slighter than in the pictures of the former room. They are the deeds of Leo III. and lieo IV. (scenes, there- fore, from the eighth and ninth century), who are chosen out of all church history only on account of the similarity of their names to Leo X., and represented with his features. The Purification Oath of Leo VL is unintelligible ; neither Kaphael nor the Pope could, one would think, have any specialliking for the subject ; and u they wanted to symbolise the infallible truthful- ness of the Papal word, many other ihcideots would do this better, and would be at least as good pictonally. Anyhow a splendid ceremonial pic- ture arose out of it, which shows at least what great power of lifelike historical representation of special things the scholars who executed


it then possessed (1517). Here Perino del Vaga learned his cha- racter-painting, which reappears in his Heroes of the House ofh Doria (in the palace of that name at Genoa).

The Coronation of Charles the Great, on the other hand, is clearly a picture with a political tendency — a pious wish of Leo X., who wished to make Francis I. em- peror, whose features appear in Charlemagne. Here it is really painful to see Kaphael forcibly oc- cupied with making a ceremony interesting : half - naked men carry in s^^lendid furniture ; the heads of the prelates, seated in a row, have to be turned partly round in spite of the solemn moment, so that the spectator may not see nothing but mitres. And yet the scene is made what only Eaphael could make it, and the details are often so beautiful, that one would willingly attribute it to his own hand. ,

All his greatness as a historical composer comes out again in the Siege of Ostia. The fight, the conquest, and the taking of pri- soners are here in a masterly manner united in a most energetic, simple, and beautiful picture, which strikes us less only because of the excellent execution and of the defacement it has undergone later. Whether the Conquest of the Saracens refers generally to the invincibleness of the church, or is an allusion to the corsairs of Tunis and elsewhere at that time, cannot be made out.

Lastly, the famous picture, I'ln- cendio del Borgo, is in its subject the most unfortunate of any. Leo IV., by the sign of the cross, ex- tinguishes a fire near St. Peter's. Th^ was to symbolise the supreme power of the papal blessing. There was nothing to be done with the incident itself, because the casual connection of the gesture


156


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


of the Pope with the ceBsation of the fire could not be outwardly represented. Raphael, therefore, in place of it, created the most powerful genre picture that ever existed, — the representation of various figures nying, escaping, and helplessly lamenting. Here we have purely artistic ideas carried into reality, free from his- torical or symbolical considera- tions, in the dress of a heroic world. The artist must have been inspired by the purest enjoyment of lively invention ; the single motives are one more marvellous than another, and their combina- tion again incomparable. It is certainly true that, as a rule, this is not how things appear in a conflagration ; but for this heroic race oi men, the painting of effects of light in the style of Van der Neer, for instance, would not have been the right thing. Properly it is not the Borgo that is in flames, but Troy ; in place of the legend, the second book of the ^neid is the original Yet the beautiful distant group round the Pope must not be overlooked.

The figures on the skirting. Princes, who performed various services for the Papacy, are very happily conceived m their posi- tion, and rightly given ; not as slavish Caryatides, but as inde- pendent princes on thrones. Giulio executed them according to Ra- phael's designs ; Maraita later had to paint them over afresh.

SALA Dl COSTANTINO.

In deciding on the Sola di a Costantino, Leo X. seems to have perceived that it would not do to continue to paint in the traditional manner. By the allusions to the person of the Pope a constraint was laid on the artist, which with all his greatness he cannot make us forget. The subjects ought to


be conceived from a higher point of view, to give a picture taken simply from the history of the world. Thus did the first of all historical painters towards the end of his life arrive at subjects distinctly historical, yet idealized by distance of time. Perhaps for this he needed the Incendlo, in which he had relegated the Pope to the background.

Raphael furnished, as it seems, besides a sketch not entirely finished for the whole of the hall — the Cartoons for the Battle, the Baptism and the Gift of Constan- tine ; also, perhaps, for all the Virtues, and for some of the Popes, if not for all. None of the roof is his, and only a part of the wall by the windows. The pictures on the skirting, often very beauti- fully conceived, are now princi- pally the work of Maratta ; their design was 200 years ago ascribed to Giulio. Raphael intended to paint all in oil, not al fresco. This would have been a splendid sight at the moment of completion, had it been carried out by his own hand ; assuredly he would have divided the various kinds of pic- tures most markedly in their tone. But with time much would have grown darker, as the two allegories already mentioned {antea) show which were executed soon after his death, and certainly according to his intention.

What is now existing was prin- cipally executed by Giulio BoTnaiw; the Baptism was aone by Francesco Fenni ; the Gift of Constantine, by RaffaelU daV Colle. The ceil- ing is a late work of Tominaso Laureti.

The Vision of the Cross, with which we begin, was not designed by Raphael. The group of sol- diers has been injudiciously taken from the Storming of Jericho in the tenth arcade in the Loggie; and the rest, in parts rather frivolous.


EapJiael — Sala di Costantino.


167


composed to suit it (for iDstance, the dwarf). Examination will convince one of this.

The Battle of Constantine, on the other hand, executed by Giulio in his best manner, is one of the greatest productions of Kaphael's life. Let us try to realise to ourselves the significance of this battle picture. The imagination is doubtless more quickly excited by a crowd of horsemen with con- trasts of colour, and clouds of smoke, which gives only life and desperate movement, as in Salva- tor Rosa and Borgosnone ; and we are more immediate^ interested by the modem battle-piece, the life of which usually consists in a prin- cipal episode made as effective as possible. But Eaphael had to re- present a turning-point in the his- tory of the world and the church. It was above all to be the decisive moment of victory. Here the most brilliant episode is not enough ; the whole army must conquer together. This is brought out by the even and powerful advance of the Chris- tian cavalry, and the position of Constantine in the very centre of the picture, which, in springing forward, he is about to overpass. On this background the splendid episodes of single combat find their true significance without falling out of their place as parts of the pic- ture. Calm, like an irresistible principle, the leader of the army is enthroned in the midst of his host ; the relations of single warriors to him, the group of angels above him, give meaning to his central posi- tion ; a wamor points out to him Maxentiussinkingin the water. The succession and choice of the single incidents of the fight is of such a kind that none destroys the other ; they are not only natural in their place, but along with the greatest richness they are dramatically dis- tinct.

The Baptism of Constantine is


far more than a mere ceremonial picture, and stands as to the com- position considerablv above the Oath of Leo VL and the Corona- tion of Charlemagne. It is not given as a function which depends on a ceremonial and on specisQ cos- tumes, but as an ideal historical moment. The whole group is in movement which is excellently modified by the gradation of the space in steps. But indeed the two figures, additions by Penni, have much the effect of side scenes.

The Gift of Constantine, which would have become a ceremonial picture in any other hands, is here also an ideal historical moment. The emperor hands to the Pope S. Silvester not a document, in which one might suppose the gift of the city of Home to be wnten, nor a model of the town, with which later artists have helped themselves in similar cases, but a golden statuette of Kome. His kneeling followers, who show by their position the direction in which they have come, consist only of four persons : those pressing after are kept back by guards. The groups in front, which in later artists are often at the best only beautiful fillings up» are here the essential parts of the picture, and give the lifelike expression of the joy of the simple Boman people. All the expression of de- votion of the officials ranged in a row could not replace this expres- sion ; the Eoman individual feeling ought to speak out its own per- sonal rejoiciDg. The architecture of the ancient church of St. Peter's is free and very well made use of.

The figures of the Popes and of the Virtues are many of them in the careless, conventional style of the Koman school, and show there- fore to a disadvantage, for instance, compared with the accessory figures on the ceiling of the Sistine, which bear on them so markedly the stamp of the master's power. Had


158


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


they been done by Eaphael him- Bcdf, and executed in oils, they -would assuredly have had a pecu- liarly grand effect. (The head of S. Urban reputed to be by Raphael).


The above remarks, far from giving a full account of the con- tents of these infinitely rich frescos, are only intended to fix in the mind some essential points. It must be oh>served then that Eaphael was only partially free to follow his own plan. All that we can say is, in any case, mere guess, but the thing itself forces us to it. This moral side of the origin of the frescos is too often overlooked in their excellence.

LOGGIE OF THE VATICAN.

In the volume on "Architec- a ture ** the Vaiican Loggie, that is, the first row of arcades of the second story in the front great court of the Vatican is mentioned as the greatest masterpiece of mo- dern decoration. We come now to the Biblical subjects, which are arranged io divisions of four in the interior of the cupolas of the first thirteen arcades. They were exe- cuted after Kaphael's drawings by GiiUio BomxinOj Fraivccsco Fenniy Pellegrino da ifodeiia, Pcrino del Vaga^ and Jtafaelle dal Colic. The figure of Eve in the Fall, as is well known, is considered as Raphael's own work. The size and amount of finish of the designs from which the pupils worked are not known ; probably they varied according to circumstances.

The place and the technical ne- cessities prescribed the greatest simplicity. Effects of light, the expression of special heads, refined detail of any kind, were never to be the foundation and soul of the picture. What could not be done


by distinct references and gestures, must be left out. The centre point of the scenes, which was to be humanly interesting, without any distinct oriental character, must be wrought into an ideal work of art suitable and intelligible to all times and lands. Of the Venetian man- ner of translating the incident into sixteenth century romance there could have been no question. Com- pare the pictures of tne Loggie with the sketches of a Gior^one, Palma, or Bonifazio, of this Kind, and we shall feel the difference in idea. For the rest, in many of the Loggie pictures the landscape is as beau- ful and important as among the Veuetians, which here must be expressly mentioned. (Creation of Eve, Adam digging in the field, Jacob with Rachel at the well, Jacob struggling with Laban, Joseph explaining the Dream to his Brethren, the Finding of Moses, &c.)

The excellence of the single mo- tives is beyond description : all seems to be understood of itself. To see the value of each single pic- ture, one ought to point out how other artists, mostly with greater means, have only produced a smaller, less intellectual result, or else have shot quite beside the mark. Only the first pictures, those of the Creation of the World, are questionable to our feeling. Raphael here made use of the same type to express the Creator, which Michelangelo had called into life in the Sistine : art had now almost assumed the right to represent the Creation divided into several acts as pure motion. Immediately after begins the history of the first human pair, which here, owing to the definiteness of the landscape, has an essentially different tone from the pictures of a similar sub- ject in the Sistine. These four pictures alone reveal the greatest historical composer, as we must


BapMel — Loggie and TapeshHes.


159


concede on thinking over their motives. With the four pictures of Noah begins a new patriarchal heroic life, which is completely- displayed in the four of the his- tory of Abraham, and the four fol- lowing with the history of Isaac. Abraham with the three angels. Lot flying with his daughters, the kneeling Isaac, the scene with King Abimelech, are among Ra- pha3's most beautiful subjects. And yet in the pictures of the his- tory of Jacob and those of Joseph we feel as if we had for the first time before us the highest in this kind, — especially in the scene of Joseph before his Brethren inter- preting their dreams. Of the eight pictures containing the history of Moses, the first are still very beau- tiful, and among the later ones, the Worshipping of the Golden Csdf is especially so ; but, between these, in Moses on Sinai, and Moses before the pillar of cloud, there is a great falling off. Apparently the subject prescribed was not agree- able to the artist ; the last picture can hardly have been his own com- position. Of the four pictures of the COD quest of Palestine the storming of Jericho is peculiarly distinguished ; of the four of the history of David, the Anointing ; of that of Solomon, the Judgment. In the last arcade Raphael began the histories of the New Testa- ment ; the commencement, especi- ally the Baptism of Christ, shows what we have lost in the continua- tion. (The ].iast Supper can hardly be by Raphael. )

His treatment of the super- natural deserves especial attention. The smallness of the scale obliged liim to seek to give the effect merely by gesture and- movement. The Dividing of Light from Darkness (first arc, first picture) is in this respect conceived with peculiar grandeur ; the movement of the four extremities expresses both the


driving apart and also the greatest power. With the first human being Gknl appears as a wise father ; the angel who drives them out of Paradise shows in his gesture a soothing compassion. In a strong soaring motion €rod appears to Abraham and Isaac (with a gesture of prohibition), and to Moses in the burning bush ; with Jacob's ladder even Raphael had to do the best he could. In the Giving the Law on Sinai, where God is repre- sented in profile, enthroned, the movement is carried on to the angels rushing on with their trumpets.

These Biblical pictures have not the slightest internal connection with the decorations. But this system of ornamentation had but a neutral meaning, and could have afforded no place for religious sym- bols and allusions.

RAPHAEL'S TAPESTRIES.

BaphaeVs tapestries * consist of (^ two series, of which in any case only the first, with the ten inci- dents out of the history of the Apostles, strictly belong to him. He produced, in the years 1515 and 1516 (thus at the same time with the designs for the Stanza dell' Incendio), the famous car- toons, of which seven were formerly at Hampton Court, and are now in the Kensington Museum in Lon- don. They were worked in Flan- ders, and a part of them at least came to Rome during Raphael's lifetime. The workers followed his drawing as accurately as people at that time usually followed designs for works of art ; they take liftr- ties, for instance, in the treatment of single heads and of the landscape background which a modem artist

♦ At present hung in two places of the long gallery of communication between the upper Gallery of Antiques and the Stanze of the Vatican.


160


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


would not permit in his asBistants. The preservation of what remains is, considering the various adven- tures it has passed through, very fair ; stUl, the colours have faded unequally, and the nude has taken a cold, dirty tone. The contours of the tapestries also can never equal the orijeinal flow and touch of the hand of EaphaeL

We have already spoken of the Arabesque borders to the pictures, which have only in a few instances been preserved. Besides this there are pictures in the skirtings in a low gold colour. Here it is seen how Leo X. esteemed his own history. Without any connection with the Acts of the Apostles above, it runs parallel below, and including even such incidents as were anything but admirable, such as his flight in disguise from Flo- rence, his capture m the battle of Ravenna, &c. The child of for- tune thinks all that happened to him not only remarkable, but worthy to be represented in a his- torical picture, and this feature of the Medicean mind was made use of one hundred years later by Kubens and all his school for the glorification of the most doubtful subjects. (Gallery of Marie de Medicis.) These pictures on the skirting, depicted in beautiful and low relief, required, by-the-bye, to make them distinct, the same ex- pedient as the relief of the an- cients ; namely, the personification of rivers, mountains, towns, etc., to mark out the localities. Also the general ideal costume was quite necessary here, where no detail was to be sharply characterised.

In the principal pictures Raphael was free, and could follow his highest inspirations. It is to be supposed that he could here choose the incidents himself ; at least, they are all so well selected that none better and more beautifully varied can be taken from the Apostolic


history. The technical method according to which he had to cal- culate his work allowed him nearly as much freedom as fresco. He seems to have worked with a calm, even delight. The purest feeling for lines is combined with the deepest intellectual conception of the action. How gently and impressively in the picture, '*Feed my sheep," is the power of the glonfied Christ expressed without any Glories, in that the nearer the group of the Apostles comes, the more are they drawn towards him ; the farthest remain calm, while Peter is already kneeling. The Healing of the Cripple in the Temple, one of those subjects which in later pictures is usually oppressed by the crowding of heads, is here brought out in the most beautiful repose by the architectonic arrangement and by the nobleness of style. The Con- version of Paul is here (without any efifects of light) represented in the only, really noble way, while most other painters try to show their skill by representing a mere timiult. The counterpart to this is the Stoning of Stejphen. The Striking the Sorcerer Elymas with Blindness (unfortunately half gone) and the Punishment of Ananias are the npblest types of the representa- tion of solemn and fearful miracles. The terrible and mysterious ele- ment in the foreground is softened by the quiet groups behind. Next, there belong together Paul Preach- ing at Athens and the Scene at Lystra, both of immense influence on later art ; thus, for instance, the whole style of Poussin would not have come into existence but for them. One is a picture most rich in expression, yet quite subordi- nated to the powerful figure of the Apostle seen in profile ; the other, one of the most beautiful groups of a popular crovrd in motion, so ar- ranged around the ox, which is the victmi, as to be interrupted by


Raphael — Cappella Chigi — Farnesina.


161


its position, vhich yet conceals nothing : we feel bow the Apostle must be distracted with grief, at such conduct in the people. Lastly, the Draught of Fishes, a picture possessing most mysterious charm ; the effect of physical straining (in two such figures !) is shown in the second barque ; in the foremost Peter kneels before Christ, who is seated, and the spectator is not distracted by the sight of the fishes, which in other pictures causes people to forget the princi- pal ^int, the expression of entire devotion and conviction of the Apostle. ^ The second series of taitestries, already inferior in its execution, was worked in Flandera, as a present from Francis I. to the Papal court. It appears that Flemish artists made large cartoons out of small designs by Eaphael, which were used for these tapestries. Some of the compositions, especially the grand Adoration of the Shep- herds, also that of the Kin^, the Murder of the Innocents, the Resurrection, show, in spite of numerous Flemish additions, the inexhaustible invention of the master, his strikingly telling mode of developing the incident ; in others, on the other hand, there can be nothing of his own ; it was a spectdation which took hold of the then world-famous name, be- fore the fame of Michelangelo had overshadowed all else.


Besides these great Papal com- missions, Raphael also undertook a number of frescos for churches and private persons. ^ The earliest (1512) is the Isaiah on a pier of the nave of ^S*^. Agos- thw, in Borne. (Since an unfortu- nate restoration, Raphael is only reaponsible for the outlines.) The wapression made by the Sistine Chapel, which was completed


1 shortly before, must be preserved ; but the influence of Fra Bartolom- meo is more seen in the picture than that of Michelangelo. In the beautiful way in which he has given the Putti with the Prophet, Raphael may be considered supe- rior to both.

Quite a different sort of compe- tition with Michelangelo comes out in the famous fresco of S. Maria c delta Face* (1514). The repre- sentation of heavenly inspired fe- male forms, which antiquity had given quite differently in its muses, here belong to the symbol- ism of the Middle Ages, as well as the effect produced by the intro- duction of the Angels. Michel- angelo had abandoned this point, and had sought to concentrate the supernatural altogether in the figures of the Sibyls themselves, so that the Pntti only serve them as attendants, and followers ; later on, Guercino and Domenichino left out the Angels altogether, and their Sibyl looks longingly alone out of the picture. Ra- phael, on the contrary, ex- pressed, by the very combination of the Sibyls and Angels, the most beautiful enthusiasm both in the announcement and the realization. It is a long while before one remarks that the angels are formed on a smaller scale ; just as the Greeks made the herald sinaller than the hero. The disposition of the space, the dominant though varied sym- metry, the forms of the figures and characters, give this work a place among the highest creations of Raphael, and perhaps of all his frescos it will soonest gain the liking of the beholder.

CAPPELLA CHIGI AND FARNESINA.

In the year 1516 Raphael built and decorated the Cappella Chigi,


  • Best light about 10.


M


162


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


a in the left aisle of S, Maria del Popolos from his cartoons, a Ve- netian maestro, LuisaceiOf com- pleted at the same time the mosaics of the cupola. (As Venetian mosaics, they are not among the best exe- cuted of this time. ) The Almighty, civing the benediction, surrounded by Angels (in the Lantema), exhibits in its noblest form the hazardous system of foreshortening, disotto in su, which chiefly through Correg- gio*8 example, had then grown pre- valent. Bound about are the seven planets, and, as an eighth sphere, the heaven of tixed stars, imder the protection and guidance of divine messengers. Here mythology and Christian symbolism meet; most ad- mirably has Raphael distineuished the flares in character, and united them m action. The planet deities, powerful, absorbed, impassioned ; the Angels protecting and calmly controllmg. The arrangement of the spaoe where, for instance, the planet gods only show the upper part of their bodies, strikes us as so suited to the subject that no other could be possible.


At the same time, the same Agostino Chigi (a rich Sienese banker), who built this chapel, had built for himself the most beautiful summer palace in the world, the h Far7iesiiia, on the Longara, at Home. Baldassare Peruzzi built it, and also painted a j^rtion at least of several rooms in it. In the intervals between the labours of the Stanza d'Eliodoro, Raphael was persuaded to produce a fresco picture for his patron, Agostino, and painted, in the anteroom on the left, the Galatea, the most beau- tiful of all modem mythological pictures. Here the allegorically employed myth is no mere con- ventional opportunity for the pro- duction 01 beautiful forms, but


Raphael's idea could be rendered purely and beautifully only in this form. What simply human story would have sufficed to represent distinctly the awakening of Ix>ve in his full majesty? The Queen of the Sea is pure blissful longing; shot at by Amorini, surrounded by Nymphs and Tritons, whom Love has already joined, she floats on her shell upon the tranquil waves ; even on the reins of her dolphins a wonderful Amorino has suspended himself, and lets himself be mer- rily drawn along over the waters. Here, by the way, we can best con- vince ourselves how little Raphael was dependent on the antique in his feeling for form ; not only the conception, but every contour is his own. And, in truth, his draw- ing is less ideal, more naturalistic, than that of the Greeks ; he is the child of the fifteenth century. There are more "correct" figures in the school of David, but who would exchange these for them ? In the two last years of his life c I (1518-1520) Raphael made the I designs for the famous story of Psyche, in the lower great hall of the Famesina ; they were executed by Giulio HomanOt Fraiuxsco Penni, and (the decorations and the ani- mals) by Giovanni da Udine. The pupils have rendered the ideas of the master in a conventional and even coarse style ; to understand Raphael's conception, one must try to transport one's mind into the style of the Galatea. Raphael received for the place of his com- position a flat ceiling connected with pendentives forming arches, and showing triangular curved faces. On the last he repre- sented ten scenes from the story of Psyche ; on the vaultings, floating genii with the attributes of the Gods ; on the central surface, in two great pictures, the Judgment of the Gods and the feast of the Gods at Psyche's marriage. The place of


Raphael.


163


delineatioD is altoffether ideal, and represented by a blue ground ; its divisions not sharply marked ar- chitecturally, but oy garlands of fruit, in which Giov. da Udine showed the mastery he had already exliibited in the windows of the Logeie.

The space and form of the pen- dentives were apparently as ill- adapted as possible for histories containing several figures ; but Ra- phael only brought forth therefrom (as out of the form of the wall in the Miracle of Bolsena, the Deli- verance of Peter, the Sibyls) op- portunities for special beauty. No particular definition of the local- ity, no distinct costume, could appear therein ; that was his ad- vantage, as against the unmense constraint imposed on him by the framework. Nothing but nude or ideally shaped forms, most beauti- ful and distinct in their markings, and the happiest selection of the most telling moments, could pro- duce this wonderful effect. The later ones are, indeed, not all alike happy, and all assume the know- ledge of the myth related by Apu- leius* (which at that time every- one had by heart). But, taken as a whole, they are the highest possible achievement in this style, especially Cupid showing Psyche to the Three Groddesses, the Ke- tum of Psyche from the Lower Kegions, Jupiter kissing Cupid, Mercury carrying Psyche. In the two large pictures on the ceiling, conceived as strained tapestries, with the Olympian scenes, Raphael gave not that kind of illusion which seeks to represent heaven by crowds of figures on layers of clouds, and seen as from below, foreshortened, but a conception of space which sa- tisfies the eye, and gives a stronger impression of the supernatural to


• Plainer, " Beschreibung Roras," p. 585, &C., gives an account of. the subject.


the inner sense than heavenly scenes in perspective. Some of the single incidents are among his most mature productions (the Jupiter in Con- templation and Cupid Pleading, Mercury and Psyche ; in the Mam- age Feast, especially the bridal pair, Ganymede attending, and many others), and yet no single detail loses its place in the wonderfully combined whole. The hovering Cupids, with the signs and the favourite creatures of the gods, are indeed intended as an allegory on the omnipotence of Love ; but in detail they are figures of children of the most lively, numan, and the most harmonious hovering move- ment in a given space.


Perhaps Raphael regretted in this work the many other incidents that might have been represented in the history of Psyche, which could find no place here, because they required a distinct locality and a larger number of figures. How- ever that be, he designed a larger, series of scenes, which survive, unfortunately, only in a later ar- rangement by Michel Coxde, in en- gravings and modern copies of en- gravings (among others in the col- lection of Reveil*). The story is

  • Among other frescos by pupils of

Raphael (or distant iinitatoi-s) from hia designs, there exist in Rome wall deco- rations with allegorical representations referring to the omnipotence of love, in a charmingly decorated room of the Vatican (the so-called bath-room of Cardinal Bibbi- ena), next the third floor of the Loggie, in 1868 belonging to an official residence ; the remains from the so-called Villa di Raf- faelle, now in the Borghese Gallery (Alex- ander with Roxana, and a marriage scene) ; the so-called Bersaglio de' Dei is executed after a composition of Michelangelo {antea) ; the Planet deities drawn on cars by their special sacred animals in the ovals of the roof of the great haU of the Appartamento Borgia. The twelve Apos- tles, which one now seed painted on the piers in S. Yiucenzo ed Anastasio alle tre

M 2


164


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


given as simply and innocently as possible; the eye accepts the di- vine beauty of most of these com- positions and is satisfied by it;


It is just this that brings Ea- phael so much nearer to us than all other painters. There is no longer any division between him and the desire of all past and future cen- turies. To him, of all men, is there least occasion to forgive anything, or to help him out by assuming something. He accomplishes tasks of which the intellectual premises, not by his fault, lie far removed from us, in a way which seems quite natural to us. The soul of the modem man has, in the region of the beautiful in form no higher master and guardian than he is. For the antique has only come down to us as a ruin, and its spirit is never our spirit.

The highest personal quality of Raphael was, as we must repeat in conclusion, not aesthetic but moral in its nature, namely, the great honesty and the strong will with which he at all times strove after the beauty which at the time he recognised as the highest. He never rested on what he had once gained, and made use of it as a convenient possession. This moral quality would have remained with him even to his old age, had he lived longer. If we think over the colossal power of creation of his very last years, we shall feel what has been lost for ever by his early death.

THE PUPILS OF RAPHAEL.

The piipils of Raphael formed themselves in executmg the great works of his last years. Was it

Fontane, are only done after engravings by Marc Antmiio ; the original pictures in the now-altered Bala vecchia de' PalaA'enieri have disappeared under repaintings by the ZvccheH, Much of the invention already belongs to pupils.


an advantage for their own work that they snould be from the be- ginning under the impression of his- grand manner of conception ? Could they ever look at objects again ia the same naive manner? And what^ effect could it have on them wheu they gathered from the talk of the world what things their master was especially admired for? In the- last resort, it depended very much on their character.

The most important of thent is Oiulio Romano (died 1546) ; a- facile inexhaustible fancy which does not despise excursions into* the region of naturalism, and es- pecially loves to take up neutral subjects, the myths of antiquity, but no longer has any internal con- nection with ecclesiastical painting, and could not but fall into an endless bewilderment and a barren facility of production.

Early decorative paintings : in the P. Borghese (three fragments, ^ sawn off, out of the Villa Lante, with ancient Roman histories connected with the Janiculum) ; in the Villa Madama (frieze of^ Putti, candelabra and garlands of fruit, in a room to the left ; the volume on architecture) ; in the Famesina (frieze of an upper c room). Early Madonnas in P. Bor- ^ ghese, room 2, No. 7 ; in the P. Co- ^ lanTia, room on the right ; in the/ Sacristy of S. Peter, in the Tribune (7 of the Uffizi; the mother more resolute, the children more wilful, than in Eaphael ; the harmony of the lines nearly lost. Perhaps the earliest large altar-piece, on the high altar of S. M, delV Anitna, in /* single details Kaphaelesque in beau- ty. In the Sacristy of S. Prassede ; i the Scourging, merely a study of the nude in brick-red flesh tones, still careful in its bravura. [For the pictures in Turin : see below under ^ B. Mantovano,] Lastly, the prin-/ cipal work among the earlier ones, the Stoning of Stephen, on the


RaphaeVs Pupik.


165


(ihigh altar of S, Stcfaiw at G«noa, very careful, beautifully modelled, in colouring still resembling the lower half of the Transfiguration. The lower, earthly group, composed like a half-circle in shadow roimd the slender principal figure, beau- tifully true and youthfuSy naive, is still one of the finest productions of Italian art. All have just lifted up their stones, and are ready to throw them, one hastily, another more deliberately ; but the spectator is spared the actual sight of the horror. In the heavenly group all Giulio's inferiority appears ; the architectonic sense is wanting ; Christ and the Almighty are half covered ; the angels, among whom is one very beautiful, are occupied in drawing aside the clouds. The conception of the supernatural is intentionally trivial.

Giulio built and painted all the rest of his life at Mantua, in the service of the Duke. [In the ducal palace in the town : Sala del b ZodiacOf allegorical mythological representations of the series of pictures of animals ; Appartamento and Sala di Troja, very unequal scenes of the Trojan war ; in the Scalcheria, lunettes with hunting scenes representing Diana ; also the whole pictorial decoration of c the Palazzo del T^, buUt by Giulio himself, with purely mythological and allegorical subjects. Remark especially the Camera di Fsiche, with the richest and gayest compo- sitions in fresco covering the whole walls, with distant landscape back- grounds, and above them lunettes in oil ; the ceiling pictures by the same, by pupils, quite blackened ; in the Camera de' Cesari two lunette-frescos, a good deal else in tbe smaller rooms ; then the noto- rious Sala de' Giganti, for the most part executed by Einaldo Manto- vano, with the gigantic forms, 12—14 feet high, in all possible attitudes, between enormous masses


of rock, which, painted over the wall and ceiling of the domed hall, without setting, skirting, or framing, oppress the beholder with their overpowering colossal size. Here and there he has conceived the incidents really grandly, but on the whole he was very careless, and, for instance, represented the Fall of the Giants, against his better knowledge, as we see it here. Two elegantly executed drawings in colour for the history of Psyche, painted in the Palazzo del T^, in the picture c2 gallery at the Villa Albani at Rome [in any case, the most re- markable work of Giulio, still quite penetrated with the spirit of RaphaeL — Mr. 1

Of the pupils who formed them- selves with him at Mantua, Giulio e Clovio is famous as a miniature painter ; — Rinaldo Mantovaiio is the painter of a very unregulated pic- ture, a large Madonna with Saints, in the Brer a at Milan (Reminiscence/ of the Madonna di Foligno) ; [better, if really by him, are the two pic- tures 56 and 101 in the Turin Gal- g lery, the Assumption of the Virgin, floating upwards, and a lunette with (^)d the Father, both pictures containing single angels, quite noble and Raphaelesque in conception. — Mr.]— PriTiiaticcio, Francis the First's favourite painter at Fon- tainebleaUf has almost nothing in h Italy; — by his assistant, Niccolb delV AbhaZe, there are frescos in the Palazzo del Commutie (1546), at Mo- i dena; others formerly also in the Castle of Scandiano. These are now in the Modena gallery — ^nine ruined wall frescos with scenes from^ the iEneid ; better, and once in the Poggi palace, an octagon with figures playing and singing, almost like a useful Dosso Ikmi. — Mr.] The three mythological pictures of the Manfrini Gallery in Venice are h more probably the work of a Ve- netian, who was also acquainted


166


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


with the Roman school — ^perhaps liatiata Franco [or GitLseppe Porta j Salviati. — Mr.].

On the whole Giulio's influence on art was very injurious. The entire indifference with which he (chiefly in various frescos) turned to account tlie style of form learnt from Raphael, and yet more from Michelangelo for superficial effects, gave the first great example of soulless decorative painting.

Perin del Vaga (1499—1547), though less richly gifted, and, in his few easel pictures strikingly mannered (some in the Palazzo

a Adorno at Oenoa; the Madonna with Saints in the right transept of

h the Cafhedral of Pisa, more the work of Sogliani than Perino), yet is closer to Raphael whenever decorative limitation and division protect his figures and scenes from svant of form. We see in the cathedral of Pisa, in several places in the right transept, very beauti- ful Pntti, painted by experiments in fresco. In Genoa all the de-

ccoration of the Palazzo Doria be- longs to Perin. Much here re- minds us of the Farnesina : in the lower hall some of the comer figures are unusually beautiful ; the small lunette pictures (from Roman history), interesting in parts on oc- count of their landscapes ; the four ceiling pictures (Scipio's Triumph) are indeed oppressive through over- crowding and realism ; in the Galena again are Putti, lively and in good action, but not simple in their forms ; splendid decorations in the vaulting; and on the one wall the heroes of the house of Boria. represented in more than life- size ; their sitting position, while yet they are in somewhat forced drama- tic relations with each other, is not < happy, but still they are in charac- | ter almost Raphaelesquely grand ; * \

  • I must take this occasion to mention

a splendid portrait in the Ufflzi (Sala del


in the hall on the right, the Contest of the Giants, full of an unpleasant swagger, like most pictures of this kind ; of the other rooms, the one with the Loves of Jupiter and the figures of the Sciences, as also that with the histories of Psyche, contain the best motives. The Genose pupils of Perin belong altogether to the mannerists. (Later frescos of Perin in Rome : S. Marccllo, sixth chapel on the^ right.)

Francesco Penni, called II Fat«  tore, has left little of note in Rome. [In the Turin Gallery an exellent ^ copy of Raphael's Deposition, in the Borghese Palace, of the year 1518. —Mr.]

An unknown painter, of the school of Raphael, painted the fifth chapel on the right in the Trinitd de^ Monte at Bome (Adoration of the/ Shepherds, of the Kings, and the Circumcision, besides lunette pic- tures). Along with Raphaelesque touches one observes here the degeneracy of the school, very clearly in its beginnings ; long- extended figures, contorted arms, &c. Several other chapels show the degeneracy of the imitators of Michelangelo. (The third chapel on the right, with histories of the Virgin, is, for instance, painted by Dan. di VoUerra.)

Of all his pupils, Andrea Sah' hatinif or Andrea da Salerno^ has the most of Raphael's spirit. Besides the pictures in the Naples Museum g (Descent from the Cross, Adoration of the Kings, with the Allegory of Religion in the upper semicircle of seven teachers of the Church, S. Mcolas enthroned between those saved by him), and some scattered about in various churches (Sta.

Baroccio), whlcli is clearly by a papil of Raphael ; a man of good-humoured yet dissipated expression, with a cap, grey damask dress, and fUr.


Contemporaries of Raphael.


167


Maria delle Grazie, Lower Church rt of S. Severino) there are the fres- cos in the vestibule of the inaer b court of S. GeuTiaro dei PoveH, which may be unhesitatingly as- cribed to him — ^perhaps the most intellectual production that Naples possesses by her own countrymen of the golden period. (History of S. Januarius, unfortunately, much defaced.) [Virgin and Child with Saints in S. Giorgio, Pietsl in the Duomo, Madonna in S. Agostino, of Salerno, Virgin and Child in Glory in 8. Francesco of Eboli, and several canvases in the Monastery of Montecassino. — Ed.] Andrea conceives beautifully and simply, and paints only to express what he conceives, not to produce mere pictorial effects. One of his suc- cessors, Gia7i Bernardo La/ma is in successful instances also naive and simple, but sometimes also very weak and fade. (5. Gia- c como degli Spagnuoli, third chapel on the left, large Descent from the Cross, like a Fleming who had studied in Italy ; other things d in the Museum. ) [A delicate, studiedly elegant Adoration of the Shepherds, with a Glory of Angels, signed, 1861 belonged to Mar- e ckese Gagliardi. — Mr.] Antonio A'inato later adopted the same style. Madonna with Angels in /the MvMum,

Polidoro da Caravaggio brought quite another tendency to Naples and Sicily. He is still a follower of Raphael in the fa9ade paintings mentioned in the volume on Sculp- ture ; perhaps also in those un- known to me in the summer-house

g of the Palazzo del Bufalo. Of the Niobe frieze there is a sketch in

A the P. Corsini: three pictures, grey on grey, are said to be still

i m the P. Barherini. Later he falls into the harshest naturalism, of which the great Descent from the

j Cross [1534] in the Naples Museum


is a remarkable instance. Here for the first time vulgarity is regarded as an essential condition of energy. His smaller pictures in the same collection are partly composed in the same style and partly ac- cording to a second-hand classicism. A pupH of Polidoro, Marco Gardisco k (in the Museum, the Contest of St. Augustine with the Heretics), has rather the appearance of a degener- ate scholar of Eaphael himself. A pupil of this Cardisco, namely Pietro Negroni (1560—1569*), shows in the only picture known to me, a large Madonaa floating on clouds • with Angels [Museum), a really I astonishing beauty and grandeur ; ooe thinks one sees the highest conceivable inspiration of Giulio Romano before one. Other masters, like CriscioolOf Roderigo SicUiano, Caria, &c., are for the most part very little enjoyable {Museum). 7ii [A famous picture of Ippolito Borghese, the Assumption of the Virgin, in the Chapel of the Monte n di Pietd, hardly to be dated before 1550, is completely smooth in execution and unattractive in colour, though with points recall- ing Raphael and A. del Sarto. — ^Mr.]


CONTEMPORARIES IN BOLOQNA AND FERRARA.

Several pupils of F. Francia in Bologna passed on eventually into the school of Raphael, or at any rate fell under the determining in- fluence of his works.

The earlier paintings of Timoteo della Vile from Urbino (1467—

  • I saw in 1861 at the honae of Cardinal

Santangelo an excellent picture with the signature Pietro Negroni, 1594 ; and I do not know how the usual statement about the date of his life, which would not agree with this, is authenticated.— Mr. There is another interesting work by P. Negroni in S. Aniello at Naples, chapel of the De Grazia family, a Madonna with Saints, signed Pietro de Negroni, p. 1645.— Fr.


168


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


1523)^^ are found for the most part

a io his paternal city of Urbino and the neighbourhood; [in the Sa-

b cristy of the Cathedral there are SS. Martin and Thomas, sitting

c figures ; in the toivn collection the half-length figures of S. Sebastian and S. Agatha ; these three, as well as the picture of an angel in the

d public gallery at Brescia, quite in the style of Francia and Perugino. — Mr. and Fr.] some later ones in

e the Brera, No. 191 (Mary between two Saints, with a lovely Putto fiying downwards), and in the Pina-

fcoteca at Bologna (S. Magdalen in prayer, standing before her cave, a mysteriously attractive figure, about 1508). As Kaphael's pupil he painted the Prophets above the Sibyls in the Pace ; but how much was prescribed to him is not known, and in reality these figiires are essentially his own, and, but for the proximity of the Sibyls, would ap- pear a work of first rank. [Of his latter years (1521) there is a beau- tiful altar-piece in the CcUhedral

g a.t Onbbio— St. Mary Magdalen surrounded by Angels. Scenes of the Legend in a sunny landscape. — Mr.] [Noli me tangere in Sant' Angelo of Cagli.]

Another pupil of Francia and Baphael. Bartolommeo Mamenghi ( Bagtmcavallo), is sometimes ^and in his delineations of these ideal figures (Sacristy of S. Michele in

hbosco at Bologna; the figures in niches : compare the famous pic- ture of the four Saints in Dresden). Sometimes too he is somewhat ex- aggerated [S. M. della Pace at

^' Borne; two Saints opposite the Prophets of Timoteo. His best

  • He was, perhaps after his return to

Urbino in 1495, from the school of Francia, Raphael's first teacher, and painted him as a boy of twelve in the little picture of the Borghese Gallery, 1st room, No. 85 (Pas- savant). Crowe and Cavalcaselle trace in this most attractive portrait the manner of Kidolfo Ghirlandajfk


composition we have mentioned already {antea) ; but the Madonna with Saints in the Pinacoteca atj Bologna is only moderately good, and the way in which he altera Kaphael's Transfiguration (in the Sacristy above mentioned) is alto- k gether bad. (There is a beautiful early picture, the Christ Crucified, with three Saints, in the Scristy of S. Pietro at Bologna.) I

Inthocenzo da Imola, on the other hand, did not caricature Kaphael's compositions, but simply worked in Kaphael's manner. Of his numerous works, almost all in Bologna, a few are early and naive {Pinacoteca, Madonna of the Faith- m ful} or freely executed in the Kaphaelesque spirit (Pi7iacoteca, k Madonna with both Children, S. Francis and S. Clara) ; most, on the other hand, are mere selections from Kaphael, careful, neat, and as skil- fiU in the arrangement as one can reasonably expect from their unconnected character. {Pina- o coteca : Holy Family, with Donor and Wife ; S. Michael, with other Saints. In S. Salvat&rc, third chapel i> on the left ,: the Christ Crucified, with four Saints, constructed on earlier works of Kaphael, &c.) Some- what freer : S. Giacmno Maggiare, q seventh altar on the right; Mar- riage of S. Catherine [one of the greatest and most characteristic, perhaps the most beautiful picture of the master, of most praise- worthy solidity of execution for the year of its production, 1536. — Mr.] — Servi, seventh altar on the»' left, large Annunciation ; lastly, the frescos, by no means con- temptible, in S, Michele in bosco, s Chapel del Coro Notturno, which shows how gladly Innocenzo would have produced something simple and characteristic*

■* A similar appropriation of motives ftrom Baphael, only more from his earlier time, is found in a Lucchese, Zaochia il veochio.


Treviso. — Cotignola, — Mazzolino. — Garo/alo. 1 69


Girolamo da Treviso [1497 — 1544], who studied in Venice, and then

a worked in Bologna, shows in his monochrome scenes of Legends of the ninth chapel on the right in S. Petronio, studies after Raphael [and several other masters. As mentioned before (p. 90), he was the son of Pier Maria Pennacchi. A beautiful S. Jerome with SS. Boch and Se- bastian, in the Sacristy of tJic SaliUe

2>at Venice, is probably by him. [At Faenza a virgin and Child with Saints in the church of the Commenda ; and a Madonna in S. Maglorio under the name of Gior- gione.] His masterpiece is in the National GaUery in London. — Mr.]

By Girolamo Marchesi da Cotig- ^wla, once pupil of FraDcia, one finds in this district only later pic- tures of the freer, already some- what mannered style. (A large overcrowded Marriage of the Virgin

c in the Piiiacoteca at Bologna ; Justi- tia and Fortitudo, in S. M. in Vado

c^atFerrara, furthest chapel in the right transept ; this is naturalistic in a beautiful Venetian manner.) This master is not to be con- founded with his two elder bro- thers (?), Francesco and Bernardo Marchesi called also Zaganelli, from Cotignola, who worked under the influence of Francia, Bellini, and

^the elder Ferrarese in Ravenna. There are pictures in S. Niccold at

/Cotignola [the Brera of Milan, the gallery of Forli, and the church of the Nunziata at Parma. — £d.] and elsewhere.

The Ferrarese painters also fell uuder the influence of Baphael, but the speciality of their school was

In his pictures (Ascension, in S. Salvatore, ftt Lucca; Assumption, in S. Agostino, 1527 ; an Assumption, in S. Pietro So- raaldi, 1523, &c.) tliere is a feeling of the Sistine and of Fra Bartolommeo, but espe- cially of Raphael's first Coronation of the Virgin in the Vatican.


strong enough to make a counter- poise in the scale.

One of them, Lodovico Mazzo- lino (1478 — 1528), entirely re- sisted this influence. He retained his old North Italian realism along with and in connection with glowing Venetian colouring. His works mostly small cabinet pictures (the smaller the more valu- able) are rarely found in Ferrara, but here and there in Italy (P. Sorghcse, g 2nd room, 58, and F. Doria, 7th A room, 9, Capitoline GaUery, No. i 23 and No. 104, at Borne ; Uffijsi, j 1030, 32, 34), FiUi, No. 129, and k more frequently in foreign coun- tries. Overladen and deticient in ideas without right principles in drawing, most extravagant in his use of gold relief in ornamenting halls, Mazzolino yet impresses us by the depth and juicy freshness of his colours, which, with all their variety, form a sort of harmony. They shine out from afar in the galleries. In the Atenco at Ferrara I is a somewhat larger picture. Ado- ration of the Child, with saints.

BenveniUo Tisio, called GarofaZo (1481 — 1559), began under the same influences as Mazzolino (small pic- tures in Fal, Borghese, 2nd room, m 1, 2). Later on, having often re- sided in Rome and been in Raphaers school, he endeavoured to adopt the Roman style as far as he was able. He possessed from the first the gift needed to make a Venetian painter of life in the manner of a Pordenone or Palma ; now he produced altar- pieces in a more ideal style than he ought to have attempted. It is hard to judge severely works which aim so earnestly at the highest things, especially when occasionally combined with truly Venetiau splendour, harmony, and clearness of colouring. And yet it is a fact that the inner sense is often repelled by him, while the eye is delighted. He is not a mannerist: even the


170


Painting of the Sutteenth Century.


innumerable little pictures particn-

a larly of the Doria Gallery and the

b Capitoline (not leas than fourteen) are composed and painted with en- tire conscientiousness as to the exe- cution. But his feeling is not suffi- cient to give life to the forms which he creates : his pathos is uu certain ; his ideal heads, especially the larg^e ones, betray an intellectual empti- ness. (Thus the beautiful head of an Apostle in the P. Pitti, No. 5. ) In his few genre pictures (Boarhunt in

c P. Sciarra ; Troop of Horsemen in

c^the F. Coloniia^ ascribed to Bag- nacavallo) he is altogether Ferra- rese in his naivete and richness of colour. In his later works his re- lation to Eaphaers pupils was the same as it had been to Baphael himself, and also his colouring is weaker. His principal church pic- tures are as foUows : —

« In Rome : —Pal. Doria : Visita- tion and Adoration of the Child, early and beautiful (first callery. No. 26; second gallery, No. 69).

fP. Chigi: Ascension, and a pic- ture with Three Saints, also good ;

g^P, Borghese (VI. 8), Descent from the Cross, a masterpiece. In the

h Naples Museuin : Descent from the Cross, deeper and quieter in expression. [Both pictures, which stand out most advantageously among Garofalo's works, as also an Adoration of the Shepherds in the

i P. Borghese, first room, 67, show marks of beinc the work of Ortolano. — Mr.] In the Brera at Milan : a

J Piet^ with several figures, and aCni-

^ cifix ; early. In the Academy at Ve- nice: Maaonna in the Clouds, with four Saints dated 1518 ; excellent.

I In the Modena Gallery : two Ma- donnas enthroned with Saints, one beautiful, of the middle time, and one late one. In S. Salvatore at

^Bologna, first chapel on the left: domestic scene with Zacharias.

w In Ferrara : — In the Ateneo: large allegorical fresco picture, the Tri- umph of Religion, out of the former


Refectory of S. Andrea ; as a whole insignificant and unpleasing, pare bookish fancy, but with beautiful episodes of his middle period [Massacre of the Innocents, 1519, a very fine example of the Rapbael- esque ; Resurrection of Lazarus (1532), and Discovery of the Cross (1536), both grey and stony. — Ed.] ; large Adoration of the Kings, of 1537, and still very brilliant ; Geth- semane ; the Death of S. Pietro Martire, and several others. In the Cathedral: on both sides of c^ the Portal, good and noble fresco figures of Paul and Peter ; third altar on the left, Madonna e>n-p throned with six Saints, of the year 1524 ; right transept, Peter and Paul ; left, Annunciation, late. In S. Francesco, frescos of first? chapel on left ; the two Donators on the sides of the altar, beau- tiful early Ferrarese ; the Kiss of Judas, as well as monochrome figures at the side, late. In S, r Maria in Vado, fifth altar on the left : Ascension, copy by Carlo Bonone, In the two exterior chapels of the west transept, what were formerly the two large doors of the organ, containing together an Annunciation by a good con-^ temporary or pupil. In S. SpiribOy ? a large Last Supper.

Dosso Dossi (1474-1542) was less carried away by Raphael, whose personal influence he no loujger ex- perienced [?]. He remained a Romanticist on his own respon- sibility, and retained (except at the latest period) his glowing colouring and his own sometimes awkwara and bizarre but often most charac- teristic ideas ; in his characters he not seldom equals the ^atest Venetians, above all, Giorgione.

The earlier small pictures are quite Ferrarese [which is natural since he was assistant to Costa in 1512.— Ed,] llffizi. Murder of the«  Innocents; P, PiUif Repose inu


Do880 Dossi. — Ortolano.


171


lEgypt, with a charming landacape. Of the altar-pieces, the large one in

ct the Ateneo at Ferrara, consisting of a Madonna with Saints, and nve partitions besides (from S. Andrea, where nowisacopyby Aless. Candi), is one of the greatest treasures of art of North Italy ; severely ar- chitectonic in arrangement, strong power of colour [reminiscent of Moretto Romanino and Garofalo, with whom Dosso was once in part- nership. — Ed. ] There also : a large Annunciation and a John in Patmos, with a pathetic expression not quite successfully given. In

^ the Brera at Milan a Sainted Bishop with two Angels (1536). In the

c CatJiedrcd of Modena, fourth altar on the left, Madonna in the Clouds with S. Sebastian, S. Jerome, and John the Baptist below ; [line,

^ 1522. ] In the gallery at Modena, large Adoration of the Shepherds, with a landscape, with a fanciful arrangement of light ; a large votive picture for the Carthusians, with the Virgin floating on clouds. [In the same gallery, No. 366, the Madonna hovering between the splendid St. Michael and the equally iU-managed St. George. — Mr.] In

<^the CarTnine in the same city, third altar on the right, a Dominican Saint treading under foot a beauti- ful devilish -looking woman. In

J San PictrOj third altar on the right, Assumption of the Virgin, the Apostles (three on the right, three on the left, and six behind), ad- vance solemnly with their attri- butes ; other pictures of this church are ascribed partly to his school, partly to his brother Battista [(d. 1548), who was certainly assistant to Raphael in 1520.— Ed.] as the sweet Predella of the fifth altar on the right ; the naively beautiful Madonna floating on clouds, with two bishops on the seventh altar, left ; the Madonna on clouds, with S. Gregory and S. George, to which belongs a beautiful Predella with a


landscape, certainly by Battista, second altar on the left.

Dosso Dossi is well represented as a genre painter in the Gallery of Modena, principally by the oval^ picture painted half for decorative purposes, with people eating, drink- ing, and making music, in which one may feel the influence of Gior- gione ; also a collection of portraits, with which fancy can people the Court of Ferrara as it was in later times. In the Castle of Ferrara, ^ Dosso, with the help of his school, decorated several rooms ; they are chiefly works of his late already mannered time ; even the famous Aurora in the Hall of the Four Divisions of the Day, morning, noon, evening, night ; ^so the three Bacchanals, in a small corridor, no longer possess the freshness and beauty which such subjects require. Not mythology, but pure fable, would have suited Dosso. We see [in tlie Doria Palace at Rome, a Vanossa crj^ing at a window, and] in the Borgliese Palace (III. 11) ^ Circe in the Wood, using magic arts. Here the necromantic novel is conjured into life ; it was thus Ariosto conceived his personages. [This fruitful artist is often repre- sented, though unknown, in other places. One of his most valuable works, much neglected, in the Touii , Gallery at Bovigo (called there.? Garofalo) ; in the Brera at Milan, ^ No. 330, as Giorgione, a S. Sebas- tian ; in the Ambrosiana there a ^ very careful and elegant Washing the Feet, of his Roman time— Mr.]

A contemporary of Garofalo and Dosso, Benvenuto Ortolano [in prac- tice at Ferrara, 1512-24] has deco- rated the organ panels (left tran- sept,) in aS'. Francesco at Ferrara^ quite excellently in the manner of the first, with large figures of Saints. (The half-length figures on the parapet are partly by Garo- falo himself, partly by Bonone), [See above, in Garofalo,' how much


172


The Umhian School.


of his works are ascribed to Orto- lano— Mr.]

[Girolamo di Tomniaso Scllari da Carpi, of Ferrara [b. about 1601, d. before 1561,] is sometimes Ferrarese in character, sometimes shows the influence of the later Florentines after Michelangelo. A Piet& in

aP, Pitti (No. 116), very mannered ; Christ between Mary and Martha,

h Vffizi (No. 994) ; small figures iu the style of Mazzoliuo. A Vene- tian Ferrarese Holy Family in the

e Capitoliiu Gallery a,t Borne is better ; his best work is the portrait of the prelate Bartolino Salimbeni, in the

d P. Pitti (No. 36) [not to be forgot- ten the miracle of S. Anthony in the Gallery of Ferrara]. —(?a5?^aro Pagano, of Modena, born in 1613, left a Marriage of S. Catherine in

e the Modena Gallery distinctly af- fected by Correggio, yet quite original. — Mr.]

SODOMA AND THE SIENESE.

The incapacity and lifelessness of the old Sienese school towards the end of the fifteenth century, must have been very openly ac- knowledged as a fact, otherwise Pin- turicchio would not have been sum- moned from Perugia to paint the Libreria and the Chapel of S. Gio- vanni in the Cathedral. It seems, indeed, that certain Sienese went to study at Perugia, as the early pictures of Domenioo Beccafumi prove. This Perugian influence shows itself very remarkably in the noble, manly Bernardino Fungai, who adopted thence their beautiful inspiration without their external mannerism : his pictures in the

f Academy (third room and great Hall) still have the Sienese con- straint ; the Coronation of the Virgin, with four Saints, in the

g Church of Fontegiusta (on the ri^ht), resembles more the Um- bnans and Florentines ; the Lunette


there, above the high altar, the Assumption of the Virgin, already has something of lofty beauty in the angels playing on musical in- struments ; lastly, the master con- tinues to live in a picture of his pupil, Girolamo del Pa/xhia {S, h Spirito, third chapel left) ; again, a Coronation of the Virgin, with three Saints below, kneeling, beau- tiful and devotional, serious and calm like the Saints of Spagna. [The large picture of Fungai, once in the Carmine [now in the Aca-t demy]. Madonna with Saints, of the year 1512 ; none of his works bear a more pleasing stamp of cheer- ful piety and internal conviction. A beautiful Coronation of the Vir- gin, of 1600, in the Conception {Scrvi)j in the Choir on the right \j a rich composition of unusually clear colouring.— Mr.]

But any lasting gain must come to the school not from masters of pas- sive expression, as were most of the Peruginesques, but only through its taking part in the great historical painting which then reigned tri- umphant throughout Ita^. And indeed it was to be a Lombard, Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, of Ver- ceUi, called II Sodoma (1477- 1649), who gave a new, fruitful direction to the spirit of the Sienese school for more than a century.

Sodoma had formed himself among the Milanese pupils of Lion- ardo. Of his youthful period are the twenty-four frescos, executed after 1605, of the legend of St. Benedict, in the convent of Monte Oliveto, near Bnonconvento, where A; Signorelli, p. 70/, had begun the series. Four of these pictures, the first of the east wall near the en- trance to the church, S. Benedict's departure from Norcia ; the first of the south wall, the Presentation to S. Benedict of the young Maunis and Placidus ; and the last of the same wall, the Temptation of the Monks by dancing girls ; as well


Sodonia.


173


as the last picture of the west wall (near the entraace of the Convent Court), the attack of the Goths on Monte Cassino, — are exceedingly well executed representations, full of life and beaiity : in the last are the clearest reminiscences of Lio- nardo^s Battle of the Standard ; the others are more sketchy than they ought to be, with special beautiful features, mostly on a wide land- scape background. Likewise, under the full influence of the school of lionardo is the imposinpr Descent from the Cross, from S. Francesco, a now in the Academy at Siena (No. 336). [The youthful Magdalen, who supports the fainting Madonna, is a completely Lionardesque head of the tinest type ; the old heads, the flyingdrapery, and the colouring recall Gaudenzio ; the standing soldier, seen from behind, looks as if borrowed from one of Signorelli's compositions in Monte Oliveto ; wherefore we should fix the origin of this picture in the neighbourhood of Signorelli's works there. — Mr.] [We may also suppose that Sodoma finished before 1505 the Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes in the refec- tory of S. Anna in Greta near Pienza. — Ed.]

Later on, after many residences in Rome, he received, as it appears, the impression of Eaphael more enduringly than most of his pupils, and preserved them when the others had long forgotten them.* ^ His genius had certainly dis- tinct limits, beyond which he never reached. Thoroughly penetrated with the beaiity of the human form, which he could represent in the best ; way in graceful hgures of the Ea- phaelesque type of children (Putti), M in persons of every age, both nude and draped, he yet had no eye for harmony of historical com- position. He filled his space to such a degree with incident of every

  • [Sodoma may well have made Raphael's

acquaintance at Siena.— Ed.]


kind, that one always drives out another or destroys its effect. Thus of the two great frescos in the second upper hall of the Famieshm (1513-15) at Borne, Alexander, with h Koxana and the family of Darius, the first owing to over richness in beauties, the last, also, on account of the confused arrangement, are not as enjoyable as they deserve to be. In S, Bomenico at Siena, c Sodoma painted (1526) the Chapel of S. Catherine (right), with scenes from her life, of which, at least, the one most full of figures becomes in- distinct in character and movement from mere fulness, while so many single traits are incomparable for character and movement ; the orna- mentation of the pilasters and the Putti over them belong quite to the golden time. * From this it natu- rally follows that Sodoma succeeds best in his single figures, of which, indeed, some will bear comparison with the best in the world. One feels this most in the Con/raternitd d of S. JBeniardino (upper oratory), where the four single Saints, S. Louis of Toulouse, S. Bernardino, S. Antony of Padua, and S. Francis, are perfect ; while the historical compositions, the Presentation of the Virgin, the Visitation, Ascen- sion, and Coronation (1518), are only partially successful, f [Observe the beautiful female form on the left in the foreground of the "Pre- sentation, " incomparable for perfec- tion of form and charm of female character. — Mr. ] In the Pal. Pub- e hlico the three saints, S. Ansano (1534), S. Vittorio (1529), and S. Bernardo Tolomei, accompanied almost entirely by Putti (m the Sala del Consiglio), are as pure and grand as anything similar of the time, while the Kesurrection {Stan-f za del Gonfalionere) is only excellent in detail. [There also is a beau- tiful altar-piece, a Madonna reach-

  • Best light, towards noon,

t Best light, in the afternoon.


174


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


ing the Child to S. Lionardo, which in its satisfactory effect of colour aad attractive chiaroscuro shows the master at its height. — ^Mr. ] lu

a S. Spirito (first chapel, right) So- doma painted round an altar-niche S. James on horseback above as the conqueror of the Saracens, be- low on the right and on the left 8. Anthony the Abbot and S. Sebastian, another of his finest works. [Above this, a semi-round with the Virgin, who is investing a bishop, and S. Eosalie and S. Lucia ; the latter wonderfully beau- tiful. — Mr. ] Of the church frescos

Z> brought to the Academy (fourth room), the grand Ecce Homo, the typical man of sorrows in a moment of rest, will always be preferred to the Christ on the Mount of Olives

< and in Limbo (large room), al- though the latter especially pos- sesses great special beauties. The Birth of Christ, at the Porta

d Fispinif is very well worth seeing, and even in its ruinous condition one of the most important works of the master on account of the lovely group of floating angels. Other

c paintings of his in S. Domenico, Pal.

/ Pu^blicOj Opera del DuomOf the tabernacle of a Mater Dolorosa, &c. [A beautiful altar-piece in the prin-

{/cipal church of Asinalunga, in Val di Chiana (station on the Siena- Orvieto line). Madonna with Saints, beautiful in colouring. — Mr.]

Like the greatest artists of his time it was only in fresco that 8odoma worked with real satisfac- tion. Then his hand took the freest and surest flight; one fol- lows with high enjoyment the har- monious easy lines of the brush with which he kept captive the forms of beauty. In easel pictures he is usually constrained, and em- ployed colours which darkened unevenly, so that, for instance, a picture in any case overcrowded, like his Adoration of the Kings iu

/ S. Agostino at Siena (side chapel


on the right), has an unfavourable effect. Yet in other cases where, for instance, the principal figures are more isolated, he conquers by the very conscientious execution of beautiful forms. The Resurrection of Christ, in the Mtbseum at Kaples i (principal room) ; the Sacrifice of Abraham in the Cathedral of Pisa/ (choir) ; a Madonna enthroned, with Saints, Academy of Pisa; the A; S. Sebastian in the Vffizi (Tuscan I school), perhaps the most beautiful there is, especially when compared with the studied representations of later schools ; here we have true, noble suffering expressed in the most wonderfid form. [Painted for a church standard ; on the back a Madonna floating, several saints and three Flagellants appearing, rich landscape in the background. —Mr.]

His Madonna is usually serious, and no longer quite youthful ; his Child Christ seldom equal to the free gambolling Putti of his frescos in simplicity* and excellence. {PaL lii Borghese and elsewhere). Also his Ecce homo (P. Pitti and Uffizi) is n not equal to that in fresco. His own excellent portrait is in the<^ U£lzL

I must confess to never having closely examined the ornaments and small intermediate pictures on the roof of the Camera della ikgnatura in the Vatican, which representi? lively mythological scenes of nude figiu-es, satyrs, horses, painted in chiaroscuro imitation of antique bas-reliefs. Of the frescos of the P, del Conservatori on the Capitol, the ? very childish scenes from the Punic war in the seventh room are ascribed to Sodoma ; in my opinion some figures in the fourth room, that of the Fasti more probably belong to r him.

[Besides this there is a Holy Family by Sodoma at Borne in the P. Borghese, under the name of Cesare da Sesto ; of four genuine s


Brescianino. — Pacchia. — Pacchiarotto. — Beccafumi, 175


€L pictures of the Turin OaXlcryf one is called Oian Pedritw, another Cesare da Sesto, — Mr.]

After this some painters, followers of the earlier Sienese School took

2»up his style, as Andrea del Brescia- nmo (baptism of Christ on the Altar

cof S. Giovanni (1524), the Lower

d Church of the Cathedral of Siena ; Madonna with Saints, Academy, great room) [Holy Family with St. Dominick, No. 1205, at the

<5 Uffizi] ; also very markedly, Giro- lanio del Pacchia.* The earlier pictures of this latter artist (antea) combine, like the best by Fungai, the Feruginesque expression with a seriously conceived deep feeling for character ; of this kind also is,

/besides the one named in S. SpiritOf a Madonna with Saints in S. Cris- toforo. Later, under the obvious influenoe of Sodoma (also, probably, of Fra Bartolommeo and Andrea del Sarto), he became one of the four historical painters who, during the ten years succeeding Raphael's death, maintained in a higher sense the dignity of historical art. Without equalling Sodoma in the inspired beauty of individual forms, he was considerably superior

S to him as a composer ; in S. Bernar- dino (upper Oratory), the Birth of the Virgin and the Salutation of the Angel, but especially in S. Caterina (lower Oratory) the his- tories of the Saints (the two pic- tures on the right and the second on the left) are but little inferior to Andrea del Sarto. The attack on the monks is as a scene excellently developed ; the female Saint by the body of SI Agnes, a picture most beautiful in expression. [A '^ large Salutation, with the Visita- tion in the back ground, with boy angels above, who draw aside the

  • This master, who has been con-

'ounded with Pacchiarotto, who in art stands much lower, has only lately been ^cognised as he deserves.


curtains (Academy, No. 308), is in part a strict imitation of Marriotto Albertinelli. A large Descent frmn I the Cross, with lively ti-aits of Sodoma and Fra Bartolommeo, in the parish church at Asinalunga, called there Pacchiarotto. — Mr. J

By Pacchiarotto^ a very restless spirit who was more occupied with warlike adventures than with painting, is the stiffly archaic As- cension, of Christ, in the Academy, j No. 328; there also a Visitation, No. 315, and the same subject in the Academy at Florence, No. 16, k Quadri antichi.

Domenico Beccafumi in his long life passed through the different styles which prevailed in his neigh- bourbood. His youthful pictures sometimes resemble the Ferugin- esque school and Perugino himself so much as to be mistaken for them. In his second and best period he stands hardly less well by the side of Sodoma than Del Pacchia; to this time belongs the beautiful picture in the Academy (Scuole I diverse. No. 63), which represents several Siunts in an architectural framing with a Vision of the Ma- donna above; above the grand compositions in ^S^. Bernardino, the m Marriage and Death of the Virgin, besides the altar-piece. In. his later time the deeeneracy and false virtuosity of the Koman school took possession of him ; frescos of the Sala del Concistoro in the P. Pub- n blico, &c. [The Christ in Limbo, Academy, great room. No. 337, o with the undraped figures of the Patriarchs, which are simply copied from well-known figures by Michel- angelo, is an unpleasantly mannered work, in spite of the unusually de- licate gradation of the tones of colour. — Mr. ] His feeling was per- haps not equal to his tuent. Of the figured marble floor of the Cathzdralf the best designs (in the p


176


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


Choir) are attributed to him — large compositions full of figures, already considerably Koman in character.

a In the Uffi^i the circular picture of a Holy Family (Sala del Baroccio, No. 189).

The great architect, Baldassare Peruzzi^ is as a painter either more especially a decorator, or mannered in the style of the fifteenth cen- tury (ceiling pictures of the Hall of Galatea in the Farnesina, where indeed everything must look stiff by the side of Raphael). Here the interesting colossal-sized head sketched in bmck ought to be given to him, which is attributed to Mi- chelangelo.* The little pictures in the decoration of the roof of the

& Stanza d'Eliodoro, in the Vatican^ are certainly by him. — Cr. and Cav. On the few paintings of his later time, rests the spirit of Raphael and of Sodoma. The fresco of the first chapel on the left in S. Maria

c della Pace in Borne, a Madonna with Saints and a Donor, of 1516, bears the trial of being placed opposite to Raphael's Sibyl sufficiently for us to recognise at the first glance the artist of the golden time in the beautiful and clearly given cha- racters and in the free treatment. The Great Presentation of the Virgin, above, on the right of the choir, is, on the contrary, over- laden with useless episodes, and has several figures borrowed from Raphael, very much ruined by over-painting. In the church of

d Fontegitista at Siena (on the left), the simple grandiose fresco picture of Augustus and the Tiburtine Sibyl is, in spite of the bad condi- tion it is in, an impressive echo from the great period. The paint- ings in the choir of S. Onofrio at Rome, which are all now ascribed to him (see above, Pinturicchio, p. 96 c), the mosaics in the under-

/ground chapel of S, Croce in Oerusa-

  • [Why not to Sebastian del Piombo?—

Ed.]


Urrvnuiy and the few easel pictures by Peruzzi, are especially mannered. [His best panel picture (? genuine — Ed. ) is the Holy Family in the P. PUHy No. 345, with a peculiar and Sf delicate and noble Madonna ; the colour is cool like fresco. — Mr. In the Borghese Oallery, second room, h No. 28, a Venus, called Giulio Ro- mano. In the Villa Belcaro, near ^ Siena, a ceiling picture of the^' Judgment of Paris. — Fr.]

After the destruction of the Re- public (1657) the artistic glory of Siena is also dimmed, yet only for a time. The after- bloom of Italian painting, which begins towards the end of the sixteenth century, has here some of its worthiest re- presentatives.


In Verona two painters more particularly represent the golden period — Gianfraneesco Caroto^ pupil of [Liberale, and assistant to Man- tegna,] and Paolo Morando^ named Cavazzola, pupil of Fr. Morone, to whom we may add Oiolfino.

On account of the altar-pieces being covered over because of the fasts, the author has been obliged to form his judgment entirely from the pictures by these artists in the Pinacoteca of Verona. Caroto'af picture, dead coloured, in grey of an Adoration of the Shepherds, is an unpretending yet beautiful crea- tion ; the spirit of Lionardo enters into the school of Mantegna ; there, also, is another Adoration of the Child, a Madonoa enthroned on Clouds with Saints. By far the most important is in S. JEufemia, k Cap. Spolverini. [Caroto enjoyed the instruction of Morone (?) before that of Mantegna] ; the influence of the former appears in two re- plicas of a youthful work of 1501, one in the Modena Qallery and one belonging to CourU Maldura I at Padaa— a Madonna occupied ?»


Cavazzola. — Correggio.


177


in sewing a little shirt. The wall

a picture of &n AnnuiidcUioji of 1508, m the former chapel of S. Giro- lamo, now in the possession of Count MoDga at Verona, shows grand figures strikingly cold in colour. One of the principal works is the large altar-piece in S. Fermo

b Magcfiore, of 1528, in spite of the late period excellent in execution ; the Madonna with S. Anna floats on a cloud above four Saints in strong action, who are rather given like portraits than as ideal figures. [A Holy Family (1525), formerly belonging to Dr. Bemasconi, shows the influence of an external classi- cism which originated in Giulio Romano's work in Mantua. — Mr.] Gavazzola^s large master-piece is in

cthe Fhiacotccaf a Passion in five pictures and four half-length

c^ figures,. No. 101-109— a marvellous transition from the realism of the fifteenth century to the noble free character of the sixteenth, not to an empty idealism ; also small early

{)ictures of the Passion, grand half- ength figures of Apostles and Saints ; lastly, a splendid large- sized Madonna with Saints (1522), which reminds us of the Ferrarese painters in the whole treatment, and also in the excellent landscape. The small landscapes in 8. M. in Organo are also by him and Bnisasorci, with high and beau- tiful distances, in tone rather cold than either Venetian or Flemish, and garnished with Biblical scenes. Some beautiful pictures in the Sa-

ccristy of S. Aimstasia (Paid with other saints and worshippers, the Magdalen borne up by angels) ; and in a side chapel on the left of SS.

fNasaro e Gelso (a large Baptism of Christ). Giolfino^s paintings in the

g Pinacoteca are less important than the fourth altar on the left in S.

jiAnastasia, at any rate the acces* sory paintings there. Frescos in S,

i 3f. in Organo. The fa5ade paint- ings of this master, some of them


especially beautiful, are noticed in the volume on sculpture. [The well- known engraver, GirolaTtw Mocetto, also belongs rather to this than to the elder group of Veronese painters ; an excellent altar-piece in three parts in S, Nazaro e Gelso, j Cap. S. Biagio, with portraits of Donors ; the Madonna, signed, in the Gallei'y at Vicenza is weaker, k and not pleasing (No. 52 in the 2nd, north room. ) — Mr. ]

[We must not omit Mkhcle da I Verona — once a partner of Cavaz- zola — Crucifixion of 1500, in S. Stef ano, of Milan. Same subject in S. M. in Vanzo, at Padua (1505). Altar-piece of 1523 at Villa di Villa, near Este. Philippo da Vc- ^ rona is more dependent on the Venetians than Michele, Fresco, of 1509, in the Santo of Padua. Ma- donna, of 1514, in the Pinacoteca, of Fabriano. —Ed.]

CORREGGIO.

Amid the general extreme ex- pansion of art arose a painter who conceived the principles and objects of his art quite differently from all others, Aidonio Allegri da Cor- reggio (1494(?)— 1534), probably of the school of Francesco Mantegna and Bianchi Ferrari.* To some natures he is absolutely repulsive, and they have a right to hate him. Nevertheless people should \]&\t the scene of his labours, Parma, if I possible in fine weather, if only for I the sake of the other art treasures i there.

I Inwardly as little under the in- ' fluence of any ecclesiastical tradi-

tions as Michelangelo, Correggio,

never sees in his art anythiugbut the means of making his represen- tation of life as sensuously charm- ing and as sensuously real as pos- sible. His gifts in this direction

i * [The probability is tliat Correggio was first taught by a loeal craftsman, uien by Lorenzo Costa at Mantua.— Ed.]

N


178


Painting of the Sixteenth Century


•were great; in all that assists realization he is an originator and discoverer, even when compared with Lionardo and Titian.

Bnt in the highest painting we do not want the real, but the true. We come to it with open hearts, and only wish to be reminded of what is best in us, of which we expect it to give us the living ex- pression. Correggio does not give us this ; the contemplation of his works excites us to a constant pro- test; one is tempted to feel — I myself could have conceived this from a higher artistic point of view. There is an entire absence of any moral elevation : if these forms should come to life, what good would come out of them, what kind of expression of life would one expect from them ?

But the realistic has great power in art. Even when it represents what is trivial and accidental, even vulgar, with all the qualities of reality, it exercises over us an over- whelming power, even though of a repulsive kind. But, if the subject is sensuously attractive, the charm is immensely increased, and affects us with a demoniac force. We have already expressed a similar feeling with regard to Michel- angelo's creation of a new physically elevatedgeneration of human beings ; with entirely different means Cor- reggio produces an effect which we oannot otherwise characterize. He is the first to represent entirely and completely the reality of genuine nature. He fascinates the beholder not by this or that beautiful and sensual form, but by convincing him entirely of the actual existence of these forms by means of perfectly realistic representations (enhanced by concealed means of attraction) of space and light. Among his means of representatiou, his chiaro- scuro is proverbially famous. The fifteenth century shows innumer- able attempts of this kind, only the


object is merely to give the model- ling of particular figures as per- fectly as possible. In Correggio first chiaroscuro becomes essential to the general expression of a picto- rially combined whole : the stream of lights and reflections gives ex- actly the right expression to the special moment in nature. Besides this, Correggio was the first to re- veal the charm of the surface of the human body in half-light and re- flected light.

His colour is perfect in the flesh tints, and laid on in a way which indicates infinite study of the ap- pearance in air and light. In the definition of other materials he does not go into detail ; the har- mony of the whole, the euphony of the transitions, is his chief object.

But the most striking point of his style is the complete expression of movement in his figures, without which he cannot conceive either life or space, the true measure of both in painting being the human shape in motion, or rather the human shape with the appearance of motion, and if necessary vio- lently fore-shortened.* He first gives to the glories of the other world a cubicaDy measurable space, which he fills with powerful float- ing forms. This motion is nothing merely external ; it inter-penetrates the figures from within. Correggio divines, knows, and paiuts tne finest movements of nervous life.

Of grandeur in lines, of severe


" It is hardly possible that Correggio should not have known the masterpiece of his only predecessor in this line, the semi- dome of the choir of the SS. Apostoli, at Rome, by Melozzo da ForU, and should therefore have been acquainted with Rome generally. He is the first to represent entirely and completely what is the living characteristic part of nature.

[There is no proof of this, while the paintings of Mantegna in Mantua, espe- cially in the Camera de' Spozi and the loggia ad,joining (sec antea) give us a suflR- cient explanation of the origin of Cor- reggio's mode of composition.— Z.]


Correggio.


179


architectonic composition, there is no question with him, nor of grand free beauty. What is sensuously cbarming he gives ia abundance Here and there he shows real d-epth of feeling, which, beginning with the real, reveals great spiritual secrets : there are pictures of suffer- ing by him, which are not indeed grand, but perfectly noble, touch- ing, and executed with infinite in- teUigence. (Of his Christ on the Mount of Olives there is a good

« old copy in the Uffizi. ) But wiese are exceptions. The Vera Icon of

^ the Turin Gallery is probably by a good pupil of Lionardo.

The Kepose in Egypt in the ^ Tribune of the UJizi, with S. Bernard, is an eaily picture,* the first transition to the Madonna della Scodella, to be mentioned later. Here for the first time the scene becomes a charming genre picture, which before this time has not been the case with the realists of the fifteenth century in spite of all the traits taken from reality. There is some awkwardness in the unin- terested head of the mother, and in the hesitation of the child to take the dates plucked by Joseph. The colouring is unequal, in parts wonderfully finished.

Also there, certainly still early, the Madonna in the open air kneel- ing before the Child lying on hay, no longer adoring him, but laugh- ing, and making figures with her hands to him ; marvSlously painted, the child foreshortened in the most graceful way ; the mother already of that small kind of prettiness which is peculiar to her in Correg- gio 's pictures, t

  • Italy possessea no picture of the kind

of the Madonna with S. Francis at Dres- den (of 1514), in which Correggio in essen- tials still follows the traditional ecclesias- tical idea in a manner resembling Francia. [We should rather say in a manner resem- bling Lorenzo Uosta.— Ed.]

t The head of John the Baptist on


From 1518 onwards, after which year Correggio settled in Parma, began that series of master-pieces of which the best have gone to Dresden, Paris, London, Vienna, and Berlin. But Italy still pos- sesses some of the highest value.

In the Naples Museum^ the little d picture of the Marriage of St. Ca- therine, easily and boldly painted : that the child should look up ques- tioningly to the mother at the strange ceremony is quite a feature in the manner of Correggio, who would never conceive children other than naive. (The Christ on the Hainbow, Vatican Gallery ^ can e however only be regarded as a pic- ture of the school of the Caracci.) [Certainly ! — Mr.]

There also is the Zingarella, the Madonna bent over the child seated on the earth; above in a cloud of palms hover delicious angels. Correggio here brings out the ma- ternal element, as also not seldom elsewhere, with a certain passion, as though he felt that he could give no higher meaning to his type. The execution perhaps somewhat earlier, otherwise of the greatest beauty.

Also the large fresco Madonna/ in the Gallery of Parma shows mother and child closely embrac- ing : one of the most beautiful of Correggio' s motives ; heads and hands wonderfully arranged (which is not usually his strong point) ; chief example of his ideal female head, with the colossal eyelids and the little nose and mouth.

There also is the famous Madonna della Scodella^ a scene in the flight g to Egypt. The dreamy lights in


plate, also there, and the youthful head looking down the naked shoulders, of the same collection, and an insignificant child's head in the P. Pitti, are all spurious, and quite unworthy of the master. Also the lai^e Bearing the Cross in the Parma Gallery, a dry, hard painting, is no longer ascribed to Correggio.— Mr.

N 2


180


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


tlie mysterious wood, the charming heads, and the indescribable beauty of the whole treatment cause us to forset that the picture is essen- tiaUy composed for the colour, and is exceedingly indistinct in its motives. What is the child doing ? — or the mother herself? What are the angels in great excitement doing with the cloud above ? How must one conceive of the angel who is fastening the beast of burden, and the one with the vine branch, if they were not fully made out? Let us not be afraid to put questions to Correggio which one would do to all otber painters. He who paints such realism is doubly bound to clearness.

a In the Mad(ynna di S. Girolaino also surprising execution hardly outweighs great material deficien- cies. The attitude of Jerome is affected and insecure. Correggio is never happy in grand things : the child who beckons to the angel turning over the book, and plays with the hair of the Magdalen, is inconceivably ugly, as also the Putto who smelb'*' at the vase of ointment of the Magdalen. Onl}'^ this latter fi^re is inexpressibly beautiful, ana shows, in the way she bends down, the highest sensi- bility for a particular kind of female grace.

h The Descent from the Cross^ also there, is, above all, a model of external harmony. The head of the Christ lying down, truly noble in its expression of grief ; but the others almost trivial, and even

  • So that one can hardly avoid the idea

of some special purpose. It is our duty to acknowledge that in Toschi's engrav- ings the heads are not seldom weakened, — without detriment to my high respect for the master, whom I had the good for- tune to visit in his Ktudio but a few iijonths before his death. Let no one neglect to study the water-colour copies exhibited in the Pinacoteca at Parma, of the flrescos of Correggio, partly by Tos- chi, partly by his pupils, as a preparation for the study of the originals.


grimacing. The painting is very really represented in the Mary, so- that one feels, for instance, how she loses dontrol over the left arm.

The counterpart, painted, like the last, on linen damask, the Martyrdom of >S'. Pladdus and S. e Flavitty is not less distinguished in picturesque treatment. A fatal picture, the worst quaUties of which have found only too great response among the X)&inters of the seven- teenth century. Was this scene imposed upon Correggio, or was be here of his own free will the first painter of executioners, as else- where he is the first quite im- moral painter? Most caJmly and artistically the one executioner drags down the hair of the senti- mental Flavia and pierces her witli his sword under tne breast; the other aims at Placidus kneeling devoutly before him : on the right one sees two trunks of decapitated persons, and even out of the frame comes forth the arm of an execu- tioner who is carrying a bloody head. At the first glance the whole appears astonishinglv modern.

Of the frescos of Correggio in Parma, those in a room of the Niin- (^ nery of S. Paolo, now broken up, are the earliest. Over the chim- ney-piece is seen Diana in her car driving upon clouds ; on the vault- ing whicb rises above sixteen lu- nettes with mythological subjects, excellently painted in monochrome ; there is a vme-arbour painted, and in the circular openings from it are the famous Putti in twos and threes grouped in all sorts of ways. They are not beautiful in arrangement, nor in their lines ; the painter was, above all, deficient in the architec- tonic feeling which should be at the foundation of such decorations ; but they are pictures of the gayest youth, improvisations full of life and full of beauty. (Good refiected light in sunshine, from 10 — 12. )

Soon after this, 1520-1524, Cor-


Correggio. — 8. CHomnni.


181


a reggio painted in S. Giovanni, and probably the first thing was the beautiful and severe form of the inspired Evangelist in a lunette over the door in the left transept. Afterwards came the dome. (In Feb- ruary the light was most tolerable at 12 and about 4. ) It is the first dome devoted to a great general composition ; Christ in glory, sur- rounded by the apostles sitting u^n cloudB, all introduced as the Vision of John, seated on the edge below. The Apostles are genuine Lombards of the noble type, of a grandiose physical form; the old ecstatic John (purposely?), less noble. The view from below, com- pletely carried out, of which this is the earliest preserved instance, and certainly the earliest so tho- roughly carried through (compare p. 178, note), appeared to contempo- raries and followers a triumph of all painting. They forgot what parts of the human body were most pro- minent in a view from below, while the subject of this and most later dome paintings, the glory of heaven, womd only bear what had most spiritual life. They did not perceive that for such a subject the realization of the locality is un- dignified, and that only ideal archi- tectonic composition can awaken a feeling at all in harmony with this. Now here the chief figure, Christ, is foreshortened in a truly frog- like manner, and with some of the Apostles the knees reach quite up to their necks. Clouds, which Correggio treats as solid round bodies of definite volume, are em- ployed to define the locality, also as means of support and as seats, and pictorially as means of gradation and variety. Even on the pendentives of the cupola are seated figures, "^ery beautiful in themselves, but exaggeratedly foreshortened ; an Evangelist and a Father of the Church on clouds, where Michel- ^Qgelo in a similar place would have


given his prophets and sibyls solid thrones.

The semi-dome of the choir of 6 the same church, with the great Coronation of the Virgin, was taken down in 15S4. But the principal group, Christ and Mary, was saved, and is at present placed in the second great hall of the Library; besides this, Annihale Caracci and Agostino had copied nearly the whole in parts (six pieces in the Galleiy at Farma, several in thee Naples Museum), and Cesare Aretusi d repeated afterwards, on the new semi-dome, the whole composition according to his capacity. A pas- sionate rejoicing pervades the whole heaven in the sacred moment ; the most beautiful angels crowd to- gether into an army. But the Madonna herself is neither naive nor beautiful ; Christ is a mediocre conception. (Both are weakened in the copies^ and so, doubtless, is John the Baptist.)

At last Correggio, in 1526—30, painted the dome of the Cathedral, e and therein gave himself up alto- gether, without any limit, to his special conception of the superna- tural. He makes everything ex- ternal, and desecrates it. In the centre, now much injured, Christ precipitates himself towards the Virgin, who is surroxmded with a rushing crowd of angels and a mass of clouds. The impression is cer- tainly overpowering ; the confused group of numberless angels, who here, rushing towards each other with the greatest passion, and em- bracing, is without example in art : whether this is the noblest conse- cration of the events represented is another question. If so, then, the confusion of arms and legs, which has been described in the well- known witticism of *' un Guazzetto dirane" waa not to be avoided ; for if the scene were real, it must have been something like this. Farther below, between the windows, stand


182


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


the Apostles gazing after the Vir- gin ; behind them, on a parapet, are Genii busy with candelabra and censers. In the Apostles, Cor- reg^o is not logical : no one so excited as they are could stand still in his comer ; even their sup- posed grandeur has something un- real about it. But some of the Genii are quite wonderfully beau- tiful; also many of the angels in the paintings of the cupola it- self, and especially those which hover round the four patron saints of Parma, on the pendentives. It is difficult to analyse exactly the sort of intoxication with which these figures fill the senses. I think that the divine and the very earthly are here closely combined. Perhaps a younger mind can con- ceive it more simply. (Best light for ascending the cupola, towards noon. )

Besides these there are preserved in the Annunziata remains of a (t fresco lunette of the Annunciation, a most impressive composition.

Of monumental paintings of my* thological subjects, I only know in Italy, besides the frescos of S. Paolo, the Ganymede carried up by an Eagle, now on the ceiling of ^ a hall in the Gallery at Hodena. Quite diflferent in composition from the picture at Vienna, most master- ly, though with very little detail. Among the easel pictures, the cDanae in the P. Bm'gJiese must be mentioned. Perhaps the most com- monplace of Correggio's pictures of this kind, because it is not even straightforwardly sensual ; still it is simply and beautifully painted, especially the two Putti, who are trying a golden arrow on a touch- stone ; the eloquent Cupid is quite worthy of the genii in the cathedr^ at Parma. The allegory of Virtue, in the P. d Doria at Some, is considered as & genuine sketch for one of the Tem- pera pictures of Correggio, in the


collection of drawings in the

Louvre [and in freedom and life- like expression of the heads is far superior to the finished picture. —

Mr.].

I

I If any one admires the dexterity with which Correggio, under aU sorts of pretences, ^ways contrived only to give what he especially cared for, namely, life and move- ment in a sensuously charming form, the answer has to be given, ' that such a difference between ' subject and form, if it existed in Correggio, always and inevitably demoralizes art. The subject ought not to be a mere accommodating form for purely artistic ideas.

No master did more harm to his pupils. He deprived them of what mi^es masters of the second and third rank valuable at all times, the serious architectonic intention of the composition, the simplicity of the lines, the dignity of the charac- ters. And what was characteristic in him was above the reach of their talents, or the time was not yet come for it. In fact, his univer- sally admired style stood alone for above half a century, while all his scholars threw themselves with a kind of despair into the arms of the Eoman school.

But meantime grew up the real inheritors of his style, the school of the Caracci, whose mode of conception is essentially derived from his. It is because the mo- derns have entirely adopted him into themselves, that nis own works so often appear to ua mo- dern. Even what seems specifically characteristic of the eighteenth century, is partly foreshadowed in him.

The whole school is fully repre- sented in the Gallery and the Churches of Parma. Pomponio AJ-o If.gri (son of Correggio), Lelio Orsi^ Ber'tMrdino GaUi [whose princi*


Mazzola. — Titian's Contemporaries.


183


pal work is the altar-piece of tbe ff' Gailiedral at Favia, Madonna with 6 Founders; others in Cremona. — Mr.], have left few things worthy of praise. There are good and very careful things by Francesco c Eonvdani (frescos in. the cathedral in the fifth chapel on the right), and several pleasing works by Mi- chelangelo Anselmif and also by . Giorgio Qandini ; the greatest num- ber are by various painters of the family of Mazzola, or Mazzuoli, which in this century quite adopted Correggio's style. Girolamo Maz- zola sometimes combines a touch of antique nMlvcU with Correggio's manner and that of the Koman school, and produces a wonderful rococo. On the whole, he is less repugnant to one's feelings than liis more famous cousin ;

Francesco Mazzola, called Par' iiiegia7iino (1504 — 1540). His long- ed necked Madonna, in the P, Pitti, shows, with its intolerable affec- tation, how ill the pupils under- stood the master in thinking that his charm lay in a certain special elegance and mode of presenting the forms, while really tbe mo- mentary life of the charming form is the chief thing. Elsewhere, Parmegianino is amusing by the air of the great world which he introduces into religious scenes. His S. Catherine {P. BorgJtese at a Borne) receives the compliments of the angels with a deprecating air of indescribable bon genre; in the pompous court of saints in the ywood {Pinacotcca of Bologna), the Madonna gives the Child to S. Ca- therine, to be caressed only with the most aristocratic reserve.

But in portraits, where the sup- posed ideal disappeared, Parmegia- nino was one of the best of his ^time. In the Museum at Naples his portraits of Columbus and Ves- pucci (both arbitrarily so named), that of De Vincentiis, and of the master's own daughter, are among


the pearls of the gallery, while the colossal figures of Pythagoras and Archimedes are hideous, and the Lucretia and the Madonna at least unpleasing. So, too, his own por- trait in the Uffizif the real Bell'^ Uomo of rank, is one of the best in the collection of painters, while the Holy Family (Tribune) is only endurable because of its fancifully lighted landscape. In another room is a quite small Madonna by him, one of the best arrangements, as to lines, of the schooL [As a fresco painter, Parmegianino should not be forgotten. His two figures of St. Lucy and Apollonia in S. Gio. Evangelista of Parma are still fairly preserved, and well worthy of at- tention. — Ed.]

[An important contemporary of Correggio's was I^renzo Lion-Bruno [born at Mantua, in 1489 ; journey- man to Perugino in 1504; 1511 warder of Mantua. Still living in 1531.— Ed.], who appears partly as his follower. The only pictures by him are in the possession of Cmmt i Rizzini at Turin : a S. Jerome, a De- scent from the Cross, and the Con- test between Apollo and Marsyas. The last [now in the Museum at Berlin. — Ed.] the most pleasing. — Mr.]


TITIAN AND HIS CONTEMPO- RARIES.

Next we come to the painting which gives the greatest pleasure to the eye — ^the Venetian. It is a remarkable phenomenon, that it does not and cares not to attain the higher ideal of human form, because this ideal aims at some- thing beyond a simply delicious existence of enjoyment. But it is still more remarkable that this school, with its comparatively small supply of so-called poetical ideas, should from sheer abundance of


184


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


picturesque ideas attain the same position in general esteem as all other schools, and far surpass the greater number. Is this simply the consequence of the pleasure of the eyes? or does the empire of poetry extend far down into those regions which we laymen allow to picturesque execution alone? Is there not something of the same mystic effect which Correggio pro- duces by the charm of sensuous costume made real by space and light? With the Venetians, who were not exempt from his influ- ence (even Titian), this is certainly the chief object, only without the mobility essential to Correggio; their types are less capable of sen- timent, but in the highest degree capable of enjoyment. The sur- passing excellence of their colouring is proverbial ; even in the painters of the preceding generation it had attained very high excellence, but now it shone forth in perfection. The chief study in this department was clearly twofold : on one side realistic, in as far as all play of light, colour, and surface was studied and represented anew from nature, so that, for instance, the imitation of the materials of the drapery is complete ; on the other hand, the human eye is accurately tested as to its power of charming and being charmed. What the mere spectator is unconscious of is here better known to the painter than in other schools.

Accordingly, it is easy to divine what subjects are most success- fully treated by these masters. The closer they keep to these lines the greater^ they are, the more forcible the impressions which they produce.

Among the pupils of Giovanni Bellini, who are the chief ex- ponents of the new development, Giorgwne (properly Barbarelli) (1477 (?)— 1611) does this in a pe-


culiarly impressive though one- sided manner.

The vivifying of single charac- ters by a lofty, distinctive concep- tion, by the charm of the most perfect pictorial execution, had ad- vanced so far in the former period that a special treatment of such characters could no longer be dis- pensed with. Just as the preceding penod was already able to give its best in the half-length portraits of the Madonna with Saints, so now Giorgione gives us pictures of the same kind of a profane or poetic character, and also single ialf- lengths, which are hardly to be dis- tinguished from actual portraits. He is the patriarch of this style, which, at a later time, played so great a part in all modern paininng. However, he paints costimied haS- length figures, not because whole figures would have been too diffi- cult for him, but because in them he was able to give a permanent life — a complete poetical subject. Venice at this time gave little em- ployment for narrative and dra- matic painting ; we miss the great fresco works of Eome and Florence ; but the result of superabundance in a particular form of art, was to produce single figures such as no other school produces. Shall we call them historical or novelistic cha- racters ? (The subjects of Venetian pictures are often taken from novels. ) Sometimes the free action is most prominent, sometimes rather beauty of existence. Com- binations like the ** Concert" lead us especially to questions, concern- ing the intellectual origin of such pictures, in which with very little an unfathomable depth is siven. In certain defiant individuiJ charac- ters Giorgione is the true precursor of Hembrandt.

Among the portraits proper we meet sometimes with those ex- tremely noble Venetian heads, which externally, by the long


Gutrgione.


185


parted hair, the bare neck, etc., resemble the head of Christ in Bel- lini, and also in Titian.

But further, we divine in Gior- ^one the master to whom the Vene- tian ** novel picture " owes its most beautiful form. We extend this name also to the biblical scenes, since these were not painted for church or private devotion, but only sprung from the impulse to represent a rich and beautifully coloured existence. They show, in a remarkable way, how with the Venetian the incident is but the pretext for the representation of pure existence, on a harmonious landscape background. In this spirit was painted the Finding of

« Moses {Brera, at Milan) [by Boni- fazio]. Compared with Raphael's

b picture (Loggie) the incident, as such, will be found represented far less clearly and strikingly. But what envy possesses the modern soul to think that the painter could combine such a charming evening scene out of the daily life that surrounded him, out of the enjoying people in their rich dresses ! The strongest impression, as also with the characters of Bel- lini, comes from our regarding what is painted as possible and still existing. Sometimes these pictures are slight improvisations, with many inaccuracies (the As-

c trologer, in the P. Manfrin) [now in the Dresden Museum, and cer- tainly not by Giorgione.— Ed.]; their charm lies chiefly in the great simplicity with which the imaginary subject is represented in an (to us) ideal costume, and in that ideal locale (an open landscape) which belongs to the true Italian novel.

[Of the pictures ascribed to Gi- orgione in Italy, very few have in- deed any claim to genuineness, and one must remember his master- pieces in foreign countries to ap- preciate the e^nt of his artistic


gifts. Only one picture Ib quite certain and authenticated by docu- ments, the altar-piece of the prin- cipal church at Castel Franco <2 (westward of Treviso) very impres- sive in spite of all iDJurious treat- ment : the Madonna enthroned be- tween S. Francis and S. Liberale, a youth of twenty in armour, re- puted to be the portrait of the master. Regarded by some as doubtful, yet worthy of the master [probably by Pordenone. — Ed.], another altar-piece is now in the Mo-iiic di Pictcij at Treviso: thee body of Christ on the edge of the grave borne up by angels, in its deeply impressive arrangement, of the first rank. The 8. Sebastian in the Brera, with his arms bound f over his head (No. 330), has before been given back to its author, Bosso Dossi.

Among the half-length pictures I can only accept as genuine the

    • Concert," in P, Pittl (No. 185), gr

and perhaps the family of Gior- gione, in the P, Manfrin [now in h the Giovanelli Collection at Venice. — i Ed.], and the Astrologer, also there [now at Dresden ; see antea]. The Luteplayer, and a Lady in a light dress and toque, once in the P.j Manfrin, are insignificant and un- authentic ; the Saul with Groliath's head, in the P. Borgliesc, room 6, k No. 13, is, when rightly examined, a Pietro della VeccJiia. The Knight in armour, with his squire, in the UJizi (No. 571, said to be the ^ General Gattamelata), is North Italian, by a pupil or follower of Mantegna, perhaps Fr, Caroto [or Torbido.—Ed,]

Of the portraits, the Knight of Malta, in the Uffizi, (No. 622), is 7ii also a P. della Vecchia, certainly better than his usual works. The Franciscus Philetus (P. Brignole, n in Oenoa), a capital picture of a student, is most probably by Ber- 7iardino Licinio,

The three small pictures with


186


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


a quite little figures, in the Uffizi^ the Judgment of Solomon, a story from the childhood of Moses, and a number of saints above an altar by a lake, all painted with Paduan hardness and bnlliancy (No. 630, 621, 631), remind us somewhat of ' Basaiti* The Finding of Moses, in the Brera, at Milan (No. 257), is

h distinctly a Bonifazio,

As to the famous Storm at Sea,

cm the Academy at Venice, this fanciful work, certainly grand in its first sketch, has long oeen in a condition which hardly allows us to distinguish anything beyond the outlines. Besides this, the name in the catalogue (Giorgione) has no authority, as it rests on a suppo- sition of Zannetti, while Vasari and other contemporaries and writers of the seventeenth century ascribe the picture to Palma VecchiOf but Sansovino hesitates between Palma and Paris Bordonc, — Mr.]

Among the pupils of Giorgione, Sehastiaiw del PiomJbo (1485 — 1647) is the most important ; we have al- ready mentioned him as executing Michelangelo's designs {antea). Of his earlier time is the splendid picture above the high altar in 8,

d Giovanni CrisostoinOf at Venice ; the Saint of the Church is writing at a desk, surrounded by other Saints, among whom the females especiaUy are to be remarked as most beauti- ful types of the school (grand, and yet not heavy and fat). [Thiei fine altar-piece is considered in Venice as a work begun by Giorgione, con- sequently conceived and designed by him, to which Sebastiano only added the last touches. Oomp. the mention {antca) of the picture on occasion of the female portrait

cin the Tribune of the l/ffizi. — Mr.] Whether the Presentation in the

/ Temple {Pal. Manfrin) is by him, and of the Venetian time, I cannot

  • [Yet the two first are as clearly

Oiorgione's as the last is Bellini's. — Ed.]


decide ; but in any case a wonder- ful portrait in the Uffisi is of thi»^ time, No. 627 : a man weanng a breastplate, cap, and red sleeves ; behind him stems of laurel trees and a landscape. [I attribute the first to LoTtvao LoUo, the last to B. SchidoTUi ; the singularly cellar- like light, while the surroundings indicate the open air, is remark- able. — ^Mr.] In 8. Niccolb, ati^ Treviso, in the chapel on the right of the choir, an altar-piece, the Incredulity of St. Thomas, ascribed to Giovanni Bellini, is attributed to Sebastiano, by Crowe and Cavalca- selle, who believe the altar-piece of the choir in the same churcl^ called Sebastiano, to be a Girolamo Sa- voldo. Perhaps of the beginning of his Roman time : the Martyrdom of S. Apollonia {P. Pitti) ; some re- i mains of tender Venetian feeling inspired him with the thought of not allowing the pincers of the executioner to plunge immediately into the beautifully modelled body. Of the later time : Madonna cover- ing up the sleeping Child [Naples j Mtiseuni)f grand in the manner of the Roman school, but uninterest- ing compared with RaphaeFs Ma- donna di Ix)reto : the altar-piece in the Capella Cbigi at S. M. del Popolo at Rome ; lastly, several portraits, all more than life-size, which teach us how M. Angelo liked to have portraits conceived. The most important : Andrea Doria (P. Doria at Borne), with a certain k intentional simplicity, elderly fea- tures beautiful, cold, and false : a Cardinal {Naples Mtcseum) : a man I in a fur mantle {P. Pittiy No. 409), wi with grand features ; this splendid picture has unfortunately grown dark in consequence of the unfa- vourable material of the slate panel ; the fur agrees quite with that of the Fornarina in the Tribune.

A grand altar-piece of Sebas- tiano's is found in S. Fra'necsco at n Viterbo, left^ transept, the Body of


S. del Piomho, — Q, da JJdine. — Torbido, — Palma. 187


Christ lying on the lap of his mother, who, mtiscular in form, is seated in the centre of the picture, with tightly-shut mouth, looking to the front, a picture of strangely powerful effect and most solemn tone, of which the composition may well have originated with M. Angela, as Vasari declares. (Com- pare the oriental type of the Virgin Mary with the youthful Cleopatra among the Michelangelo drawings

ainthQUffizi.)

[The visitor to the Famesina will have lively pleasure in seeing the

h lunettes in the Hall of Galatea painted with allegorical groups by the hand of Sebastiano ; female heads of that noble, so to say, glorified sensuousness, for which Oiorgione found in Venice, the most beautiful expressions — heads of pure Giorgionesque drawing and splendour of colouring, clearly the first that he painted in Rome, be- fore the influence of Michelangelo had yet told on the Venetian. In

cthe Quirinal, lastly, there hangs an old St. Bernard of Clairvaux, the Tempter under his feet, a noble head, full of character, with an ex- pression of solemn calm, and very marked features. — Mr.]

Sebastiano's only scholar Tom- maso Laureti, in his frescos in the second hall in the P. dei Conser-

dvatm'i in. the Capitol — (scenes from Roman history, M. Scaavola, Brutus and his Sons, &c.), — shows more the type of Giulio and Sodoma ; in his later time at Bologna, he appears rather as a naturalist in the manner of Tintoret; High

<J Altar of S. Giacotno Afaggiore, &c. Oiovanni da Uditic is, in the only considerable picture of his earlier time, a representation of Christ among the Doctors along with the four teachers of the church {Aca-

fdemy at Venice), an independent Venetian master without obvious likeness to his teacher, Giorgione ; rather motley in colour, but with


grand features. A half-length pic- ture in the Galleria Manfrin, Ma- ^ donna with two Saints appears in its easy beautiful treatment of the heads rather like a glorification of Cima than like a picture of Gior- gione^s school. (Is it rightly named?) Neither of the pictures have any documentary proof of authenticity. Only one single precious little pic- ture bears his name, a Madonna with Angels and Founders, in the collection of Signer F. Frizzoni at A Bergamo, of the year 1517. The juicy and glowing colour betrays the scholar of Giorgione. [In the P. Grimani at Venice, there is a* ceiling painted by Giovanni da Udine on the first story, an arbour thick with all possible natural growths of the South, richly en- livened with birds, most masterly in execution. — Mr.] Francesco Toi'- bidOf surnamed il Mora, first car- ried the distinct Venetian style from this school to Verona. His only principal work there, the pic- tures from the Life of the Virgin in the semi-dome and the upper walls of the Choir of the Cathedral, j does not belong entirely to himself, but was executed after designs by Giulio RomanOj who was then under Correggio's influence, and was striving to bring the realiza- tion of space of the latter into harmony with his own style in a manner worthy to be observed. [Beautiful altar-pieces of his are found in S. Eufemia and S. Fenno k there. An excellent portrait, with { the name of the master, in the

Najylcs Museum.* — Mr.] I

I Jacopo Fahna Vecchio (1480 — I 1528) was not a scholar of Gior- I gione, but he developed and car- ' ried on what he had striven after ; ' in him the painting of life seems to ' have attained its highest comple- tion. He is essentiafiy the creator

I * [See the Gattamelata at the Uffizi, No. 571, antea, ascribed to Giorgione, but also i byTorbido.— Ed.]


1S8


Painting of tlie Sixteenth Century,


of those female characters, some- what over rich, perhaps, but in his pictures still very nobly formed, and awakening feelings of confi- dence, which the later Venetian school especially affects. He pro- duced with effort, and his colouring has not the complete freedom of several others of his school, but the fullest glow and beauty. Where he attempts to give a dramatic

a effect ( Venice Acadciny : the over- crowded half-length picture of the Healing of the Possessed Girl; there, also, the Assumption of the Virgin), one must only look for execution and special parts ; he succeeded best in the quiet scene

J of Emmaiis (P. Pitti), where cer- tainly the Christ has come out weak, but the truthfulness and beautiful still life of all the rest is astonishing ; one can see nothing more truly naive than the sailor- boy waiting on them who looks in the face at one astonished apostle. [I consider this picture as not genuine, as well as the two so- called Palmas, Nos. 254 and 414 ; but the No. 84 in the same gallery. Madonna with Saints and Founders in the landscape, I think genuine. The Kesurrection in S. Francesco

c delta Vigtm at Venice, second chapel left, is by a nameless pupil of Gior- gicne. — Mr.]

His principal work is the figure of S. B&rbara (with less important side pictures) in ^S*. Maria Formosa

d at Venice, first altar on the right, the head of a truly tjrpical Venetian beauty, the whole finished with the greatest power and knowledge of colour and modelling. Only the undecided step, the unplastic flow of the drapery, the over-delicate smallness of the hand which holds the palm — all this prevents the beholder from being impressed, as one is, c, gr., by a work of Raphael. Of larger altar pictures 1 am only acquainted with the ruined one in

e S. Zaccaria (on the wall of the C.


dell' Addolorata, first side chapel on the right), a Madonna enthroned with Saints, recognizable by the angel with a violin seen in profile, formerly very beautiful. [It ap- pears to me to have been a Zo- remo Lotto. — Mr.] The remaining Sante Conversazioni are partly half- length figure pictures, partly long narrow pictures, with kneeling and sitting figures, for private devotion. The tone is always the same, some- times simple, at others richer ; here on a higher, there on a lower scale of colour ; sometimes with a simple background, sometimes with a splen- did landscape ; the Madonna in the midst, frequently under the sha- dow of a tree — Museum of Naples ; / others still very beautiful in the P. Adonw at Oenoa ; Pal. Colonna y at Borne [a Madonna with S. Peter, h who receives the kneeling founder. In the latter, a young beardless man, there is inimitable truth of expression, intimate devotion, and also a power of tone and a strong solid treatment, in which Palma is surpassed by no Venetian. — Mr.]. A beautiful altar-piece of five large figures (in the centre John the Baptist) on the first altar on the right, in S. Cassiano at Venice [a i genuine Palma. — Mr.]. The por- trait of a richly dressed mathema- tician (in the UJizi, No. 650), Skj

'< head of the grand quality of the

I Knight of St. John. *

[A village church at Zermaji, k near Venice, possesses a large and excellent altar-piece by this rare master. Perhaps the most im- portant piece which Italy possesses still, besides S. Barbara, is the splendid ten-foot high altar-piece of the church of S. Stefaiio at Vicenza, left transept. The Vir- gin seated with the Child, with a landscape, S. Lucia and S. George. I hardly know a church out of

' * [Tliia portrait is dated 1555 1 1 That is twenty-seven years after Falma's death. — Ed.]


Hocco Marconi. — Lorenzo Lotto.


189


Venice which can show so splendid aivork. — Mr.]

Hocco Marcoiii took his ideas altogether from the last-named painter, but few have equalled his colouring in glow and transparency. He was very unequal in his cha- racters, but once put forth his -whole strength in a great elfort ; the Descent from the Cross ( Venice d Academy). His half-length figure pictures, with the favourite Ve- netian subject of Christ with the Woman taken in Adultery : B.

]) PantaleoTie, chapel to left of choir and elsewhere, are built up in a soulless fashion ; his Christ between two Apostles is, in one

c {Academy^ Venice), sti£f in arrange- ment and characters; in another

d (SS, Giovanni c Faolo, right tran- sept), one of the best pictures of the school, with the most beautiful mild heads, especially that of Christ, which resembles the Christ of Bellini St. Peter's attitude expresses the deepest devotion. Above him, a choir of angels making music. A single half- -length figure (in the Academy) is weaker.

Lorenzo Lotto, half Lombard and half Venetian, is an excellent mas- ter in his pictures of the latter st^le, especially where he resembles Giorgione ; as in the picture at the

f Carmine, second altar on the left, where S. Nicolas, with three Angels and two Saints on clouds, fioats above an ocean bay with the break- ing light ; even in its ruined con- dition, a noble and poetical work. In the right transept of SS. Gio-

gvanni e Faolo, the S. Antoninus surrounded by Angels, while his chaplains receive petitions and distribute alms. Madonnas with Saints, more in Palma's manner ;

hPal, Manfrin, Uffizl, &c. The half-length fi^ire picture of the

i Three Ages, in the Fitii Falace, very atttactive, in Giorgione's

j manner. In S. GicKomo delU Orio,


an altar-piece in the left transept, a Madonna enthroned with four Saints, a work of his old age (1546).

[We owe the highest considera- tion to this master, so incredibly fertile, and endowed with inex- haustible richness of invention, as well as with the liveliest power of fancy. There are important works by his hand at Bergamo, three colossal altar pictures of great richness in composition and splen- did colouring, in 8. Spirito, S. h Bernardino, and S, Bartolommeo, the last especially grand in con- struction, and all possessing a grace of form and charm of colouring ap- proaching Correggio. A beautiful youthful picture atBecanati (March I of Ancona) of 1509, of the most intense expression of feeling and wonderful finish. At Gastelnuovo, m sacristy of the principal church, a Transhguration. At Loreto, where n . the master lived for years, and where he died, there are several things in the Episcopal palace. A gigantic Ascension of the Virgin (1550) in S. Bomenico at Ancona, o altar on the right, near the en- trance. A masterpiece of 1531 in the little place Monte S. Giusto, nearp Fermo, a Crucifixion of sixteen feet I high ; especially in its pictorial conception. His unsigned pictures are almost always wrongly named. The Faluszo Borfjhese at Borne q contains, along with the excellent (signed) half-length figure picture of the Madonna between S. Ono- frius and a bishop, room 11, No. 1, of 1508, in the same room, the pre- cious portrait of a young man, under the name of Pordenone, dressed in black with charming chiaroscuro effect. In the Doria r Gallery, second gallery. No. 34, apparently the portrait of the master painted by himself ; near to it, a small S. Jerome, in a land- scape (under the name of Caracci), In the Rofipiglioffi Gallery, ascribed


190 Painting of the Sixteenth Century.

to Luca Cambiasi (?), an Allegory, | into life such jgrand beings. But the Victory of Chastity, of which any one who wishes to pursue this the charminff arrangement of the ' subject requires no further expla> light, and the incomparably deli- natory word. Out of the immense cate execution, betray the hand of \ number of portraits which bears the L. Lotto. A Madonna, signed, ! name of Titian in the Italian galle- with Saints, of 1524, in the first | ries, we shall mention only the most aTQOTo. of pictures at the Quirinal, \ excellent and certainly genuine;


over the door, and others. In the h Brera at Milan, there have been for some years past three excellent


any judgment concerning the others may be left undecided. There are in the P. Pitti, of the c


portraits. — Mr.] ' first rank and altogether worthy of

I the master, the three-quarter len^h In the centre of the school stands of Ippolito Medici, in Hungarian the gigantic figure of Titian Vecelli ' costume, No. 201 (1533), and Philip (1477—1576), who in his life of : II., a whole length, No. 200(1553) ; nearly a century, either adopted, I in the UJizi, the Archbishop of f^ or himself created or gave the ori- Kagusa, of 1552 (Tribune) ; the


ginal idea to the younger genera tion of all that Venice was capable of in painting. There is no intel- lectual element in the school which he does not somewhere exemplify


Duke of XJrbino, in armour, stand- ing before some red plush drapery, and the formerly beautiful elderly Duchess in the arm-chair. No. 605 and 597 (1537). [In the ^^aples€


represents its limitations.

The divine quality in Titian lies in his power of feeling in things and men that harmony of exist- ence which should be in them ac- cording to their natural gifts, or still lives in them, though troubled


in perfection ; he certainly also ^i^<;i(m, the well-known half-length x_ -J.- i-_„-^-j.--__ figure of Paid III. (1543) sitting in

an aim- chair ; the same Pope with two attendants (1545), a large un- finished picture of the master, excellent ; farther, the most beauti- ful of all, the whole-length stand- ing figure of Philip II., which may


and unrecognized ; what in real life i rival the master-piece in Madrid, is broken, scattered, limited, he I —Mr.] [In the Palazzo Beale at represents as complete, happy, and \ Naples the portrait (1543) of Pier free. This is the universal pro- I Lui^ Farnese. — Ed.] One may blem of art ; but no one answers it ! again and again educate one's eye so calmly, so simply, with such an . in these pictures, and try to enter •experience of absolute convictiou. ! into the infinite mastery of Titian, In him this harmony was pre- ' which cannot be described satisfac- «8tablished ; to use a philosophical ! torily in any words. Further, let term, in a special sense he pos- ' us not allow criticism to deprive us sessed a special mastery of all the ' of the enjoyment of the less excel- mechanical artistic methods of the j lent and doubtful, or certainly un- school ; but several painters equal i genuine portraits of the master ; him in special instances. His grand | there is a great deal to admire also powerof conception, as we have just , in these, especially compared with described it, is more essentially j modern painting, in the conception characteristic of him. i of the characters, the simple ar-

It is most easily seen in his por- I ran^ement, the fundament^ tone traits, in presence of which people I of the colour, certainly forget the question, how , Now follow some pictures about the master can, out of the scat- I which we shall always doubt how tered and hidden traits, have called | far they were painted as portraits.


I


I


Titian.


191


how far out of pure artistic im- pulse, and whether we are looking at some particular beauty, or a problem of beauty grown into a picture. First of all, La Bella, in

rtthe Fitti: the dress (blue, violet, gold, white), apparently chosen by the painter, mysteriously harmo- nizing with the charming luxuriant character of the head ; it is the same person as the famous Venus of the UfKzi, and also the Duchess there. Then the most noble female type which Titian has produced. La Bella, in the P. Sciarra at Bome

I (the dress white, blue and red, \m- donbtedly by Titian, in spite of the blacker shadows in the flesh ; * below, on the left, the cypher [TAMBEND]); and the Flora in

cthe Uffizi with her left hand lift- ing up a damask drapery, with her right offering roses. However ereat may have been the beauty of the woman who gave the impulse to these two pictures, in any case Titian first placed her on the height which makes this head appear in a sense as the counterpart of the Venetian type of the Head of Christ. (The so-called Schiava in the P.

d Barherini at Bome is only the work of an imitator [uo less than Palma Vecchio. — Ed.].) Perhaps, also, the beautiful picture of three half-

€ length figures, in the P. Manfrin, which was formerly called Gior- gione, is rather by Titian ; a young noble, who is turning round to a lady, whose features recall the Flora, on the other side a boy with a feather in his cap. The costumes are those of about 1520. [I agree with this view.f In the Palazzo

/Strozzi at Florence is found the figure of a fair-haired girl, still a child, with pearls round her neck, a heavy gold chain round her body,

  • [This is certainly by Falma Vecchio.— \

. t [This picture, now at Alnwick Castle, j ^ not worthy of Titian, but might be by 1 »08co Marcone.— Ed.] I


and a lap-dog, with the name of the master, of his middle period (1543). Beautiful in execution, well preserved, and authenticated by the receipt of the payment. — Mr.]*

Titian has also in some of his nude figures solved other problems of a lofty existence, and at the same time achieved a triumph in the pictorial representation seldom again attained. In the Tribune of the Uffizi the two famous pictures, g the one marked as Venus by the presence of Cupid, the other with- out any mythological indication, yet also Venus. The latter is cer- tainly the earliest ; the head has the features of the Bella in the P. Pitti.t Figures of this kind so often mislead modern, especially French painters. Why are these forms eternal, while the moderns so rarely produce anything more than beautiful nude studies ? Be- cause the motive and the import, and the light and colours, and form arose and grdw together in - the mind of Titian . What is created in this manner is eternal. The deli- cious cast of the figures, the har- mony of the flesh tints, with the golden hair and the white linen, and many other special beauties, here pass altogether into the har- mony of the whole, nothing ob- trudes itself separately. The other picture, similar in the lines of the principal figure, yet represents an- other type, and gives a different feeling, because of the red velvet drapery in place of the linen, as well as by its landscape back- ground. A third recumbent figure, on a couch with a red canopy, in the Academy of S. Luca at Bome, h is described by an inscription as Vanitas ; a very beautiful work, but one which the author has not thoroughly examined. [Too feeble

  • [Now in the Museum of Berlin.— E<1.1

t The Duchess of Urbino is of the same type.


192


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


for Titian. — Mr.] In the Naples

a Mitseu77i a beautiful Danee (1545). In sinffle fisures of religious sub- jects we liardly can expect in Titian the most dignified and suitable representation of the objects of which they bear the name. In general, Titian's characters, how- ever grand and, in a certain sense, historical, they are in themselves, do not easily attain any historical significance ; their individual life predominates.

In the well-known Magdalen, for instance, the repentant sinner is

  • meant to be represented, but in

the wonderful woman, whose hair streams like golden waves around her beautiful form, this is clearly only accessory. Principal example,

h Pal, Fittiy another draped in a striped loose garment, also by Ti-

c tian himself in the Naples Museum [which I prefer even to that of the P. Pitti.— Mr.]. Inferior examples

d and copies : PaX. Doria at Borne,

c Turin Gallery, and in other places. In the John Baptist the lonely preacher of repentance {Academy,

/Venice), the severe character of the subject is adhered to. A noble head, perhaps somewhat nervously suffering, with the expression of sorrow ; with his right hand he beckons to the people (see the John of Baphael, antca). The St. Je- rome, of which Italy possesses at least one good example {Brera at

g Milan) is, pictorially, a lofty poeti- cal work, energetic in form, beauti- ful in lines, a pleasant ensemble of the nude, the red drapery, the linen, with the steep hollow way as back- ground, only the expression of the inspired ascetic is not sufii- ciently spiritual. In single heads of Christ, on the other hand, Titian has new-cast Bellini's ideal in a thoughtful, altogether intellectual, manner. The most beautiful is in

It Dresden {Cristo della Moneta) : that

i in the Pal. Pittl, No. 228, is also a noble specimen. The large fresco


figure of S. Christopher in the Doge's Palace (below, on the steps/ near the chapel) is one of those wbrks of Titian's in which there seems to shine out a fresh impres- sion received from Correggio.

After what has been said, it can no longer be doubted which among the large church pictures will produce the purest and most com- plete impression ; they are the calm existence pictures : chiefly Madonnas, with Saints and Donors. Thus where one tone, one feeling, must fill the whole, where the special historical intention is in the background, Titian is incomparably grand. The earliest of these pic- tures, St. Mark enthroned between four Saints {circa, 1512) in the ante-chamber of the Sacristy of the ^ Salute, is a marvel of fulness and nobleness in the characters, in tone golden and full of light. One special Santa conversazione also is the grand late picture of the Vaiican Gallery (1523) : six saints, I some of them wearing a moderated ecstatic expression, move freely be- fore a niche in ruins, above which the Madonna appears in the clouds : two angels hasten to bring crowns to the child, which it throws doiAii in a happy playfulness ; farther above one sees the befi^uning of & glory of rays (of which the semi- circular termination with the dove of the Holy Ghost is still visible, but must be bent round to the back). Lastly, the most' important and most beautiful of all presenta- tion pictures, by means of which Titian fixed a true conception of subjects of this kind for all future time, according to pictorial laws of harmony in grouping and colour, and free aerial perspective. This is the picture in the Frari on one wt of the first altars to the left (1526) ; several saints introduce the members of the Pesaro family kneeling below, to the Madonna enthroned on an altar. A work of


Titian.


193


Suite unfathomable beauty, which be beholder will perhaps agree with me in feeling more personally fond of than any of Titian's pictures.

Of nearly the same importance,

the Presentation of the donor Aloy-

sius Gotius to the Madonna, of 1520,

a signed, in S. DoTtienico at Ancona.*

Single Madonnas with the Child, in the open air or before a sreen curtain, and so forth, are K>und here and there. There is a small early and very beautiful one in the Pal. Sciarra at Rome. The ex- pression does not go beyond a mature motherliness, truly of the sweetest kind.

His Biblical and other religious scenes are harmonious in proportion as the relations represented are 5 simple. In the Academy: — the Visitation, the earliest known pic- ture of the master. [This picture can no longer be assigned to Titian, for whom it is too feeble. — Ed.] [Of his middle period : an Annun- c ciation, in the Cathedral {S. Pietro) at Treviso (1519) ; the Virgin kneel- ing, the angel comes with a stormy movement as if flyine towards her : below, quite small, kneels the founder of the family Malchiostri d — ^Mr.l In S. Mardlian at Venice, first altar on the left the young Tobias with the Angel, a naive

Eicture of childlike innocence under eavenly protection. (Of the pic-

e ture of Emmaus of Titian, the Gal- lery at Turin possesses at least a copy). In S. Salvatore: last altar

y of the right transept^ a late Annun- ciation. [We must not pass over the large and remarkable altar^ piece, **La Carit^ di S. Giovanni Memosinario, in the church of this saint. Also the church of S.

g Ido rejoices in the possession of an excellent, though unhappily ill- preserved, altar-piece, S. James as a ^ pilgrim. Among the many Titianesque pictures in Venice, we

  • In the same church a lai>^ cmclfied

Saviour, high altar ; of T.'a latest tlma


must mention the little St. Jerome in the collection of the Prince h GHovanelU [by Basaiti. — Ed.] ; a youthful work, with a graceful landscape, still reminding us of Giovanni Bellini. Bresoia also pos- sesses an important work of the master in the church of 8. S. i Naaaro e Celso. It is a large altar* piece in five divisions : in the centre the Resurrection of the Saviour with two watchers rousing them- selves in terror. The side pictures contain single saints ; signed, with the name and 1522 [and the travel- ler in Lombardy wiU find some pleasure in looking at the great CShrist with the Virgin in Clouds (of 1554) in the Church of Xedole.y — Ed.] ^ A huge altar-piece of the master is to be seen in the principal Church at Serravalle. The mamek TITIAN is on it, or else doubts might easily arise as to the genuine- ness of the picture, in which, be- sides the Titianesque element, there is almost as much that suggests Lanfranco.f Somewhat less step- fatherly was the master's treatment of his native place, Pieve di Oadore, where, in the church of S. Maria, I is an altar-piece by his hand ; the Holy Vir^n gives the breast to the Child, while S. Andrew looks on in admiration. On the other side kneels St. Titian, to whom the painter himself, at least eighty years old, aU dressed in black, holds out a bishop's staff.:}: In the Amhrosiana a beautiful Adoration of vi the Shepherds and a Deposition.§ — ^Mr.] Of the richer compositions the famous Deposition (the one in the Pal. Manfrin [sold a few years ago. — Ed.] is a copy of the extremely splendid original in the Louvre) holds the first place. It is n


t [Who would expect this criticism of a picture of admirable execution, finished in Titian's grandest style in 1547 ?— Ed.]

1 [Hero on the contrary the picture is below the usual level of Titian.— Ed]

§ [Both these pictures are copies. ->Ed.

O


194


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


dangerous to make oomparisoiiB ; but here the Borghese I^Dposition by Raphael is almost unavoidably brought to our mind. In dramatic richness,* in majesty of lines, the work of Titian cannot compare with the other ; the attitudes also of very few of the figures are suffi- ciently explained. Sut the group is not only infinitely beautinil in arrangement of colours, but also, in its expression of mental sorrow, equal to the very best. No trait of pathos is unconnected with the action, none oversteps the limits of the noblest expression, as, for in- stance, in Correggio, whose Depo* sition has one superiority in the expression he gives of light and space; but in essentials is far below Titian. The Lu^ Descent

a from the Cross in the Academy, the last picture by him (1575>6) shows in its indistinct forms and some- what careless lines, still a tone and grand feeling. In the Transfigura- tion, likewise, very late (high altar

boi S. Salvatore), his power was equal no lon^r to it {eirca, 1565). But in the middle [the picture was exhibited in 1518.— £kl.f of his career Titian made an effort and produced an altar-piece without comjMure : the Assumption of the

c Virgin {Academy), formerly over the high altar of the Frari; on account of the place being so high up the Apostles are represented somewhat from below.

The lower group is the truest burst of slowing inspuntion ; how greatly the Apostles long to float up to the Virgin ! in some heads the Titianesque character is exalted to celestial beauty. Above, among the joyous bands, the one of the full-grown angels, who brinss the crown, is drawn as a whole splendid figure ; of the rest one sees only the supematurally-beautif ul heads, while the Putti, also sublime in their manner, are represented as whole figures. Though Correggio's


influence may have assisted to pro- duce this, the Celestial nature of these flgures is far beyond him. The Father is of a less ideal type than the heads of Christ by Titian ; from the girdle down he is lost in the glory which radiates from the Virem. She stands light and firm on the clouds, which yet are ideally conceived, not mathematically real ; her feet are quite visible ; her red robe contrasts with the strongly waving dark blue mantle fastened in front ; her head is surrounded with rich hair. But the exjDression is one of the highest inspirations which art can boast; the last earthly bonds are burst; she breathes celestial happiness.

Another Assumption, in the Ca- d thedral at Verona (1^^)> fi»t altar on the left, is more quietly con- ceived ; the Apoeties at the empty grave gaze full of emotion and adoration, look upwards to her who is soaring aloft alone. The execution also is of high exceUenoe.

For historical painting proper there are frescos of Titian of nis quite early time (1511), in two Scuole (buildings belonging to re- ligious fraternities) in Padua. In the Scfiola del Santo, the first, e eleventh, and twelfth pictures are by hioL 8. Antony makes a little child speak as a witness to the innocence of its mother ; a jealous husbuid kills his wife ; S. Antony restores the broken leg of a youth. (His coadjutors were for the fourth, eighth, and tenth, Paduans of the early school ; for the second, third, ninth, and seventeenth, the Paduan Domenico Campagnola, who displays here a remarkable talent, in these works rivalling Titian ; for the fifth, seventh, thirteenth, four- teenth, various scholars of Titian ; by Giov. Contarini, the sixth ; by later artists, the fifteenth and six- teenth. In the Sctt/ola del Carmine, f there is by Titian only the beauti-


Titian.


195


fnl pictaro, Joachim and Anna. The first, second, third, fourth, are by inferior Paduans of the old school ; the seventh, Joachim's ex- pulsion from the Temple, by a much better hand; the twelf&, thir- teenth, fourteenth (also sixth) by Campoffnola; the ninth is quite insignificant, the tenth and eleventh by later painters. ) As special well- known examples in fresco by the Venetians of the beginning of the sixteenth century, these paintings are not to be compared with the great contemporary Florentines in all that belonoB to composition. In the Scuola dSi Santo the subjects also have a great internal defect. But as lifelike pictures of existence, vriih. grand, free characters, with picturesque costumes treated with perfect beauty, with excellent land- scape backgrounds, with colouring which in nesco is only equalled now and then by Raphael and A. del Sarto, the works of Titian are of the highest value. His chiaros- curo in flesh tints is truly delightful. The picture of Joachim and Anna, in the beautiful wide landscape, belongs without exception to nis greatest simple masterpieces. * We cannot say that in subjects of this kind he improved at a later period. In his great Presentation of the Virgin m the Temple (1539- ?) a {Academy of Venioe) the real subject is nearly overlaid by the crowd of accessory motives, which are indeed represented with astonishing fresh- ness and beauty.

Two famous altar-pieces of Ti- tian are in the highest degree dra- matic. It was a necessary though dangerous transition in this period of art equal to executing anything, that they besan to give m the altar- picture the legend instead of the Saint, the martyrdom instead of the Martyr. The celebrated S. Pietro

  • [This is a most exaprgerated estimate

of a fresco, which if it be by Titian at all is one of the poorest of his creations.— Ed.]


Martire, in SS. Giovanni e Paolo b [finished 1530, destroyed in the fire of 1867; the following remarks may perhaps recall to those who have seen the picture the recollection of its wonderful impression]. The event is here truly overpowering, and yet not horrible ; the last cr^ of the Martyr, the lament of his terrified attendant, have space to rise among the lofty tree stems, which one has to cover with one's hand in order to see how important such a free space is for dramatic scenes conceived in a real man- ner. The landscape, above all, is here first treated with complete artistic mastery, the distance in an angiy light, which helps essen- tially to characterize the terrible moment. The Martyrdom of S. c Lawrence (1558) on one of the first altars on the left in the church of the Jesuits, an unendurable subject, but quite grandly treated ; the nead of tne sufferer one of Titian's most remarkable characters. The com- bination of the various liffhts on the group taken in the fullest move- ment is unequal in effect. (Much restored.)

Once Titian seems to have fol- lowed Ck>rreggio very closely. The three pictures on the ceiling in the Sacristy of the Salute (1543), the (2 Death of Abel, the Sacrifice of Abraham, and the Dead Goliath, are, as I believe, the earliest Vene- tian pictures taken to give a view from below, di sotto m sh." In reality, this mode of representation was not according to the nature of the Venetian painters, who wished to represent real existence, and not to astonish by an illusive appear- ance of imaginary localities. Be- sides this, they are earthly not heavenly events, and hence the view from below is only of that half kind which henceforward pre- vails in hundreds of Venetian ceil- ing pictures. The forms are con- tracted by it in aa unbeautifol

0%


196


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


manner (the Ejieeling Isaac !), but the painting is still excellent. [Later still Titian painted in the same form (1559) the *' Wisdom " in the ceiling of the library at Venice. — Ed.]

Of profane historical pictures, except a large ceremonial picture in

A the Pinacoteca at Verona (Homage of the Veronese to Venice, with a number of fine heads ; most of it probably by Bonifcudo), there exists nothing remarkable except the ex- cellentlittle picture of the Battle of

h Gadore, in the Uffiai [acoi)y — Ed.] ; the hand-to-hand conflict is thickest on and near ahigh bridge, from which the front scenes standout happily, — an episode which perhaps gaYe Bubens the impulse to his cattie of the Amazons. One must not here expect a dramatic central idea^ any more than complete historical accu- racy in the costume, partly autique, paitly that of the lanzknechts ; out the whole, as well as its details, is masterly in its spirit.

Mytholo^cal works must, in any style that is realistic rather than ideal, be more inharmonious in pro- portion as their subject is heroic, and more harmonious, according as they approach the Idyllic and Fas- toraL Titian seems to have felt this more clearly than most of his contemporaries. His chief subjects are Bacchanalia, in which beautiful And even luxurious existence comes to its highest point. The ori^uids are in London and Madrid. There is an episode from '* Bacchus and Ariadne" (reputed to be bv Titian himself, but more probably by a non- Venetian of the seventeenth

e century), in the Pcd. Pitti, Of a famous picture in the spirit of Cor- reggio's Leda, namely, the repre-

e^sentation of the Guilt of Galisto, there are several copies by his own hand scattered through Europe.

^ The one in the Academy of S. Luca at Borne, of which about a third is


wanting, appeared to me (on cur- sory examination) to be a beautiful original work. [It is much spoiled and smeared, yet one can still clear- ly feel the hand of the master in it (??). — Mr.] Another well-known composition is now only represented in Italy, by copies, since the sale of the Camucdni Gallery, which/ possessed a beautiful original sketch [now at Alnwick Gastle. — Ed.]; Venus tries to detain Ado- nis, who is rushiDg to the chase ; a beautiful conception as to lines, form, and colour, and also a proper episode of idyllic sylvan life. Also in the Pal. Borghese : the late half- 9 length figure picture of the Arming of Gupia ; wonderfully ni^ve and beaut&ul in colour. It is not my- thological, but quite poetical, that an amorino tries by fair words to 0un permission to fly away, while the eyes of the other are bound.

Lastiiy, Titian has painted two pictures without any mythological conception, simple allegories, if you will, but of that rare land in which the allegorical sense which can be expressed is quite lost in comparison with an inexpressible poetry. Of one, the Three Ages of Man [the on- h ^naX is in the Bridgewater Oalleri/ m London], Saasof errata^ a beautiful but less powerful copy is found in the Pal. Borghese at Borne. (A?* shepherd and shepherdess on a sylvan meadow, on one side chil- c&en, in the distance an old man.) The other, in the Borghese PaJaceJ at Borne: Amor sacro ed Amor

Srofano," that is, Love and Pru- ery [the old Italian title, pro- bably a wrong one. Bidolfl (1646) calls it, "Due donne vicino ad un fonte, entro a cui si specchia un fanciuUo"], a subject which had been already treated by Pemgino. The meaning is exemplified in all possible ways : the complete cover- ing of the one figure,* even with

  • She reminds ns of the Flora and the

BellA in the PaL Bciarra.


Vecellio, Schiavone, Boni/azio,


197


gloves ; the plucked rose ; on the sarcophagus of the stream, the bas- relief of a Cupid wakened out of sleep by Genii with blows from their whips ; the rabbits ; the pair of lovers in the distance. Both pictures, especially the former, ex- ercise the dreamy charm over one, which one can only describe hj comparison, and which perhaps is only desecrated by words.

Among the pupils aad assistants of Titian, we meet first some of his relations. His brother Francesco Ve- cellio painted, the orean panels in a S, Salvatore ; inside, the Transfigu- ration and Resurrection ; without, S. Augustine, who is ordaining some kneeling monks, and S. Theodorus in a landscape, in the grand, free style of drawing, which is seen in the frescos at Padua. [At Cadore, in the Duomo, a Virgin and Child with Saints ; a Madonna at Sedico ; Nativity at Fonzaso, near Belluno ; Annunciation and Repose in Egypt, b in the Yenice Academy. "l [In S. Vito c (Friuli), a large altar-piece of 1524, Madonaa with Saints, oeautiful and dignified. — ^Mr.] By his nephew, Marco Vecellio (1545-1611 [?] ), a Ma- <2 donna della Misericordia, glowing with colour, in the Pal, FiUi (No. 484) [strong, full of transparent co- louring, along with feeble execution. e — Mr.], and in S. Giovanni Elemo- fsinario at Venice (on the left), the picture of this Saint with S. Mark and a Founder. By his son, Oraxw VecelliOf there exists little of any note; chiefly portraits. [The bold- est and most successful of Titian's pupils was Andrea Meldolla, or Schiavone (bom at the opening of the sixteenth century; died, drcaj 1582), an artist of considerable skill, assistant to Titian for several years, then master of Tintoretto. Schia- vone vulgarized Venetian art, but his vulgarity was not without power. He was one of the first independent landscape painters of


North Italy. A Portrait of 1537 at the Pitti shows how early he had mastered the Titianesque style. His numerous canvases at Venice would alone suffice to give us a perfect knowledge of his manner. —Ed.]

[The name of Bonifazio was borne by at least three painters, all from Verona, of whom the eldest and most remarkable, a contemporary of Titian and Palma, apparently came out of the school of Domenico Morone. He died in 1540. A se- cond died in 1553 (according to re- cords). A third was stUl painting in 1579. All the works of these painters resemble each other, like those of the Bassani, and their number, with the addition of the many pictures misnamed and given to higher sounding names, is end- less. — Mr.]

If we consider their pictures as a whole, we see what in Venice was the substitute for frescos, namely, the large histories painted on can- vas, wmch were hung up in sacred and other public buildings at a con- siderable height, somewhat above the wainscot. It is important forthe whole style of the school that the long narrow picture (from reasons of space) always had the preference over the tall picture ; even the mode of narration of Paolo Veronese, who was afterwards allowed every possible freedom in place that could be desired, was originally developed under these conditions. Tintoretto first broke through this prejudice in some degree.

These masters then exemplify brilliantly how and why the Vene- tians of the second and third rank are so far superior to the Florentines and Romans of a corresponding grade. The conception of the ac- tion, however humbly th^ take it, is at least quite naive. The enno- bled naturausm, which is the spring of life of the school, drives them of itself to an ever new view of


198


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


indiyidual objects ; but wbat ihey owe to their masters, the amount of charm derived from colour and liffht, posterity accepts most grate- fmlj also at second hand. (The Florentines and Bomans, on the contrary, draw from their masters single elements of beauty and energy for conventional use, and apply themselves to the prodigious ana the pathetic.) High intellec- tual ideas are not to be expected from many Venetians, not even from the Bonifazios, who some- times paint absolutely without ideas; nevertheless, they do not disturb us by downright coarseness of conception.

a In the Academy, two splendid glowing pictures : an Adoration of the Kinffs, in a beautiful landscape, and a lt£idonnaj with both children and four Saints ; also apicture, with- out much mind, of the Adulteress ; several single figures of Saints, who seem to long for a niche or some such framing ; lastly, the story of Dives, most attractive as a romance picture, and on the whole a most miportant production. (Similarity of the Dives to Henry VIII. ) [There also is the Judgment of Solomon. These pictures, which we do not tonsider equal to the Finding of

h Moses in the Brera (antea), or the Christ among the Disciples at Em- maus also in the Brera (a picture, in spite of all its faults in detail, its incompleteness of execution, and want of seriousness, yet standing very high), are miite worthy of the golden period of Venetian painting, and apparently belong to the elder (? the second) Bonifazio. The fol- lowin^y and many others in various gallenes in Ital]^, are chiefly works of the later artists of this name. — Mr.]

Of the two large pictures of the

cjjut Supper, the one in S. Angela Haffaelle at Veniea (chapel on right of choir) contains a number of beau- tifol heads. The moment of the


Unns Vestmm {antea), is clearly ex- pressed. In the other Last Supper, m S. M, MaJter Domini (left tran- d sept), which is still more beauti- fully painted, and perhaps for this reason has been ascribed to Palma Vecchio, the painter no longer con- cerned himself with that spedal moment ; the Apostles, in indiffer- ent talk, are not attendiog to tiie Christ. In the Pal, Manfrin (? if e still there) : a large Madonna with Saints; two pictures whose sub- ject forms the Tabula Cebetis," Uivai^ Ktfifyros (a description of human life under the form of a mcture, by the Greek philosopher Kebes, a scholar of Socrates), alle- ffories, which properly were utterly foreign to this school and should have remained so, as it was altoge- ther formed to give splendour to special things, not to realize ceneral ideas. In the ilddozia (chapel behind/ the Sacristy), two (very much in- jured) tigures of Apostles. Beyond Venice, three pictures are worthy of mention : in Pal, PiUi, a Christ g among the Doctors [No. 405, under the name Bonifazio Bembo, from Cremona," a feeble picture by one of this group of painters, in which but little weiffht is attached to the meaning of we subject. On the other hand, in the same gallery are hidden, under the name of Paris Bordone (No. 89), an excellent Bo- nifazio ; B^pose during the Flight, and (No. 257) the Sibyl with the Emperor Augustus. In the Bor-h gheae Palace at Bome a practised eye will recognize in the Venetian room (eleventh), three Bonifazios (No. 15), the sons of Zebedee, with their mother, kneeUng before Christ ; No. 16, the Betimi of the Frodi^ Son, both excellent, and an umnteresting one of the Woman taken in Adultery. In the Colonna i Oallery is the beautiful half-length picture of a Madonna with Saints, easily distinguished by the S. Lucy holding her two eyes upon needles,


School of Titian.


199


oeitaiiilj by him. — ^Mr.] In the

a Pal, Bri^nole at Genoa: an Adora- tion of the Kings [feeble with beau-

^tifnl details. In the Gallery at Xodena: three unimportant pic- tares, with six allegorical figures of tiie Virtues (aUo called Bonifazio Bembo) ; much better is one of the 'most perfect of Bonifazio's, the Adoration of the Kings, hanging next to it. — Mr.}

Among the scholars of Titian the one most comparable to Bonifazio is the feebler Folidaro Veneziano, [The belt example of his per- petually - repeatea Mary adoring the Child is attributed to an anony-

c mous Flemish painter, in Pal, PUti, No. 483; a Last Supper, signed, in the Academy at Venice. — Mr.] By Campagnola there are some works in Padua, besides the frescos mentioned (p. 195). By Giovanni CarUmi pictures are found in

d\Li% own nome, Bergamo, and in

e the Brera at Milan (Madonna with S. Joseph, six other Saints, and many Ansels), which, in their noble, well-marked character, also reosdl his earlier master Giorgione. [In the Casa Ba^oni at Bergamo a Virgin with Donor of 1520, a Madonna, and a portrait, in the Carrara Gallery. — ^Ed.] [In

/the Ambrosiana at ICHan a Bearing of the Cross, called Luca

^d'Ollanda; in the P. Borghese at Borne the Madonna with S. Peter, eleventh room, No. 32 ; a species of half-length picture peculiar to himself, with male and female figures, in the house of the Count Boncalli at Bergamo [dated 1519], is very attractive from the charm- ing fanciful costume of the aristo- cratic people and certain delicately indicated romantic traits. — ^Mr.] By Oalist Piazza of Lodi, a very onorieinal artist, greatly influ- enoea by Romanino, and very flat in his later pieces, there are four large altar-pictures at Lodi. In-

hcorofuUa: first altar to the right,


the Conversion of Paul ; second altar right, the Beheading of John (1530) ; second altar lefC Descent from the Cross, with pictures of the Passion (1538); in the Cat?ie-i dral the Massacre of the Innocents. Others by him in S. Celso, Kilan ;.;' at Bresoia, S. Maria di CaUhera, a h Temptation of 1525 ; there also, in the town gallery, an Adoration, I si^ed, of 1524 ; a larjge Madonna with Saints, Na 338, in the Brera m at Milan. Another imitator of Titian is also worthy of considera- tion — Nalalino da Murano ; hia Lunette in S, Salvatore, near Bel- n lini's Emmans, hanm in a dark place; but the Madonna della Neve is a really important work, with Saints and the Founder, in the Cathedral at Ceneda, third altar o right. — Mr.] By Girolamo Savoldo, from Brescia [1508, member of the Guild of Art at Florence ; still living in 1548.— Ed.] There is a large Madonna on Clouds in the Brera at Milan ; a Transfiguration^ in the Uffizi, which shows the ideas q of Giovanni BeUiui (antea) ex- pressed in a new style. [In S. M. in Organo at Verona, a Virgin in Glory with four Saints. — ^Ed. J [In Bresoia itself there is only the ex- cellent Adoration of the Shepherds in S. Bamabaa; a sioiilar picture, r much spoiled, in the ante-room of the Sacristy of S. Giobbe, in a Venice. In the royal collection ■ at Turin a Holy Family, erroneously t named Pordenoue, and a hard and harsh Adoration of the Shepherds, wrongly named Titian. [Now catalogued under Savoldo's name. — Ed.] A very pleasing Repose during the Flight, with a View of Venice, in the Pal, Albani atu Urbino. In the AnibrosiaTia atv Milan, a Transfiguration called Lomazzo (!). Jacopo Savoldo, ap- parently a brother of the above- named, is the painter of the Two Hermits in the Academy at Venice, w No. 258, from the PaL Manfrin, of


200


Fainting of tlie Sixteenth Century,


1610.— Mr.]. [Paolo Pino, the author of a dialogue on painting, published at Venice in 1548, is a pupil of Savoldo. We judge of his style by a Bellinesque poitrait of

a 1544, in the Uffizi^ and a Virgin and Child with four Saints (1465),

&in the Gallery of Padua. — Ed.] Far more important is another Brescian follower of Titian,

Moretto (properly Alessandro Bonvicino) [born about 1498, died about 1554. — Ed.] He appears first to have been a pupil of Sacchi of Pavia [! ?], but afterwards to have taken impressions from the KomanVschool more happily than any other North Italian painter. In the first place, it is a gener^ and curious remark (first expressed and justified by Waagen, and after- wards by Schnaase) that the golden tone of the Venetians became, in most of the painters of the main- land, a silver tone. As regards Moretto e8{)ecially, it cannot be denied that in loftiness of idea in subject and nobleness of conception he excels all the Venetians, except certain first-rate works of Titian. His glories are more dignified and majestic, his Madonnas grander in form and attitude, his saints, too, at times, very grand in character. With the exception of Brescia, Italy hardly now possesses any pictures equal to the best pictures in Berlin, Frankfort, and Vienna. [Moretto^s pictures in Brescia cer- tainly are worth a whole gallery. The churches of 8. Clemente, SS. c Xazaro e Celso, S. Eufewiat Diwmo d Vecchio, S, Faustino in Riposo, S. e Francesco, S, Maria ddle Cfrazie, S. f GiuMppe, S, Giovanni Evangelistaf g S. M, Calchera, S. M, de* Miracoli, h S, Pietro in Olivcto, all present one'or more pictures of this mcomparable master. Among the five pictures t in S. ClemenU the precious Con- versazione of Five Holy Virgins, also the S. Ursula with her Train,


giveevidenoe of the master's tender, impressible nature, which suc- ceeded above all in female charac- ters. In the tender, fair figure of S. Michael, in ^^S*. Nazaro e Celso, j he accomplishes a marvel of charm. A sweet work, S. Nicholas leading school children before the Throne of the Madonna, in S, M, d^ k Miracoli, first chapel right from entrance. The S. Jerome (1530) in S, Francesco is injured by its I unsuitable elegance. — Mr.]

A very fine picture, a miraculous Madonna in white appearing to a youth, is at Faitane near Brescia [?]. m The large Madonna in the Clouds with three Saints in the Brera is a 9t noble picture ; but the principal figure has something gloomy about it. (There are also several pictures with single saints.) The most im- portant picture in Venice is found m S, Maria della Fietd (on theo Riva) in a nun's gallery over the door ; it is Christ at the Pharisee's House, the scene arranged with severe symmetry. In the Aca- demy the single figures of Peter and John, in a landscape, early, careful pictures, beautiful in ex- pression (from the Pal. Mamfrin),p [The pictures called by his name in the Uffizi are not his ; but works q by him are found in 8. Andrea at r Bergamo, 8, Giorgio Maggiore ats Verona, and 8, Maria Maggiore at t Trent ; lately also in the Vatican ti collection at Borne. — Mr.] In the Brignole Palace at G-enoa the ex-v celleut portrait of a Botanist at a table with a book and flowers with walls behind, dated 1533 [and si^ed. Moretto appears also in his portraits as a superior original of his scholar Moroni, ex, gr,j in the beautiful likenesses in the Gaaa ^o Fenaroli and the toum gallery a,tx Brescia. — Mr.]

The Bergamasque Gio. BaUiatay Moroni [born early in the 16th century, died 1578. — Ed.] was • scholar of Moretto, a most charac-


Moroni, Bomanino and School.


201


teriBtic portrait painter. Veiy far from representing a person in the Venetian manner, in a festal exalted tone, lie conceives him in the most intellectual and true manner, but spares him none of the wrinkles which fate has sraven on hie countenance. [I shomd less find fault with the timidity and smallness of Moroni^s conception of nature than with the want of spirit in his later pictures and their red tone. a — Mr.] In the Uffizi a man dressed in black, a whole length, with a flaming cup (1563), and the incom- parable half-len^h figure of a Student (the scholar par excellence) ; the book lying before him is per- haps the cause why the man of perhaps forty-five already looks sixty. Two other not quite equally b excellent portraits of Scnolars in the c Pcd. Manfrin (?). Other pictures d in the Academy at Vemoe and elsewhere. [An excellent male por- trait of 1565 in the Breray No. 137 ; c still finer that of the Canonico I/udo- vieo di Terzi in the Fenaroh collec- tion at firescia [now in the National Gallery]. Several in the pubUc f gallery (Gall. Tosi) there.— Mr.] [Other pictures by this master in the country about Bergamo, at Albino, Bondo, Fiorano, Cenate, Gorlago, and Pignolo, others again in churches and Carrara Gallery at Bergamo. — Ed. ]

Girolavio Eomanino [bom at Kumano, near Treviglio, about 1485, died at Brescia in 1566.— Ed.] was educated and worked chiefly

g at Brescia. With the exception of a Deposition of the year 1510 in the Pal. ifaw/H7i[nowthepropertyof Sir Ivor Guest. — Ed.] I know but one picture by him, which is the most beautiful painting in all Padua. It

A is a Madonna enthroned between two angels and four saints, in front an angel with a tambourine; but in this old-fashioned arrangement


breathes the full beauty of the sixteenth century. Formerly in the Chapel S. Prosdicimo or the chapter-room at S. Ginstina, now in the town gallery there. [There is also an altar-piece very similar to Moretto, of 1521. Equal in beauty to the picture from S. Giustma is the splendid work on the high altar of S. Francesco ati Brescia, the date 1502 on the mag- nificent frame. Before the picture in S. Giovanni Ev. there also, the/ Marriage of the Virgin, one may compare it with the works of Mo- retto exhibited near, and measure the almost coarse power and glow- ing colour of Bomanino with the tenderness and silver tone of his contemporary. Wall paintings of the master are found in the neigh- bourhood of Brescia ; at Trent the k wall paintings of the former episco- pal residence are by hiuL Fre- quently his pictures bear wrong names, as the Holy Family with the little Tobias, in the AtrtJbrosiana I called Giorgione. — Mr.] [Akin to Bomanino in style is Oirolamo del Santo (1546), a Paduan, by whom we have a Crucifixion in S. Gius- m tina, and frescos in S. Francesco of Padua. — Ed. ] Of Bomanino's Bres- cian scholars Lattanzio Gambaran has been mentioned in the voL on Architecture as a decorator ; GirO' lamo MuzianOy later, at Bome, an imitator of Michelangelo, retained, even in his mannered works, a colouring at least half Venetian, most recognizable, perhaps, in the

    • Granting the (jharge of the

Keys," in S. M, degli Angeli ato Borne (at the entrance into the chief nave on the left).

[The painters of Cremona appear to have received the strongest im- pressions from Bomanino. In the cathedral here between 1515 audi? 1520 Gian Francesco Bembo, Alto- hello Melone, Cristoforo Moreto, painted with and near Bomanino


202


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


quite in his spirit. * His iofluenoe, oombined with that of Giulio Bo- ]iuuio» impnssed also the Campi, the chief of whom, Oaleazzo, was quite caught by tilie manner of £oecaecino (p. 90^. Pictures in

aS. AffcUOy S, AgostinOf and S,

bAbondio, There are in Cremona many works, mostly of no great dhann, by his sons, Cfinlio Bjaa An- tonio, as well as by his cousin, Bernardino (the teachers of So- foniiite Angusaola) ; of exceptioDal

c merit the high altar in S. Abondio by Giulio, 1527, Madonna with the Saintly Warriors Nazaro e Gdso —-quite Venetian in beauty of colouring. The wall paintings of

d the same artist in S. Margarita, of 1647, are cold and awkward. In- ferior masters, Thomas de Alems, Bernardino Rkea, are found in

^S, Pietro and in the ca^iedraL The works of the six sisters Anguasola are chiefly in foreign countries. The portrait of herself

/by Sqfimisibe in the Uffisd, No. 400 ; by Lucia there is a charming por- trait of her sister, Europa, m the

9 Ton Gallery at Breseia.— Mr.]


Giovanni Antonio (^Licinio He- gUlo da) Pordenone (bom about 1483, died 1539) was not a scholar, but a rival of Titian ; for the rest quite as Venetian in his conception as all the others. He has been already mentioned (in the vol. on Architec-

h ture) as a fresco jpainter in S. Stefano at Venice ; his frescos in the dome

iof the Madonna di Campagna at Piacenza I have unfortunately only seen by twilight. They are amongst the last wor^ of the master (1529 -30) ; in spite of manifold exagge- ration and want of connection still grandly conceived and attractive in many respects. The wall paintings

  • CCristoforo Moreto is a Cremonese pain-

ter of the 16th century. The frescos as- signed to him in the Cathedral of Cremona are properly described by Barckhardt as being in the spirit of Romanino, since they are by Bomaxiino himselt— Ed.]


of the Cathedral of Treviso are a/

Slendid work, signed (the artist en called himself Corticdliia), of 1520.— Mr.] [Of an earlier date, and of the utmost importance as explaining the master's progress in art, are uie frexoe in the private k chapel of the CaslU of ColaUo near Conegliano, and the altar-piece in I the neighbouring church of Susi- gana.— Ed.]

To bring out the higher intel- lectual meaninff of any incident was as little in the line of Pordenone as of the school in general, but he is quite peculiarly fresh and living in his conception of external life, and has in his flesh tints, especially in chiaroscuro, a peculiar warmth and tenderness (morbidezza, mellow- ness) such as no other of the school Cesses. His principal work in ice {Academy), S. Lorenzo m Giustiniani surrounded by other Saints and Friars, produces a some- what studied dramatic effect ; the Santa Gonversazione, in spite of all the various looks and gestures, looks as if they did not quite know what to say to each other ; a Madonna with Saints, also there, No. 486, is far more satisfactory as a simple and very beautiful picture of life ; there also five Putti floating ou clouds. [No. 110, a Madonna with Saints, ascribed to Gordelia^hi, appears to me to be a beautiful youthful work of Pordenone's. — Mr.] A noble altar-piece, S. Gatherine, with S. Sebastian and S. Boch, in S. Giovanni JSUmonnario n (chapel right of the choir). [Un- fortunately much spoiled.] Several pictures in S. Rocco. In tiie Angeli o at Murano, tiie picture on the high p altar. In the Pal, Doria at or Bome, the Daughter of Herodias ^ with her Maid, a fine well-pre- served half-length picture ; she is a lofty Venetian beauty, and withal clever and cold ; the head of the Baptist also of a very noble Vene- tian type. [A repetition of this


Oiov. Antonio and Bernardino de Pordenone. 203


picture by the hand of Seb. del I^ombo or Giorgione is in the collection of Mr. Th. Barinff in 3Liondon. The picture in the l^aL Doria I should rather consider, from the pictorial treatment, as a work of BoTnaninOf who in his happy moments could produce exquisite

a things. There is also a Moly Family with S. Catherine, called Prima Maniera di Tiziano, which I consider a youthful work of Pordenone. — Mr.]. In the Pal.

hJPiUi a Santa Conversazione with half-length figures, most gorgeous and harmonious in colour. [The

c pictures in the Uffixi^ an excellent male portrait and an improvised Conversion of Paul, somewhat feeble in form but glowing in colour (long narrow picture), are doubtful.

[Fordenone's most beautiful youthful works are to be studied

d in Friuli, an excursion well worth

e making. In Gonegliano, on a wall of the ruined church of S. Antonio, a Saint of 1514; the Madonna under the vestibule of the tovm-hall

/at Udine is still of incomparable beauty, charming in a worldly manner, without being exactly sensual ; there also are two organ panels with allegorical figures and

g anffels. In Casarsa there are some WfSl paintings in the choir of the Cathedral, with the dignified, chivalrous, aristocratic character proper to Pordenone, and an altar- piece painted on the waU. In

ASpilimDergo, four organ panels in distemper with the Assumption of tike Virgin, the Apostles almost re- sembliuff Rubens and the Conver- sion of Paul, of 1524. In his birth- i place, Pordenone, there is a beauti- ful severe youthful work. Madonna with S. Christopher ; S. Joseph and the fanuly of the founder under her mantle, in the Cathedral, first ^ c^pel, and there also behind the

3 High A Itar, an immense work, but much injured; but the grandest


thing which Pordenone ever did, is an altar-piece from S, GoUardo, h now in the town-hall tiiere, three Saints with two Angels playins on musical instruments ; you see now one gives the note to the other. There, too, a frieze, with a dance of peasants taken from the wall. In the principal church at Torrt^ a I sort of suburb of Pordenone, a beautiful Madonna with Saints.

Cremona also possesses, in the Cathedral, in the front, at the en- m trance, a charming youthful Ma- donna, with the founder dressed in black, and Saints. Unfortu- nately, a coarse and ugly Cruci- fixion, over the entrance of the Cathedral, is also certainly by Por- denone. Lastly, the beautiful S. G«orge on horseback, in the Palace n of the QuiriruU at Bome, must be mentioned. — ^Mr. ]

Giovanni Antonio's relation, Ber^ iiardino Lidnio da Pordenone, [la- boured 1524-1541], appears to be the author of several family pic- tures which represent an aitist (sculptor or painter ? perhaps Gio- vanni Antonio ?) surroundea by his family aod scholars ; one in the P. o BorgJiese at Bome, another in "Ens-p land ; the first-named a remarkable specimen of this kind in every respect. [There, also, called Vene- tian school, room 11, No. 42, Holyq Family with Saints. — Mr.] His best altar-piece, a Madonna en- throned with Siunts, mostly monks, in the Frari, first chapel left from the choir ; without especial noble- ness of idea or expression, yet a treasure from its gorgeousness of colour and fulness of life ; also a half-length picture of the Madonna with three Saints, the founder, and his wife, once in the P. Manfrinr [now at Alnwick], is treated like the freest and most beautiful Palma vecchio ; there, also, a Holy Family $ in the open air with a monk pray- ing, [m Some, PaU Sdarray No. t


204


Painting of tlie Sixteenth Century.


^ 8, Salome with her mother and the executioner in armour, holding the head of the Baptist, called Gior-

  • gione. In the FcU. Doria, room 6,

No. 22, a Holy Family, with touches of Paris Bordone. In the

^ Pal. Balhi-Piovera at Genoa, a large Holy Family with Founders, bears the name of Titian ; though hesi- tating between Bernardino and his brother, I should ascribe it to the first, whose masterpiece it would be, next to the picture in the Frari.]

The pupil and son-in-law of Gio- vanni Antonio Pordenone ought to be mentioned with him. Fomponio Amalteo [born 1505, died after 1588. — Ed. ]. The most important of his numberless works is the painting

^ of the Choir in S. VUo, of 1535, almost like Pordenone's own work ; stories from the childhood of Christ and the Virgin given in a genre manner.

[On this occasion I will mention some painters in Friuli, who, in spite of their obviously Venetian character, nevertheless have a na- tionality of their own. Of the elder ones : [Sim/yiie da Cusighe, An- tonio Rosso and Gio da Mel, hardly deserve mention, though Rosso has been named as the master of Titian : Bellundlo or Avdrea di BertholoUi of Cividale, master at S. Vito (1462 -1490) is the author of a Cruci-

^ fixion at Udine and Madonnas at San Vito and Savorgnano. — £d.]. Ihmenxco di Tumetio {da Tolinezzo)^ a picture of 1479, in the style of the Vivarini, in the Sacristy of the

/ Cathedral of Udine. He is followed by Gian Francesco da Tolmezzo. A better artist is Giovanni di Mar- tino da Udine (1498-1535), not the famous pupil of Raphael. [Ma-

9 donna of 1498 in the Correr Mns.

h at Venice. St. Mark (1501) in the Cathedral of Udine, Presentation

i in the Temple at Spilimberg, Glory

of St. Ursula, Br&ra (1507).— Ed.]


PeUegrino da San Daniele (properly MartiTvo da Udine) [bom about 1470, died 1547.— Ed.] : the Capp. S. Antonio di PadovcCyX 8. Daniele, h all decorated by him with histories. In the Madonna di Strada, near S. I Daniele, a beautiful Virgin in fresco ; a laige work in S. M. d^ m Battuti at Cividale, Madonna with Saints, of 1529. A youthful pic- ture in the Cathedral at Udine ; S. n Joseph with the Infant Christ and thej boy John ; in the MonaMero Maggiore at Cividale, a John theo Baptist ; these two last of 1500 and 1501. A pupil of Pelligrino was Sebastiano Florigerio {Academy sitp Venice, No. 389). Girolamo da Udine appears to be a somewhat inferior imitator of Cima ; a Coro- nation of the Virgin, in the ante- chamber of the town-haZl at Udine. q Fra'ivcesco Beccaruzziy of Conegliano, also deserves mention ; his large altar-piece in the Academy at Ve- r nice, S. Francis with Saints, recalls Titian and Giacomo Bassano. — Mr.]. [An imitator of Beccaruzzi is G. M. Zaffonif called Calderari. His frescos and panels in the cathe- dral of Pordenone show that he studied the works of P. Bordone and Pordenone. Liuxi Monvert of the same school, followed the dis- cipline of PeUegrino. Virgins and Saints in S. M. delle Grazie at 5 Udine. G. B. GrasH (1547-1578) is a Michelangelesque of the school of Pordenone. Numerous works in and about Udine. — ^Ed.]

Paris Bordone (1500-1571), first an imitator of Giorgione, and then unreservedly of Titian, is, in his portraits, sometimes equal to the greatest. [His marked individu- ality, so hard to describe, distin- guishes him from all his prede- cessors ; gentle, eracef ul, ana aris- tocratic, idmost always noble, never severe and solemn, he creates charming goddesses, rarely saints with earnest devotion. His strength


p. Bordone — Tintoretto.


205


does not lie in the nude ; but his peach-blossom coloured chauffing dresses combine with the rosy flesh tint and the crisply treated land- scape of full green to produce the most telling general effect. [His earliest picture in the style of

^Titian is the Baptism of Christ, ascribed to Vecelli, in the gallery of the Capitol at Rome. — ^£d.] He is most remarkable in portraits. His most beautiful likeness in the

h Uffizi is that of a young man, No.

c 607. In the PaL PiUi, the stout

  • ' Nurse of the Medici family " is

excellent. No. 109. The picture there ascribed to him, the Itepose during the Flight, No. 89, a charming picture, is most probably by Boni'

dfazio. — Mr.] In the Brignole Po' lace at Genoa, the wonderful por- trait of a bearded man in a black dress with red sleeves, with a table coyered with red, a letter in his hand, a balustrade behind ; in the same collection, a lady in a rose- coloured petticoat and upper dress of gold-coloured stuff*. * I^ge pic- tures of religious scenes are not in his line ; in the Last Supper, at

eS. Giovanni in Bragora (after the first chapel on the right), the ges- tures look like mere scraps of reminiscences from the works of better masters ; the Paradise (in

/the Academy) is quite a feeble work ; on the other hand, we owe to Bordone the most beautifully painted ceremonial picture which

f/ exists anywhere {Academy at Ve- nice), the Fisherman presenting to the Doge, in the presence of an illustrious assembly, the ring which has been given him by St. Mark. This work is the ripest golden fruit of the style of representation be- ginning with Carpaccio's historical pictures {aniea), also on account of


• Several good Venetian portraits of this golden middle period of the school, it is to be observed, are in the PaL Cap- poni at Florence.


the splendid buildinss, among which the event takes ^ce.

[The Urge Holy Family, in the P. Brignole at Oenoa, is very im- h portant, but grossly misused, as is also, unfortunately, in the Turin i Oallcry, No. 161, a beautiful woman with cherries in her lap, and a squirrel with a chain. Paris Bordone's paternal city, Treviso, possesses a masterpiece in the grand Adoration of the Shepherds, in the Cathedral, with the procession otj the three kings approaching in the distance; in the collection of the Hospital a Holy Family, stated to k be Palma Vecchio. In Venice are excellent little Madonnas with Saints, in the Oiovanelli OoMery. I Four pictures in the Brera at ICUan; m in S, Celso there an excellent Holy t^ Family. In Borne, Pal. Colonna, o a Holy Family, with the splendid figure of S. Sebastian, a small Holy Family, called Bonifazio, with S. Anna and S. Jerome, in his best style. Lastly, in Pal. Doria there. i> one of his characteristic half-length pictures, Mars with Venus and Cupid.

By Paris Bordone's only pupil, Francesco de Dominids, a Proces- sion, in the Sacristy of the Cathe- ^ dral at Treviso, interesting for picturesque costumes, and for the view of the old Cathedral —-Mr.]

We have spoken before in the volume on architecture, on occasion of decorative painting, of Battista Franco, who had also studied in Borne, after Michelangelo.

TINTORETTO AND HIS CONTEM- PORARIES.

In the second half of the six- teenth century, when all other schools had fallen into the deepest decay, the Venetian kept itself up to a marked height through the greater intelligence of the pur- chasers, the inezhaustibleness of its naturalism, and the continual


206


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


practice in tbe beautiful effects of the method of oolouiinff. Never- thelesB it now proiduoes an esaentially different effect. We leave the work of the whole school, the decoration of the Dole's Palace, to the last, and here will first name the other works of the artists con- cerned.

The first who mve a new direc- tion to the school was Jacopo Tin- tiyretto (properly iSo^u^^i, 1518-1594). Originally a pupil of Titian, and very richly gifted by nature, he seems to have felt quite correctly the deficiencies of the school, and strove to produce a dramatic style of historical paintins full of movement. He studied Michel- angelo, also copied by artificial light from casts and models, not in order to idealize his Venetian style of form, but to render it quite free and flexible for all purposes, and to give it new force by the most tellmg effect of light. Fortunately he remained, with all this, essen- tially a naturalist. The forced adop- tion of the mannerisms of the Eoman school was at least spared to the good town of Venice. Under these circumstances he only sacri- ficed the Venetian colouring in many of his works as something in itself irreconcilable with the dark shadows of the modelling, and which also, perhaps, must undergo some technical alterations in Tinto- retto. It is, indeed, to be wondered at that in so many cases his colouring was saved at all, or that his shadow bears any trace of reflex. Much of his work certainly often seems quite discoloured, dull, leaden. But was he in truth a poet self-justified in his great innovations? Along with much that was grand, there was in him a certain coarseness and barbarism of feeling ; even his artistic moral- ity often waveredf so that he was capable of descending to the most unconscientious daubing. He fails in the higher sense of law, which


the artist must impose on himself, especially in experiments and inno- vations. In his enormous works which in square feet of painted sur- face amount perhaps to ten times as much as the truits of Titian's cen- tury of life, one begins to surmise that he undertook such things like a contractor, and executed them very much as an improvitatare.

There are excellent portraits by him, which at Venice could not as yet be painted carelessly. In the Falaazo PUti: the half-length of a an old man in a fur coat, ^o. 65^ of dazzling beauty ; [there is also a remarkable Crucifixion. — Mr. ] The portrait of Jacopo Sansovino, paint- ed cnn amore, and the one of a bearded man in a red robe of state, &c., in the Uffizi ; others in aU 6 sorts of places likewise very re- markable. [Splendid life-size por- trait of a young Durazzo in the Palace of the same name at Crenoa.] c Works of his earlier time also are in ceneral, on account of the full Titianesque golden tone, as valu- able as those of any other follower of the great master ; as the naive picture, Vulcan, Venus, and Cupid, in the P. PiUi^ the like of whicn is d hardly to be found in Venica [E(][ually beautiful, painted with Titian's golden touch, a canvas with one male and three female half-length figures rising out of a glory of anseu, in the P. Colonna e at Borne. There is also one of an elderly man seated, with a view of the Lagoons in the evening light, and a Narcissus at the fountain, much darkened by time. — Mr.] The ceiling pictures also, from Ovid's Metamorphoses, in the QaUf lery at Modena, are tolerably rich in colour. In Venice, the Miracle q of St. Mark, saving a tortured slave from the hands of the heathens (Academy) belongs to this time. In this picture Tinto- retto, perhaps for the first time, goes lieyond all the traditional


Tintoretto.


207


Venetian aims in paintiiur ; the scene ib far more living, aod rather confused ; the artist tries for fore- shortenings of the most difficult kind, and betrays, for instance, in the ugly Saint floating head down- wards, that all higher considera- tions are nothing to him, as long as he has the opportunity to dis- play his mastery of external means. (Rubens studied much from this picture.) Also an equally beauti- fully painted, but frivolous repre- sentation of the Adulteress, who shows that she has no respect for the commonplace Christ. Another work, in which his palette is still good, the Legends of the True Cross, in the right transept of 8.

a M. MaJber DominL Also the great

b Marriage of Cana, in the sacristy of the Salute (smaller copy in the

c Uffid) ; a magnificent genre pic- ture of a domestic character (not princely, like P. Veronese), in which at least the miracle and its effects are in a praiseworthy man- ner placed in the fore^uud. Of the fifty-six colossal pictures with which Tintoretto filled the whole

d Scuola di S. Hoceo, the great Cru- cifixion (in the so-called-Sala dell' Albergo), is more especially still beautSul in painting, and partly also valuable in ideas. Here one first learns to understand Tinto- retto's highly important historical position ; he first (especially in the large upi>er hall) gives form to tbe sacred history from beginning to end in the sense of absolute naturalism, perhaps with the object of producing immediate effect and emotion. For this purpose he strives to attract the eye by beauti- ful heads ; on the other hand, he does not feel how the misuse of tbe accessory figures destroys the true grandeur of effect ; in his desire for reality, he falls utterly into commonplace; thus, for in- stance, the Last Supper has hardly ever been more vulgarly conceived ;


in the Baptism in the Jordan, John presses down the Christ by the shoulder ; in the Raising of Lazarus, Christ is seated quite comfortably in the comer bdow. Most of the pictures, with the exception of the Sala dell' Alber^, are extremely careless and hastily painted. In those of the lower hall the landscape must be re- marked; sharp unciful lights on the edges of the trees and hills. An unskilful rivalry with Michel- angelo is most observable in the large central ceiling picture of the upper hall, which represents the Brazen Serpent. Witn the pictures of this Scuola, Tintoretto gave the tone to the whole monumental painting^ of Venice in the following period (from 1560 forward); he himself took part even in the ornamenta- tion of the Capdla, del Homrioe (left in S. Giovanni e Paolo), which was erected as a memorial of the Victory of Lepanto, but chiefly in that of the Ducal Palace. The decorative value of these works we have, in the volume on Scidpture, endeavoured to define. When once style has abandoned the only form that is possible in fresco, no other path is open but this. In one Choir of S. M, deW Orto, there are/ two colossal pictures— the Adora* tion of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment — coarse and taste- less. In the left transept of 8. Trovaso, a Last Supper, degraded^ to the most ordinary banquet. On all the altars of S. Oior^ Maggiore h there are daubs which are an everlasting shame to Tintoretto. [Since this was written, the judg- ment on Tintoretto has rather been altered in the artistic world, the qualities of the master being more lully acknowledged. This verv Last Supper, in 8, TrovasOy withi the beautiful landscape seen through the open window — ^the Temptation of St. Anthony — ^in the same church, and a Last Supper in Chiaroscaro


208


Painting of the Sixteenth Century,


a in 8, Giorgio Maggiore, have met with warm admiration. — ^Norton.]

Of his pupils, his son Domenico is usuaUj a degree more consci- entious m his naturalism. The Peruvian, Antonio Vassilaechif called rAliense, carried Tintoret- to's style into his home (ten great scenes from the life of Clirist in the upper wall of the nave of

^ S, Pietro de Oaaainensi at Pemgia.) [Rather to be numbered among the pupils of Paolo Veronese. — Z.]

Next to Tintoretto, the great Paolo Veronese (properly Caliari, 1528-1588) represents the more beautiful side of Venetian painting. He sprang from the school of his paternal city which had already been influenced by Venice, where certain local painters, in earHer and even later times, produced very valuable works. In Verona one finds a crowd of works of his inmiediate predecessors and con- temporaries. By Torbido's pupil, GiambaUista del Moro [in practice at Verona about 1550, still living in 1610.— Ed,], for instance; in

c S, Nazaro e Celso, the lunettes over most of the altars ; in both the

<2 aisles of S. Stefano, monochrome frescos from the Legend of the Saint. By Domenico Eicd, called Brvsasord [bom 1494, died 1567],

« there are also, in S. StefafiOy the feeble paintings in the cupola and the fresco over the right side door, of the Saint surrounded by the Innocent children, who, like him- self, are designated the first fruits

/of martyrdom ; in 8, M. in Organ/), the frescos of the chapel left of the

g choir ; in 8. Fermo, the lunette of the first altar on the right, with the Beheading of a Bishop. [Any one who wishes to connect some idea with the name of Domenico Brusasorci, and to learn to value him, should be careful to visit the

ji Palazzo Midolfo in Verona, where Domenico has represented on the


walls of the principal hall the procession, la Gran Cavalcata of Charles V. and Clement VIL at Bologna, of the 22nd February, 1530, and indeed in a way which leaves nothing to be desired in in- tellectual liveliness, of quite bright colouring. — Mr.] By Paolo Pari- nato [born 1522, died 1606], all the frescos, some of them very good, in the choir of 8. Nazaro e Celso. i By Paolo Caliari's immediate teach- er Antonio Badile [born 1517, died 1560] a picture in the Pinacoteca, two angels, laying the Dead Christ/ in the tomb, signed 1556 ; [a youth- ful work in 88, Nazaro e Celso ; in k the Turin GaUert/y No. 85 ; an Z excellent Presentation in the Tem- ple, a very instructive picture, in which, on one hand, one sees how he studied Caroto, Girolamo dei libri, and Mocetto ; on the other hand, one cannot mistake the fore- runner of P. Veronese, especially in the architecture. — Mr.]. But Paolo owes his best essentially to [Morando and Moretto, and then to] Titian and Venice generally.

Paolo's greatness consists in this, that he, recognizing the true genius of the Venetian school, did not, like Tintoretto, try to graft a dra- matic historical style of painting on another stem, but raised the painting of tranquil existence to the highest truly unsurpassable point, and was also able to elevate the colouring in harmony with his marvellous conceptions. ^Tiia characters are ^ot higher, more sublime than those of his best predecessors, but have the advantage of a free, simple, cheer- ful life without effort, such as no other painter in the world gives. * In his Sante Conversazioni,


• Who led the Venetians after abont 1540, to give the women that often almost formless voluptuousness? Even Titian in later times is not free Arom it; and Paolo has most striking forms of this kind. Art has often abwdoned itself t<r


p. Veronese — Banquets.


209


he foUowa the arrangement of the later works of Titian ; the Saints are, for instance, freely grouped round the Pedestal on which the Madonna

a is seated. Academy of Venice : S, Francesco della Vignay fifth chapel on left. The most beautiful of these pictures, S. Cornelius, S. Antony the Abbot, and S. Cyprian along with a Priest and a Page, is

b found in the Brera at Milan. In the narrator's pictures, the general Venetian deficiency in the suffi- cient development of the figures amounts to unintelligibleness. In attitude and gesture, they have often something strangely uncer- tain, and Paolo must have had an especial love for certain oblique hiJf figures cut off by the frame or the architecture. But Paolo has, where he exerts himself, nobler dramatic ideas than his other con- temporaries of the same school, as

c one sees best of all in iS'. Sebastiano at Venice, which church contains a very large number of pictures by him, the finest and largest of them in the Choir. [Unhappily all of them latelv restored. The dates of these paintings begin with 1550 [? 1555. — Ed.], whereby it might appear that the accomplished young master, who, at twenty- seven years of age, was summoned from Verona, in order to execute them, did not owe so much to Venice and Titian as was hitherto assumed (p. 209 ti). Bode.] More- over, the high altar pictures of S.

d Givstina at Padua, and S, Giorgio

ein Braida at Verona, with the Martyrdoms of the Saints above- named, are masterpieces of the first rank ; Paolo always brings down the event as much as pos- sible to an existence" picture, moderates his pathos most care- exciting sensuality, but it is doubtful whether with this type it satisfied an average taste. Rubens, who translated it in his own way, perhaps better suited the lieeling of his own people.


fully, avoids the excesses of natu- ralism, and keeps in this way the necessary composure to display his colouring in triumphant splendour. With his secular pictures, it is the same ; the famous Family of Darius " (sold to the Natioiuil Gal- lery in London out of the Palazzo f Fisano at S. Polo) is so impressive in its effect, because the pathos is kept in as much as possible, and the event is lowered to a simple, modest presentation. He chooses especially such incidents as ap- proach ceremonial pictures, like the Adoration of the Kings (Brera 9 at Milan), the Queen of Sheba (with the features of Elizabeth of England), Uffizi; another of the^ same subject (in the Gallery at Turin) ; his proper ceremonial pic- i tures we shall become acquainted with in the Ducal Palace. We pass over all the weak narrative pictures ; the colouring also is generally inferior in them. (An unfortunate red, for instance, has often consumed all the glazing.) Paolo never, indeed, becomes rude like Tintoretto, but very careless. The history of Judith {Pal. Bri-j gnole at Genoa) is at least still a splendid picture in colour.

The most famous are Paolo's Festivals, of which he has painted a nimiber from the smallest size up to quite colossal proportions. They come out as the necessary and highest product of painting of life, which here shakes off the last fet- ters of the historical picture, and only requires the remains of a pre- text to celebrate all the splen- dour and glory of the earth in unrestrained rejoicing ; above all, a beautiful and free human race in full enjoyment of their existence. If instead of princes' banqueting halls Paolo had had to paint Bac- chanalia, he might have showed himself incompetent in ideal draw- ing and composition, as well as in feeling ; but as he painted for re-


210 ^ Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


fectories of cloisters, a biblical banquet offered itself as a safe basis on 'which he could bring out the subject of the ceremony by most beautiful enlivenments in de- tails. The most gorgeous architec- tural localities and perspective views form the scene, in which the seated company and the lively episodes can extend themselves with full rich- ness, and yet without crowding. The best and largest of these pic- tures (in the Louvre) are perhaps the first paintings in the world m re- gard of 80-c^ed pictorial keeping, m the perfect harmony of a scale of colours,* otherwise for the most part unknown ; yet the scale of marvellous types of noble person- alities, united in one whole, is essentially a still greater marvel. The sacred personages, and the events connected with them, re- main, indeed, of secondary import- ance, t

Venice possesses one other mas- ter-piece of this kind ; the Feast of Levi, according to St. Mark, ii. 14,

a and Luke v. 27 {Academy). A Marriage of Cana, in the Brera at

h Milan. There .also, Christ in the House of the Pharisee ; in the last scene, Luke vii. 31, sometimes the feast is quite in the back ground compared with the episode of the sinning woman who wipes the feet of Christ. So in the splendid pic-

c ture in the Turin Gallery. After Paolo's death his heirs made use of his motives for similar pictures : a large unpleasant feast in the house

d of the Pharisee in the Academy at

• The very various partly oriental cos- tumes are not introduced for the sake of romantic effect, but in order to have greater freedom in working out the im- mense problem of colour.

t How the master had to answer for himself for his secular conception of biblical subjects before the Tribunal of the Holy Office, which took objection to "fools, drunken Germans, dwarfs, and other follies." and how he excused him- self, is delightful to read. Sec Jahrb. der AVissenschaft, 1868.


Yenice. Paolo himself when he once depicted the Last Supper {S. e GiuliaiiOj chapel left of the choir), fell almost into the same triviality as Tintoretto.

[An excellent double portrait of the year 1557, one of his first works in Venice, in the Torriqiani Gallerj/, f at Florence. Masterly frescos in the Villa, Mater near Treyiso, the g only ones till now preserved ; alle- gories on the ceihngs, landscapes painted by his scholars on the walls ; the whole very interesting. — ^Bode.]

[Paolo's inmiediate pupils and followers do not deserve quite to be passed over in silence. Besides, his brother BeiiedettOf and his sons Carletto and Gabriele, there fol- lowed in his steps Benfatio (called dal Friso) his nephew, and hu rela- tive MaJ^fo Verona^ but particu- larly the far more important Cfiam' battUta Zelotti, and the excellent Francesco MontemezanOy both from Verona; lastly, Atitonio Vassilacchi froni Perugia (seep. 2086),and(?Mi7i- arUonio Fasolo from Vicenza. — Mr.]

While Paolo carried out the painting of life up to its very high- est development, the lower ones could not remain absent. The genre picture which had already, since Giorgione's time, followed the romance picture, in numerous single, cases, becomes a special line in Jacopo Bassano (properly da Pontc, 1510-1592), and his sons. In colouring, obviously formed after the best masters [Bonifazio. — Ed.] though very unequal (varying from glowing to quite dull), this family is always delightful through their rustic idyls in quiet land- scapes, in which a parable of Christ on one of the four seasons, or a myth, or something of the kind, are less the subject than the pretext for a picture. The flocks of sheep and the implements by which the feet of the persons working are almost alwa3's hidden, are often


Palma Giovine.


211


painted in a masterly manner. But a great deal is mere workmanship.

a In the Uffizi there are some better things, such as the Family Concert. Two of the sons, Lewndro and Fraiv- cesco, have also painted great pic- tures of sacred subjects, sometimes n2uve and touching in expression, but overcrowded, planned with harsh effects of li^ht, and coarsely

h drawn. (Deposition, in the Uffizi ; Raising of Lazarus, in the Academy

c at Venice ; Last Supper, in 8, M.

>d Formosa^ right transept ; Preaching of John the Baptist in S. (Hacomo

■e delV OriOf right transept, and Ma- donna with Saints, there also, near the first altar on the left ; Martyr-

^dom of St. Catharine in P. Pitti ; Assumption on the high altar of

g S. Luigi dei Francesi at Some.

Ji- Lastly, in the Pinacoteca of Vicen- za, a large semicircular Presenta- tion : S. Mark and S. Laurence present two kneeling macpstrates to the Madonna, an excellent work, £by Jacopo Bassano, 1672. — Ed.])

[Any one who wishes thoroughly to study the artist family of Da Ponte and follow out their develop- ment, should visit their native town Bassano at^the foot of the

  • Cadore Alps. The Toum Gallery

here possesses a large altar-piece of the old Francesco da Fonie of 1509, with a beautiful landscape ; related to B. Monta^na, to whose school he probably belongs. Also youthful pictures of his son Jacopo, who brought the name of Bassano into renown ; quite different from the generally known works of the master, large Biblical compositions, solemn and dignified, most like Bonifazio. A splendid picture of Jacopo'smaturesttime, Rest during the Flight, with Shepherds ador-

J iog, in the Ambrosiaiia at Milan. — Mr.]

The decay of the Venetian school is represented by Jacopo Palma Giovine (1544 to about 1628), an unconscientious painter of great ta-


lent. His capability is shown by his Raising of Lazarus in the Ah'h bazia (Chapel behind the Sacristy). His remaiuing works, with whidi Venice swarms, are almost entirely improvisations. Any one who exa- mines them will find along with the contemptible mannerisms bor- rowed from Tintoretto here and there a good idea, and beautiful pieces of colour, but,' as a whole, they do not repay this study. Ales- saridro Varotari, surnamed Pado- vaninOf was far more honest (1590- 1650), really striving after the true object of art, but he did not get beyond the imitation of Titian and Paolo, and mixed with these studies a some what lifeless idealism. Still his Marriage of Cana {Aca- 1 demy) is a very considerable and beautiful work.

Still later on some individual talents strengthened themselves by the example of Paolo, and in happy moments produced very pleasing works, such are Lojszarini, Angeli, Fumianif also Tiepolo (died 1769), when he does not degenerate into daubing. Among other things by Fumiani (died 1710) the immense ceiling-painting in S, Fantaleone is t remarkable, which consists no longer in many single framed pic- tures, but in one large composition with a perspective arrangement in Pozzo's manner, for the rest not painted al fresco but on surfaces of linen nailed up ; it contains the Acts andtheGloryof S.Pantaleon. Fietro Liheri is very much influenced in his forms by Pietro da Cortona. His pupil was Corlo Lotti (died 1698). The best of Piazzetta's genre pictures, as also of the landscapes by the two Canaletti, must be sought for out of Venice and Italy. (The large view of Turin, by Cana- letti's nephew, Bernardo Bellotti, in '^ the Gallery there. ) Of the brilliant Orhetto (properly Alessandro Turchi from Verona) but little ia found in public galleries and churches.

p 2


212


Painting of the Sixteenth Centiirtj.


As the oldest Venetian painting has immortalized itself in the Church of St. Mark, so the latest, that of the followers of Titian, has peipetoated itself in the Ducal Pa- lace (rooms on the second story). The decorative arrangement and framing was described above ; here the essential question is how the artists conceived the general ques- tion, the glorification of Venice.

« Already, in the Atrio Qicadrato, Tintoretto meets lis with one of those votive pictures (on the ceil- ing) which represent the Doges surrounded witn saints and allego- ries, of which below. The perspec- tive view from below, which hence- forth we shall find carried out in the ceiling pictures of all the rooms, is' even in the floating figures usually not real perspective but a sort of oblique view. It was a stion whether, on ceilings espe- ly, and in general on flat sur- ces, figure subjects were suitable, or if they were so, and were carried out with great richness of compo- sition, whether the usual simple front view and ideal, severe com- position did not deserve to be pre- ferred to groups artificially set and arranged for purposes of illusion; natuiul incidents in any case re- main in such ceiling pictures incre- dible, and heavenly ones required to be considered independently of measured space. Apart from this question oi mistaken conception, common to all painters, in the Ducal Palace there are still sreat varieties to be observed, and Paolo will at times be capable of greatly pleasing, even of persuading us.

^ Sala delle Quattro Porte, Titian's large, late, still splendidly painted Presentation picture, a real memo- rial of the counter reformation ; the Doge, Antonio Grimani, kneeling before Faith appearing in full glory. The Battle painters of this and other rooms, by their fanciful conception iind episodes of every kind, threw


the historical elements in their subjects entirely into the shade. The Ceremonial pictures, important as may be the facts they represent, as, for instance, the alliance with Persia (Reception of the Persian Ambassador, by Carlo Caliari), are dramatically quite empty. So also the Reception of Henry III. by Andrea Vicentino. For this sort of conception is required the cheerful industry of a Carpaccio, in whom one willingly forgives the absence of the hieher dramatic element for the sake of beauty of detail. In Tintoretto's ceiline picture we arc enchanted with tne ceremonious courtesy with which Jupiter coming out of Olympus peopled with gods raises Venice and leads her down to the Adriatic Sea.

Sala delV Anticollegio. The four c mythological wall-pictures of TiiUo- retto are amongst his best, but are cheerlessly conceived, ugly in action ; see how Venus flies up in the Coronation of Ariadne. Jacob's return to Canaan is a typical pic- ture from the same psJette with which Jacopo Bassano and his family painted hundreds of country scenes. Paolo J^miese : The Rape of Europa, a most beautiful in- stance of a Venetian transposition of a mythology into splendid, gracefully sensuous realism. The presentiment of the strange journey^ the hasty toilet for whi<£ the Putti bring flowers and garlands, form a splendid moment. On the ceilino^ is a Venice enthroned by Paolo, i3 fresco, the only political picture in this room, where the Venetian State elsewhere only looks for the greatest beauty that lies within reach of her artists at that time.

Sala del Collegia, Tintoretto's four ^ laige votive pictures of the Doges, who, mostly very old, kneel in their half Byzantine robes of office before the Madonna or Christ, and are

Presented by numerous Saints, 'heir severe ceremonial devotion


Bttcal Palace-


213


would suit mosaics better than the often very emotional and animated Sante Conversazioni, in which, here and elsewhere, allegorical personages move and act. For the rest, the long narrow shape is not favourable to the supernatural sub- jects ; the visions must descend to the flat earth. Paolo Veratiese shows much greater warmth in more grateful subjects (back wall) : his Conqueror of Lepanto, Sebas- tian Veniero, approaches in lively enthusiasm, and is presented to Christ floating downwards by his attendants, »t. Mark, Venezia, Faith, Sta. Justina. All the eleven pictures, and six chiaroscuri of the ceiling are quite among Paolo's most beautiful and freshest paint- ings : here, among others, is again a Venice enthroned, with two other goddesses, which show how well Paolo could manage the views from below ; he gave in a most masterly way to his lovely little plump heads the charms of grace and chiar- oscuro.

€t Sola del SouUo, or del Fregadi. Here Tintoretto and Palnia Gioviiie continue their votive pictures ; among others, a Pieta floatingdown on clouds, adored by two Doges. Palma's Allegory of the League of Cambray is the extreme of absur- dity; the woman riding on the buU represents allied Europe." Another specimen of orthodoxy, by Tonimaso Doldbella [pupil of Aliense] : the Doge and Procura- tors adore the Host, which stands on an altar surrounded by priests and poor people.

Tintoretto's ceiling-picture shows how Michelangelo misled him ; in place of Paolo's nalveU and sense of perspective, we have a wild con- fusion of floating figures.

h Anti'chiesetta : good pictures by Bonifazio and Tintoretto; concern- ing Titian's S. Christopher, see p. 192/. c Sola del Consiglio di Died :


Large ceremonial pictures, like friezes, by Leandro Bassano, Marco Vecellio, and Aliense, in whose Adoration of the Kings" ^e Procession, baggase and episodes take up two-tmrds of the space. Many very beautiful details. In the ceiling the centre picture is wanting ; round about the beauti- fully painted allegories which one might ascribe altogether to Paolo, to whom however only the old man with the charming young woman belongs ; the rest is by the little known Ponchino, called Bazzacco or Bozzato. [Very little is by him ; a good deal by Paolo himself; and for the rest the best is by GHambat" tista Zelotti, frequently confounded with P. Veronese. — Mr.]

Sala delta Bussola : The Surren- d ders of Brescia and Bergamo, with good episodes, by AlieTise.

In the Sala de* Capif inferior <? allegorical paintings.

Still we find no Boman history, which elsewhere is so unavoidable in Italian public buildings. The Venetians felt a just and magnifi- cent pride, that in the Ducal Palace of Venice it should not be needed.

Sala del Maggior Consiglio : In f historical wall-pictures, the subject (almost always ceremonious and battles) is overpowered in general by accessories. The throngs oipeople and frays, arranged without feeling for lines, and without true simpli- city, soon weary the eye. The cor- ruptor of art, Federigo Zuccaro, has also introduced himself here. Tin- toretto's colossal Paradise, doubt- less, was then considered as more beautiful than Michelangelo's Last Judgment, and is certainly far bet- ter than the painting of the Cupola . of the Cathedral at Florence. Only the realism of these figures is quite incompatible with their assumed coexistence in a given space ; every- thing is so crowded, that even the farthest depth repeats a tolerably near wall of faces. In order to give


214


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


nothing but what is living, Tinto- retto cuminished his clouds to the utmost, and made his Saints float, hang, lean or lie on a mantle, or on nothing at all, in a way that makes the beholder feel giddy ; the flying angels give really an ajpreeable impression of repose be- side theoL The composition is scattered in mere spots of colour ' and light ; only in the centre it takes a better course. But the great number of excellent heads mostiy seen, on the light back- ground of their nimbus, always give to this work a high value. [Velasquez, when in Venice, re- garded this work as the best paint- mg, and purchased the sketch of it, now in Madrid. — Norton.] Of the three large ceiling-pictures, those of Tintoretto and Palma Oiovane are far surpassed by that of Paolo : Venice crowned by Fame. First, the view from below, and the architectural perspective, are far more carefully treated; also Paolo has confined the allegorical and historical part to the upper

froup, where his cloud-life is rought quite harmoniously into connection with the architecture in lines and colour; on the lower balustrade one sees only beautiful women; farther below, riders keeping watch, and a populace, spectators of the heavenly cere- mony ; most wisely, two great pieces of sky are left free, a breath- mg space which Tintoretto never alfows his beholder ; and in fine Paolo has given himself up to the full enjoyment of his own cheerful sense of beauty, the feeling of which inevitably a£fects the beholder. a Sala dello Scrutinio : Nothing of importance, except the Last Judg- ment, by tiie younger Palrruty and this only on account of the colour. Though obviously produced by instalments, this decoration yet forms an unique thing in art. Whether the spirit which breathes


therein is altogether wholesome, and whether the art of that period ought not to have found another expression in the name of the mar- vellous island-town, is a question for individual feeling to decide.


THE MANNERISTS.

On the whole, and taking high ground, painting, with the excep- tion of the Venetian school, had clearly degenerated from about the year 1530 ; it might even be as- serted that after Raphael's death no work of art had been pro- duced in which form and sub- ject had quite clearly harmo- nised ; even the later works of the greatest masters owe their efifect to every other quality rather than this, as has already been several times indicated.

The scholars of the great masters now entered on this dangerous in- heritance. Art came to them under perfectly fresh conditions ; aU local and corporate relations had ceased ; every grandee, and every church authority, required for their build- ings some monumental decoration of often immense extent, and in the grand style. Undertakings for which Raphael and Michelangelo would have required all their powers, now f eU into the hands of the first comer, and were often the objects of ambitious intrigues.

The moresagaciousartistsquickly noted the level of taste in their patrons. They observed that the nobles above aU desired to be served quickly and cheaply, and aimed at rapidity and correspond- ing price. They saw quite well that people admired in Michel- angelo less the grandeur than the arbitrary fancy and quite distinct outward qualities, and imitated them, whether it suited the occa-


Mannerists — Vasari — Salviaii.


215


sion or not. Their painting be- comes a representation of effects without causes, of movements and muscular exertion without neces«  sity. At last they turn their minds to what most people have always especially valued m paint- ing, the quantity, the brilliancy, and the naturalness of it. They provide the quantity by stuffing the picture full of figures, even when quite useless or distracting : the brilliancy by a colouring which we must not judge of by the pre- sent condition of most of the pic- tures in question, since formerly one pleasing colour with clear or changing lights was found placed side by side with another. The naturalness, lastly, partly attained by an entirely prosaic conception and realistic realisation of the inci- dent, partly by an entirely natural- istic treatment of single parts, which then stand out considerably from the bombast of the rest. The greatest pity is that many of the artists, as soon as they only wished or were allowed it, possessed the true naturalism, and even a harmo- nious system of colouring, as their portraits often show.

For a time fashion required only counterparts to the Last Judgment, and then were produced those crowds of nude or scantily clothed figures, which rush in and out among each other in all possible and impossible positions over a space which would not hold a third part of them. The Murder of the Innocents, by Daniele da VoUerra a {Ujfizif at Florence), is especially to be mentioned as moderate, pos- sible in its arrangement, and in part noble. In Bronzi7io's * ' Christ in Limbo," one must at least regret its loungiuj^ character and the su- perfiuity of carefully studied nude forms ; but other specimens of the kind are quite intolerable, especi- ally when they introduce reminis- oences from the Last Judgment


itself.* Of this kind are the Fall of the Damned, the Execution of the Forty Martyrs, f the Martyr- dom of S. Laurence (as the laree fresco by Bronzino in the left aisle of S. Lozenzo at Florence), the 6 representation of the Brazen Ser- pent, &c. The sculptor, Bandi- tvdlif also entered into this competi- tion, and had pictures of Paradise painted after his sketches (Pa/, g FiUi).

In consequence a strong impulse was given to coarse and bold im- provisations of historical subjects, both sacred and profane. People painted everything that was asked for, and mixed up history with allegory and mythology without any measure. Vasari (1511-1574), though possessed of great talent, was always pre-occupied with the idea of meeting the taste of his patrons ; in his executioQ as deli- cate and correct as anyone can be in such hasty and unconsidered productions, he did at least not yet intentionally violate the simplest laws of art (frescos in the Salad Begia of the Vatican; Festival otc Ahasuerus in the Academy at Arezzo; Last Supper at S. OrocCjJ at Florence, Cap. del Sagramento ; other pictu^res in the same church ; several in S. Maria Novella ; num- g berless paintings, very deficient in ideas, in the great hall of the Fa- h lazzo Vecchio),

His contemporary, Francesco Sal- viati (1510-1563), has, with all his dreary mannerism (frescos of the Sala (V Udicnza in the F, Vecchio)^ i


  • The date, 1523, on the picture of the

same subject in the P. Ck)lonna at Rome, also ascribed to Bronzino, must in any case be false, if it be there. It is founded on the Last Judgment. —More probably by Marco Venusti (?>

t A subject, for which that lost drawing by Perijh del Vaga must have excited an enthusiastic competition. In the chapel del Sagramento in S. Filippo Neri, at Florence, is a picture of the kind by Stradaniu.


216


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


a certain sense of beauty which keeps him from the lowest depths. Among the greatest sinners are the brothers Zuccaro, Taddeo (1529- 1566), and Federigo (died 1609), since they unite the greatest syste- matic arrogance with a carelessness of form which, with their educa- tion, is really dishonest. In their representations of contemporary history they are endurable, and sometimes surprise us by traits of great talent (front rooms in F.

aFamese at Home; Sala Begia of

h the Vatican ; the Castle of Capra- rola with the family history of the Famese) ; but in their allegories, unfathomable, because worked out on a literary plan, they become comically pitiful. {Cdsa Bartlwldy

c at Borne, and Cupola of the Cathe-

d dral at Florence. ) Another great ervtreprcneur, chiefly in Rome and Naples, in the later part of the six- teenth century, was the Cavalicre d* Arpino (properly Giuseppe Cesari, born 1560 or 1568, died 1640) ; he is not baroque, but infected with a soulless common-place beauty or elegance, which but rarely gives place to a nobler warmth, as in Ca-

epella Olgiati in S. Frassede at Borne, and the pendentives of the Chapel

/of Paul V. in S. Maria Maggiore. The companions of these much- admired masters have, especially in Rome, left behind them an in- credible number of frescos. The elder painters, Tcmpesta, and Eon- calli dalle Pomarance, for instance, have left us the many horrible pic-

g tures of martyrdoms in S. Stefano JRotondo, remarkable as showing what art was burdened with in the way of tendency subjects, after she had lowered herself. Cirdgnani- PomnranciOy Paris Nogari, Fagli- onif Faldassare Croce (the two large

h side pictures in S. Stisanna), have left in almost every church which is old enough something which one sees only to forget it again as soon as possible. For what has not


been felt inwardly cannot produce feeling in others, and only im- presses the memory externally and laboriously. Sometimes the more decorative part, for instance, the filling up and supporting figures, makes up in some degree for the sense.

In Naples, Simone Papa the younger is one of the best man- nerists of this time (?) (Frescos in i the choir of S. Maria la Ntiova,) Besides these, the always vigorous, though often dreary improvisator, Bclisario Corenzio (everywhere), the elder Santafede (ceiling-picture in S, Maria la Ntwva^ ouier ceiling-j pictures by him, and the whole school especially, in the Cathedral), k the younger Santafede (Resurrec- tion in the Chapel of the Monte di I Field, opposite the Assumption of IppolUo Borghese, both important pictures) ; Imparato (in the Cathe- m dral and S, M. la Niwva) all to- gether give the impression of a school certainly degenerate, but not much infected witii the imitation of Michelangelo ; in composition they are deficient in measure and in a higher spirit, but also there is no false bravura, and the exaggera- tion is not so unworthy as in Rome and elsewhere. Arpino, who pro- perly belongs also to this class, fell into it only too easily. The only Michelangelist, Marco da Siena, came from another schooL His pictures in the Museum are mostly n excessively repulsive ; he shows his more pleasing qualities, especi- ally a brilliant colouring, in the ' * Unbelieving Thomas " ( Cathe- o dral, second chapel, left) and in the Baptism of Christ {S. Domenico p Maggiore, fourth chapel, right). [The Unbelieving Thomas is signed,

    • Mar<nis de Fiivo Senensis fa/yiehat,

1573." The master seems to have formed himself after Polidoro, and has also resemblances to Sicciolante da Sermoneta, but harsher. It is a good picture, but there is too much


Mannerists — Florentine — Sieiiese.


217


brown in the colouring for it to be called brilliant. — Mr.] [The crypt, ch. of Montecassino, still contains frescos executed (1557-8) by Marco da Siena. — Ed.]

Before we cross the Apennines, we must in justice consider the good and even very excellent pro- ductions of those painters who have already been mentioned, and of their contemporaries. These begin where the false pompous style ceases.

In this direction there was al- ways a stream of light issuing from the Florentine school, and especi- ally from the great portrait-pain- ters, * Bronzino and Pontoiino. Some portraits by Vasari (his own house a in Arezzo ; in the Uffizi and Aca- b demy at Florence) and by the two c Ziiccari {P. Pilti and a room in Casa d BarthoJdy + at Borne, where all the members of the family are painted in lunettes al fresco) are almost wholly naive in their conception and true in execution. Federigo sometimes succeeds in ideal sub- jects in fanciful beautiful composi- tions (the Dead Christ, mourned over by torch-bearing angels, in the P. Borghese in Borne) naturally only in a very limited degree. Santi di c Tiio remained even as history- painter in this time, almost wholly without afifectation, quite a simple human being. (Some altar-pieces /"signed in S, Croce at Florence ; the row of angels over the principal

• In connection with this we must men- tion the valuable collection of miniature portraits in oil, which are found in Flo- rence, partly in the Ufflzi (rooms to right of the Tribune), partly in the Pitti (pas- sage to the back rooms of the gallery, always several framed together. They give a rich survey of this whole branch of art from 1550 to 1650. The Germans and Ve- netians of the sixteenth century, the Flemings and Florentines of the seven- teenth, are clearly to be distinguished from the manner most represented of Bronzino and Scipio Gaetano. A. small collection also in the P. GuadagnL

t Now Casa Montanti.


door in the CcUKedral; the iirst.gr altar in S. Marco on the right ; part h of the lunettes of the large court of the cloister at ^S^. if. Novella), We i shall have to revert to those names again at the restoration of the Flo- rentine school, which begins after the unfortunate period 1550-1580. Among the Eomans Pasqiuile Cati of Jesi (a large fresco in S. Lorenzo j in Panispema at Borne) is in some deeree a naive Michelangelist* [This artist, whose fresco here mentioned is laboured in drawing and hard in colour, is not nearly equal in merit and character to the two following painters. — Mr.] Sic- ciolante da Serm^neta (Birth of Christ in S. M. della Pace at Borne ; k Baptism of Clovis in S, Luigi, I fourth chapel on the right), aUo really true and moderate. Then also Scipione GaetanOy sprung from theNeapolitan set mentioned above, worked at Rome ; he, in spite of his narrowness, was so earnest that he produced a number of excellent naive though somewhat hard por- traits ( Vatican Libranf, Pal, Co- in lonna, &c. ) In ideal subjects {Holy Family^ Pal. Borghescy Marriage of n S. Catherine, Pal. Doria, Assump- o tion of the Virgin, left transept of S. Silvestro di Monte Gavcdlo) "hep shows both the merits and defici- encies of his national school, and pleases by his juicy colouring.

One whole school, that of Siena, especially remained true and living; a noble naturalism, founded on An- drea del Sarto and Sodoma, enli- vens the better works of Francesco Vanni (1565-1609) (in S. Dmnenico at Siena all in the S. Catherine's q Chapel which does not belong to Sodoma ; in ;S^. M. di Carignano at r Genoa, altar on the right, near the choir, the last Communion of S. M. Magdalene, &c. ), of Arcangelo and Ventura Salimbeni (frescos in the choir of the Cathedral of Siena 9 with the stories of St. Catherine and a sainted bishop ; in the crypt


218


Painting of the Sixteenth Century.


a of S. Catherine^ the second picture on the right), and of EiUilio Manetti and others.

Many of the above-named pain- ters of various schools were more or less influenced by a remarkable master, Federigo Barocdo (1528- 1612), who chiefly lived apart in his home of Urbino. His historical importance was, that he zealously supported the style of conception of Correggio almost alone, when his own school of Parma had siven it up, until the rise of the Bo&gnese ; certainly his gifts were by no means quite sufficient for it, and along with real genuine naturalism and a true enthusiasm for sensuous beauty one must put up with many affected expressions and gestures, glassy colouring, and a hectic red m the light parts of the flesh tints. The most beautiful picture that I know of his, is the Christ Crucified with angels, S. Sebastian, John

l and Mary, in the Cathedral oi Genoa (chapel right of the choir) ; the most careful and largest is the Ma- donna as intercessor for children

cand the poor," in the Uffiziy No. 169, in parts excellent in the genre style : the Noli me tangere in the

d Corsini GaUery at Bome, and a

e small one in the Uffizi, No. 212, has also a true naivetS ; whereas

/most pictures in the Vatican Gal-

g lery and the others in the Uffiai are among the affected ones ; in the por- trait of the Duke Francesco Maria II. of Urbino, Baroccio could exactly render the small kind of prettiness

A and warlike adornment {Uffizi^ No. 1119). A Large Descent from the Cross full of movement in

tthe Cathedral of Femgia (on the right). The new Florentine school, of which we shall speak later, was essentially influenced by Baroccio. In Genoa mannerism was in full swing among the pupils of Perin del Vaea. Giov. Battista Castello, CaZvif the younger Semini, also the somewhat better Lazzaro Tavarone


fell, through perpetual painting of fagades, into an utter want of feel- ing ; they form a specially unplea- sant branch of the Roman schooL Contrasted with them was the solitary Imca Cambiaso (1527-1585), who by his own power, without knowing Moretto and Paolo Vero- nese, attained a similar result : a cheerful noble naturalism, which was a worthy form for the expres- sion of the higher life of the soul. His colouring is mostly harmonious and clear, his chiaroscuro always telling, because light and shadow are divided in broad masses ; only at a later time when his 7iaivet6 failed, it became duller. His Madonna isagenuine amiable Genoese woman with nothing ideal in form, the child always naive and beautiful in action, the saints full of devout ex- pression : altar-pieces of this kind are as a rule family scenes, cheer- ful without petulance. ( Cathedral olj Genoa, altar of the right transept : Madonna with Saints, chapel left of the choir, six pictures ; third altar on the right, St. Gothardus with Apostles and Donors. Pal Ad-^ omo : Madonna sitting in the open air with two Saints. Uffizi : Ma- 1 donna — as a young mother bending down over the Child. ) But Cambiaso put forth his whole strength in the large Deposition. {S. M. di Cart- ^^t gnaTw, altar left, under the farthest back side cupola on the left. ) Calmly, and without any wild pathos, with- out any crowding, the event is de- veloped in noble energetic forms of deep inward expression — a fresh oasis in this epoch of bravura and sentimentalism. In scenes of action the master fails because of his de- ficiency in the sense of perspective ; also these are mostly of his later time. Three pictures in the choir of S. Giorgio. (Transfiguration ?» and Resurrection in S. Bartolom- o meo degli Armeni.) His mytho- logical and other decorative paint- ings in the haUs of Geiioest palaces 2>


Manmrists — Genoese — Ferrareae — JBolognese. 219


a and in 'SI McUleo (the clierubs on the ceilings) stand at least considerably higher than the works of his con- temporaries ; two mythological pic-

h tures in Falaazo Borghese at Kome. Of the beautifully formed group of Charity (Berlin Museum), there is a copy by the hand of Cajnicdno in

cthe Palazzo Brignolc at Genoa. Any one who wishes to learn the noble character of the man, should

d seek in the Palazzo Spinola (Strada I^uova) for the double portrait, in which he stands before the easel painting the portrait of his father. Among the remaining Northern Italians, we have before mentioned (p. 202 a) those members of the

e X)ainter family Campi of Cremona who lived at this time, aUo Galisto PicLzzaoi Lodi (p. 199A). Among the Milanese themselves, Enea Saltneg- gia, called Talpino, bom in Bergamo, and formed in Rome by the most loving study of Eaphael, always careful, never mannered, some- times beautiful and tender, but mostly timid and powerless (pic-

/ tures in the j^rera) ;— the three elder Procacdni on the other hand, ErcoU born 1520, Camillo born

^1546 [died 1629], Giulio Cesare born 1548 [died 1626], extremely resolute, brilliant in detail, in the whole much overladen ; they form the transition to the Milanese school of the seventeenth century, which attains its special perfection in Ercole Proca/xini the younger, NuvoloiUf and the two CrespL

In Ferrara the elder school passes into mannerism with Bas- tianino (1532-1602), a weak imitator

h of Michaelangelo ; Certosa, transept on the righ^ the Raising of the Cross ; — Ateneo : Madonna with

i Saints, Annunciation. Of Dosso's pupils, we must mention here Bos- tarolo (died 1589) ; pictures in the

j Oesitf first altar on the right : An- nunciaiion, first altar on the left ; the Christ Crucified. Besides him, the insipid Niccolo Roselli [living


1556, died 1580]; altar-pieces in the Gertosa, Scarscllino (1551- ^* 1620) was the most gifted, some- times pleasingly fanciful mannerist of Ferrara, by whom there are a great number of pictures in S. I Benedetto^ and in S. Paolo the frescos of almost all the ceilings : in the semi-dome of the choir a large interesting Ascension of Elijah in a landscape. In the Uffizi, an ^ aristocratically treated Nativity, probably of Elizabeth, in the man- ner of Fr. Franck and M. de Vos. Many thines in the Gallery of Mo- '^^ dena. [Others in the Gallery ofo Ferrara, reminding us at once of Domenichino and Paolo Veronese. —Ed.]

In Bologna there is an impor- tant development of the practice of art, which in quantity is consider- ably increased by Bagnacavallo and Innocenzo da Imola. There is not indeed much to be found of this time that has real life ; still most of these masters possess a neat exactness, which is a valuable inheritance for any school, because it proves a certain respect in art for itself. It may suffice to name some of the better pictures. Lo- renzo Sabbatini (died 1577) in the fourth church of S. St^fano (called i> S. Pietro and Paolo), left near the choir : a Madonna with Saints. Bartolonimeo Passarotti (bom about 1530, died 1592) : in S. Giacomo q MaggiorCj fifth altar on the right. Madonna enthroned with five Saints and Donors. Prospero Fon- tana (1512-1597) : in 8. SalvcUore r the picture of the third chapel on the right ; in the Pinacoteca a good ft Deposition ; in S. Giacomo Maggwre^ t sixth altar on the right, the Bene- ficence of S. Alexius. His daughter Lavinia (born 1552, died 1614), has a picture in the Sacristy of Sta. u Lucia, Dionigi Calvaert, from Antwerp [apprenticed at Antwerp, 1556, to the landscape painter, Christian van Queckborn. — Ed.]


220


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


a (died 1619) : ai Servi, fourth altar on the right, large picture of Para- dise. Bartolommeo Cesi (1556- 1629) : pictures at the back of the

h choir of 8. Doinenicoj and in S.

e Oiacomo Maggiore, first altar on the left in the passage round the choir. The above-nam^, as well as Sam- vutchini, Naldinif and others, have

^pictures in the Pinacoteca. For Laureti compare p. 187 d . — Pelle- grino Tibalai, mentioned before as an architect, surpasses them aUr (1522 or 1527-1592) : he was recog- nised by the Garacci as the true representative of the transition from the great masters to their own epoch. He is one of the few who remained faithful to the diligent study of nature, and would not produce his forms at second hand ; his frescos in the lower hall of the

^ University contain among other things those four nude assistant figures sitting on sarlanded balus- trades, the exceuence of which stands out wonderfully in contrast with the mythological principal subjects ; but the large fresco in S,


Giaconw Maggiore (chapel on the/ right transept) is also almost grand in its realization of an important symbolical idea ( ' ' Many are called, but few are chosen ") : among the frescos in the chapel of S. Bemigius in S. Luigi de* Francesi at Some^^ (fourth chapel on the right), the larse wall painting on the ri^ht wiui the Baptism of Clovis (he- sides the three smaller already man- nered ceiling pictures), which has an excellent efi&ct through the good style of the figures, the beauty of the architecture, and the golden tone of the colouring. The wall pain tines, with the army of Clovis on tne march and the taking the oath, are by Semumrta and Giacomo del ConU. For Kavenna we must mention Luca Longhi, who sometimes still recalls the best period in the man- ner of the Bologuese imitators of Raphael, but often falls into sentimentalism and feebleness. {Refectory of the CamaldoleTisesh in Bavenna : large Marriage of Cana.)


CHAPTER VII.— THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY.


THE MODERN SCHOOLS.


ECLECTICISM AND NATURALISM.

After the year 1580 mannerism begins to yidd to a new definite style, which even as an historical phenomenon is of great interest. The spirit of the counter-Reformation which then produced the spacious, splendid type of church in the

  • ' Baroque" style, required at the

same time from painting a treatment of sacred subjects as exciting and impressive as possible — the highest expression of celestial glory and pious lousing after it, combined with popiuar comprehensibility and attractive grace of form. In con-


sidering sculpture, which fifty years later fmlowed the course of paint- ing, we called attention in passing to the principal methods of this modern art : the naturalism in form as weU as in the whole conception of what had happened (retdity) and the display of emotion at any cost. In future we shall have to test painting from the Caracci to Mengs and Batoni by its intel- lectual value, and as a whole, even though und^r many forms. When art extends so greatly as here, to give the special characteristics of each painter would take a capacious book ; we must content ourselvea


The Caracci and their School.


221


-with an introductory survey and with naming the more important among thousands. Our object must be not an introduction to special knowledge, but the statement of suggestive points of view applicable to this period. In the fragmentary remarks foUowiog on the survey, at least every important work will be mentioned in some connection ; cer- tainly often in a limiting sense in a disadvantageous comparison with the works of the golden time. That this is not done to awaken contempt, or to lead people away from considering such works, will be perceived in reading through the whole. Completeness, either in the system or in the substance, cannot here be expected.

The beginners of the new ten- dency are partly Eclectics, partly Naturalists in the special sense. The abandonment of untrue forms and conventional expressions ap- parently required this double exer- tion ; aretum to the principles of the great masters of the golden time andanentirehonesty in representing outward appearances. Eclecticism contains a contradiction in itself, if it is conceived as though the special qualities of Michelangelo, Raphael, Titian, Correggio, were to be united in one work : even the copying and imitating of the special qualities of single great masters had produced the mannerisms which peo^e wished to avoid. But, conceived in the sense of an ex- tended and various study, it was highly necessary.

In the new school of Bologna the adoption of the principles of their great predecessors is almost always harmonious and intelligent. Some of their pictures are painted in the manner of Paul Veronese, some of Titian, and it is permanently in- fluenced by Correggio as well as many secondary schools ; but this relation only exceptionally becomes


complete reminiscence, and never sinks into soulless appropriation.

The founders were Lodovico Ca- racci (1555-1619) and his nephews, Annibale (1560-1609) and Agostino (1557-1602), the last more influen- tiai by his engravings than by his paintings. ' It was principally An- nibale, through whom the new style gained its preeminence in Italy.

The most conscientious of their pupils was Domenichino (properly Domenico Zampieri, 1581-1641) ; the most gifted was Guido JReni (1575-1642) ; also Francesco Alhani (1678-1660); the audacious Gio- vanni Lanfranco (1582-1648) ; Gia- coino Cavedonc (1577-1660) ; Ales- sandro Tiarini (1577-1668) ; the landscape painter, Giovanni Fran- cesco Orimaldi, and others.

Pupils of Albani : Giovanni Bat- tista Mola (1616-1661) ; Pier Fran- cesco Mola (about 1612-1668) ; Carlo Cigr?ia7ii (1628-1719); Andrea Sacchi (1599-1661), who after the middle of the seventeenth century founded the latest Roman school, and among others had Carlo MaraMa (1625- 1713) for his pupil.

Pupils of Guido Reni ; Simone Cantarini, called Simone da Pesaro (1612-1648) ; Giovanni Andrea Sirani (1610-1690) ; and his daugh- ter Elizabeth Sirani (1638-1665); Gessi (158a-1625) ; Canuti (1620- 1684); Cagivacci (1601-1681), and others.

Guercino {Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, born 1591, at Cento, where there are still important paintings by him, died ] 666) was only a short time in the school of the Caracci ; later he combined their principles with those of the Naturalists. Among his pupils are ' several of the name of Gennari, the most remarkable of them was Benedetto (1633-1716), {GalUry of a Modena).

In another scholar of the Caracci, Liomllo Spada (1576-1622), the naturalistic manner in a narrower


222


Fainting of the Seventeenth Century.


sense predominates (^Galleries of a Modena and Parma) ; which is the case also with Bartolommeo Schedone^ or Schidone, of Modena (born about 1580, died young, 1615), who had originally formed himself especially iSter Oorreggio (Gallery at Parma). b Sasaoferrato (properly (Hov. Bat- tista Salm, 1605-1685), indirectly a sdiolar of the Caracci, presumably through Domenichino, is an Eclectic in a different sense from all the rest. With Oignani and PasinelH (1629-1700) the Bolognese school falls to the general level which the whole of painting retains towards 1700.

No other school in Italy re- mained quite unimpressed by the Bolognese influence, however much, as for instance in Florence, they struggled against it.

Among the Eclectic schools the Milanese must first be reckoned. Of the family of the Procacdni we have ErcoU the younger (1596- 1676) ; Giovanni BaUista Crespi, called Ccra?M?( 1557-1633); his son, Daniele Crespi (about 1590-1630, important works in the Certosa at c Favia), Pamfilo Nuvolone from Cre- mona, and others. d Carlo Bonone painted at Ferrara (1569-1632), entirely on the inspi- ration of the Caracci We shall get to know him as one of the most refined miods of that time.

Then the Florentine school, which had preserved a higher tone from her own better time [Santi di Tito, p. 217 tf, 1538-1603), fell back intentionally on to forenmners like A. del Sarto, and afterwards received a new impulse from fia- roccio. Its tendency is essentially different from that of other con- temporary schools : in composition it is without principles and often crowded, in the colours juicy and glowing and somewhat spotty, though the best often reach a


very remarkable harmony ; its chief aim is often sensuous beauty ; on the other hand, there is an almost complete absence of feeling. As for this reason we shall on^ exceptionally have occasion to mention such pictures, we may here quote the most important church pictures of each painter ; of the rest the most valuable will be easily found in the Florentine Galleries.

AUessandro Allori (1535-1607), nephew of Bronzino, still half a mannerist. (In S. SpirUo, quite ^^ at the back, the Adulteress ; in the sacristj^, a Saint healing the Sick; choir of the Annunziata,/ first niche on the left. Birth of the Virgin, 1602 ; S. Niccold, [now in 9 Uffizi. — Ed. ], Sacrifice of Abraham. ) Also Bernardino Poccetti (1549- 1612), named in the volume on Sculpture as a decorator. He was, with Santi di Tito, a chief under- taker of the lunette frescos in the Florentine Convent Courts, mostly of legendary subjects. (Cloister of S, Marco, first court to the/* right, in the Catnaldolcnsi a^lii Angeli; first court to the left of the Annunziattty partly by him ;j Chiostro Grande, the farthest back to the left, in S. M. Novella, k partly by him ; larger wall-frescos m the court of the Confraternity I of S. Pietro Martire). In these tasks the painters about to be mentioned often took part, and thereby helped to form themselves. Compared \(ath the paintings of the Bolognese Chiostri (for instonce, S. m Francesco or ai Servi in Bologna), which were so far better composed, so much more easy and masterly in drawing, they yet maintain a certain advantage through the cheerfulness and absence of emo- tion, as well as through the greater richness of individualisaitioo. (The three beautiful lunettes by Dome- nichino in the outer hall of S* Onofrio n


L. Cardi — Guercino — Carlo Dolei.


223


at Borne must be excepted from this remark as most excellent. ) Besides this, a whole hall ia the former Pa-

^ laazo Capponif painted by Poccetti ;

^ in S. Felicitd, hrst altar to the left, the Assumption. Jacopo Ligozzi (bom about 1548, still living in 1632) : chief part in the lunettes

^in the Chiostro of Ognissanti. S,

  • ^ Croce, Cap. Salviati, left of the

left transept : Martyrdom of S. Laurence. S. M. Novella^ sixth altar on the right. Resuscitation of a Child. Jacopo Ghimenti da Empoli (1554-1640), never of any significance in narrative, as the paintings in the front hall of the

e P. BuonarroUi prove, is in indi- vidualising the noblest and most worthy of this school. Large pic- ture in the right transept of S.

fDomenico at Pistoja: S. Carlo Borromeo as a worker of miracles, surroimded by members of the Kospigliosi family. Several things

^ria the choir of the Cathedral of

72. Pisa. S, Luda de' Magnoli in

i Florence, second altar on the left, Madonna with Saints ; Annumiata, choir, third niche on the right. Jyudovico Cardi, called Gigoli (1559- 1613), the best colourist and de- signer of the school, whose works have for the most part passed into the Florentine galleries. In Sta.

j OrocCf the sixth altar on the right is by him, the Entry of Christ into Jerusalem ; and the Trinity at the entrance into the left transept. His pupil, Antonio Biliverti (1576- 1644), among others, produced the great Marriage of St. Catherine, together with its side pictures in

k the choir of the Annunziata, second niche on the right. Other pupils, like JDomenico Cresti, called Pas- si gnano (born about 1550, died 1638), Grcgorio Pa^/a^ii (1550-1605), &c., are better represented in the galleries. Francesco Civrrado ( 1 570- 1661) : his principal work in the

I choir of S. Frediano, at the back. Madonna with many Angels and


kneeling Saints; besides this, in S. GiovanninOj Frauds Xavier'sm Preaching in India. Christqfano AU<yn (1577-1621) has nothing in the churches at all equal to his famous Judith in the Pal. Pitti. n MaUeo Bosselli (1578-1650) painted the frescos of the first chapel on the right in the Annunziata, and a o part of the lunettes in the Chiostro ; in SS. Michele e Oaetano, third ^ chapel on the right, and the left side picture in the second chapel on the left ; his pleasant works in the Pal. POM, &c. One of thegr pupils of Matteo, Francesco Furini (born about 1600, died 1649), intro- duces a new interest into the school by his defined tender model- ling of the nude. {Giovanni Ma- nozzi) da San Giovanni (1590-1636) becomes, however, clearly under Bolognese influence, together with his contemporary, Guercino, the most determined, decided, charm- ing improvisatore of the whole school, who, by his rich palette and luxuriant fancy, quite forces us to forget the want of higher quali- ties. We shall have to speak again of his frescos, very striking within these limits. (Allegories in the large lower hall of the Pal. r Pitti ; Temptation of Christ in the Refectory of the Badia at Fiesole ; s half -destroyed allegory on the front of a house opposite the Porta Bo- 1 mana; story of S. Andrew in S. li Grace, second chapel on the right of the choir ; in Ognissanti, the v paintings of the cupola and part of the lunettes of the Cloister ; in the passage of the left court of S. Maria Nuova, the small figure inw fresco of a Caritas ; at Rome, the semidome of S. S. Quattro Coro-x nati.) Lastly, Carlo Dolci (1616- 1686), also of this school, who again introduces the emotion neglected by the others in several hundred representations of ecstasy, of which we shall speak farther. He and all those above-mentioned, are fully


224


Painting of tlie Seventeenth Centin*y,


represented in the Corsini Gallery

a at Florence.

The Sienese school at this time has HtUilio Manetti (1572-1639), whose beautiful Best during the Flight in Egypt, over the high

h altar of S. Pietro in Castelvecchio at Siena, excels everything else. Most resembling Guercino.

Pietro {BereUini) da Coi'tmia ( 1 596- 1669), was an immediate pupil of Oigoli ; he introduced a shallow eclecticism and the general profa- nation of painting for purposes of hasty and pleasing decoration.

The modem naturalism, in a re- stricted sense, begins in the harshest way with Michelangelo Amcrighi da Caravaggio (1569 CiyiGOd), who exercised a great influence on Kome and Naples. It is his delieht to prove to the spectator that Si the sacred events of old time happened just as prosaically as in the streets of the southern towns towards the end of the sixteenth century ; he cares for nothing but passion, and has a great talent for express- ing this in a truly volcanic manner. And this passion expressed only in vulgar energetic characters, some- times most striking, forms the fun- damental tone of his own school (Valmtin <1600-1634), Simo7i Vouet (1590-1649), also their follower. Carlo Saraceni (1585-1625), of Ve- nice), and also of the

School of Naples. Here the Ya- lencian, Giuseppe Rihcra, called la Spagnoletto (born 1588, disappeared 1656), is the follower, intellectually, of Caravaggio in the fullest sense of the word, although in his colour- ing, as is the case with his master in a still higher degree, his earlier study of Correffgio and the Vene- tians is distinctiy felt. With him worked, as well as the painter called Corenzio (1558 (?)-1643), Gio- vanni BaMista Ca7-acciolOf who attached himself more to the style of the Caracci; his great puj^il,


Massiino Stanzioni (1585-1056), also adopted as much from Bibera as was consistent with his own ten- dency. (His most remarkable pupil : Domeiiico Finoglia.)

Indirectly followers of Caravag- gio amonff the Neapolitans : Mattia Preti, called il Cavalier Calabrese (1613-1699), Andrea Vaccaro, and others.

Pupils of Spagnoletto : the battle painter, Anieilo Falcone, and Salva- tore Rosa, who worked in all styles (1615-1673), and his pupU, the landscape-painter, Biartolommeo Torregiani, the historical painter, Micco SjHtdaro, and others. The distinguished Sicilian painter, Pie- tro JSovelli, called Morrealese, also is a follower of Spagnoletto. (Lady and Page, Palazzo CoUmna B,t^ Borne.) (The expeditious painter, Ltica Giordano, great in his own way, was a pupil of Spagnoletto, but still more of Pietro da Cortona (1632-1705.) With him Neapolitan painting fell to a common level, which ended in simple decorative painting with Giacomo del Po, So- liniena (1657-1747), Conea (died 1764), Francesco di Mura, Bwiito, and others.

In Home, where all tendencies crossed each other, certain more special styles (1600-1650) gained strength particularly. ^^ides landscape (of which further), genre painting and battle pieces are well represented by a pupil of Aipino (and later of the Netherlander Picter van Laar, sumamed Bam- boccio (1603-1675), who was espe- cially esteemed in Bome in this line), namely, Michelangelo Cerqniozzi (1602-1660), whose best works are found in foreign countries. The Jesuit, Jacqtces Courtois^ sumamed Bourguignmi (1621-1676), was his pupil. Mario de' Fiori was known as a flower-painter (died 1673); Giov. Paolo Pannini (died 1764) as an architectural painter.

After the second half of the


The Genoese — T/w Bolognese.


225


eeventeenth century, Rome is the priucipal seat of the expeditious style of simple decorative painting derived from Pietro da Oortona, against whom Sacchi and MaraUa <p. 222) make only a weak reaction. Here laboured, among others, Oi/in' franc, i?{wm?ieZZ/ (1610-1662), Ciro Ferri (1634-1689), Filip^ Lauri < 1623-1694), and the Florentine, /Benedetto Luti, also (1666-1724) the Pater Pozzo, and several others.

In Genoa the style varies with the different influences. Giovani BaMista Paggi (1554-1627) recalls the contemporary Florentines {S.

€1 Pietro in Banchi) : first altar on the left, Adoration of the Shep-

  • herds ; Cathedral^ second chapel

on the left, Annunciation. Dome- nico Fiasdlay suruamed Sarzana (died 1669), is more like Guercino. Bernardo Strozziy surnamed il Ca- jmccino Genovese (1581-1644) [is among the followers of Caravaggio one of the most remarkable, espe- cially in portraits. — Mr.] Betie- detto Castiglione (1616-1670), an audacious Cortonist [who at times tried to imitate Van Dyck, but was especially successful as an animal painter. There are excel- lent things by him in Genoa ; for instance, in the possession of the

c Marchese Giorgio Doria is the life- »ize figure of a Shepherd and Shep- herdess ; the latter is asking, with a mischievous expression, whether the declaration of love is meant for her. — Mr.] Valcrio Castello also, but warmer in colour ; Deferrari appears to have studied after Van Dyck. Only Pellegro Piola, who died young (1607-1630), has shown a specially beautiful naturalism.

  • ^ (Pictures in the Pal. BrignoU:

« Frieze of Angels in Pal. Adorno, )

The Netherlanders, Germans, Spaniards, and French,* by whom

♦ Rubens (1577-1640) ; Van Dyck (1599- ir>4l); Rembrandt (1608-1669); HoiUlwrat (1590-1656); EUheinur (1578-1620); of the


Italy possesses many works, some of them of great merit, will, in the j following pages, be mentioned with Italians m their proper places.


DESIGN, DRAWING, AND TYPES OF FORM.

In the school of painting during 200 years (1580 till about 1780) there are naturally very great dif- ferences of tendency, not to speak of the immensely various gifts of individuals. Before speaking of the common qualities which charac- terise the whole great period, we must first indicate the differences in drawing, conception of form and colouring.

The Bolognese school began as a reaction of thorough reality op- posed to mannerism, as individual acquisition opposed to exclusive borrowing from others. Its studies in drawing were very valuable : in Annibale Caracci we find, besides this, a many-sided interest for all that is characteristic, as he there has painted a number of genre figures in life-size. (Pal. Colonnaf at Borne, the Lentil-eater ; in the Ujfflziy the Man with the Monkey, g a long series of genre figures on copper-plates, &c. ) Nevertheless the school is generally satisfied with a certain general style of phy- sical forms' and draperies, and indeed the average which is thus attained is neither altogether one of great beauty nor loftiness ; it is taken from Correggio, but without his inimitable sense of life, and also from the heavy luxuriant Paolo Veronese, but without his all- harmonising colour. The clearest evidence of this lies in the frescos


Brueghel family, especially Jan, the so- called Sammet Brueghel (1568-1625) ; Paul Bril (1556-1626). A great number of Flemish genre painters, only to be seen in the Uf&zi i—Velaaquez (1599-1660) ; MuHllo (1618-1682); Nicolas Povssin (1594-1665), Others will be named as occasion arises.

Q


226


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


aoi the Gallery in the Famese Palace at Borne, by Annibalc and his pupils. How many of these Junos, Aphrodites, Dianas, &c., would one wish to see alive ? Even the most excellent nude figures show no higher cultivation. Kich as is the school in fresh ideas of movement, still in detail it fails in giving the beauty of living form. Albani^s mythological frescos in a

droom of the Pal. Verospi (now Torlonia, near the Pal. Chigi) at Rome, the most striking reminis- cence of the Farnese Gallery, have much that is graceful in detail, but the same feeling of common -place. How various is Guido Heni, not only in different periods of his life, but sometimes in one and the same work. Of all modern painters he sometimes the most approaches lofty and free beauty, and his

<? Aurora (Casino of the Pal. Jtos- pigliosi) is certainly, taking all in all, the most perfect painting of the last 200 vears ; only the Hours are in their form most unequal in merit, and, including the Apollo, not to be compared with the mar- vellous and unique figure of the Goddess of Dawn. The famous S.

d Micha^el in the Concezione at Some (first chapel on the right) is in character and position immensely below Eaphael's picture in the Louvre. In female heads Guido often formed himself on antiques, especially the Niobides, but in female figures not seldom gives way to a sensual luxuriousness. (Look at the hands of his Cleo-

c patra, in the Pitti Palace ; on the female characters in the picture of Eliezar, also there). Domenichino also, with his great sense of beauty, cannot throw off the com- monness of the Bologuese forms. He is most free from it in the two splendid wall-frescos of the Chapel

foi S. Cecilia (second on the right),

g in S. Luigi de Franceai, at Bome ; also [but here a more servile


imitator of Eaphael. — Ed.] in several of the fresco histories at Grottaferrata (Cliapel of S. Nilus). A In his angels he follows Correggio very obviously, as is seen, lor instance, in the larse picture in the Brera at Milan (Madonna with i Saints). With Ouerdrw we must distinguish certain exquisite figures of the most noble form (which was quite at his command) from the productions of the energetic natu- ralist ; so the picture of Hagar {Brera Vkt Milan), the Marriage of/ S. Catherine (Gallery of Modena), // also the Cleopatra {Pal. Brignole, I at Gtenoa), as also the holy nun with the chorister boys {Gallery of ut, Turin). Sassoferrato, always care- ful, in these relations appears also inspired by Eaphael, though not dependent on him.

with Cararjoggio and the Nea- politans drawing and modelling are altogether considerably inferior, as they think they may rely on quite other means for effect. Common- place as their forms are besides, one cannot the more depend that- in special cases they are really taken from life ; in their vulgarity they are only too often vague a» well In this school there are, on the whole, but few conscientious pictures. From Zuca Giordano downwards the drawing of the Neapolitan school falls into the most careless extemporization. Luca maintains himself by an in- born grace at a certain height.

In Pietro da Cortona it is easy to see a pervading indifference to the true representation of forms ; as also the expression of his heads is empty to a degree. We feel at once that the moral basis which the Caracci (to their lasting honour) had given back to art, was again deeply shaken. When an artist of such talent so openly abandoned the best in art, nothing but a further degeneracy was to be ex- pected. The last great draughts-


Maratta — Roman Mosaic Art.


227


man, Carlo Maratta, was too con- fined in his imitation of Gnido Reni, too powerless by his want of individual warmth to save himself in the long run from destruction, a (Single figures of Apostles in the upper rooms of the Pal. Barberini, at Some ; Assumption, with the b four teachers of the Church, in S, M. del PopolOj second chapel on the right. ) Immediately after him fol- low several painters, who, in the rendering of form, were nearly as conscientious as he ; one learns to know them, for instance, in the cPal. Gorsini, at Bome, the Mura- tori, Ghezzi, Zoboli, Luti ; also the most agreeable of the Cortonists, Donato Creti. Whole churches, <21ike S, Gregorio, SS, Apostolic are again filled with tolerable con- scientious altar-pieces of Lutiy Oos- tanzij Oaulij and others (by Gauli is the ceiling fresco in the Gesd, that in S. Gregorio by Costanzi) ; the highest bloom of the Boman mosaic art — which, in a certain way, can hardly be conceived ex- cept by the side of good oil paint- ing—falls just in the first ten yesucs of the last century. (Altar-pieces 6 in 8. Peter, put into mosaic under the direction of the Cristof auL ) But this late, more local than eeneral improvement, is the purely ex- ternal result of academical in- dustry ; we no longer find in them a fresh intellectual substance, a deeper view of the objects to be represented. Pompeo Batoni repre- sents the highest poii^t of this kind of improvement (1708-1787 ; lar^e picture, Fall of Simon Masus, m fS. M. degli Angeli, principal nave, on the left), in whom individual feeling also is somewhat warmer; but his German contemporary, Anton Raphael Mmgs (1728-1779), is perhaps the only one in whom the beginnings of a profounder ideal view are to be seen, in whom single forms gain a higher and nobler life, aia ceiling fresco in


S. Eusehio at Bome is, after so*/ many ecstacies of a wild emotion, again quite solemn and dignified : his dome paintings in the Stanza h de* Papir?' of the Vatican I/ihrary give us again an anticipation of the true monumental style ; in the Par- i nassus on the ceiling of the prin- cipal room of the Villa Albani he ventured further than he ought, and yet, here at least, one will not question the historical fact that he nrst not only replaced the natural- istic mode of conception on the whole, but also the conventional form in detail by something better and nobler. Me could, indeed, only do this by a new eclecticism, and one observes the effort which he makes to unite the simplioil7 of Raphael with the sweetness of Cor^ reggio. But that he already had firm ground under his feet is shown, for instance, by his few portraits {Uffizif his own ; in the Brera, that/ of the singer Annibali ; in the Pin- k acoteca of Bologna that of Clement I XIII.). They are grander, truer, less pretentious, than any Italian portraits of the century.

Nicolas Poussin had exercised no visible influence on Italian historical painting.


THE COLOURING OF THE DIF- FERENT STYLES.

In colouring, the Venetians and Correggio were the types of the whole period ; later also is felt the influence of Rubens and Van Byck, the chief intellectual inheritors of Titian and Paolo; Salvator Rosa was impressed by Rembrandt.

The Caracci left no picture be- hind them which possessed the true festive glow and the clear depth of a good Venetian. The shadows as a rule are dull, the flesh tints often dirty brown. I con- sider the frescos in the FarruiseTti Palace as far the greatest produc-

q2


228


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


tioQ of Annibale as to colour Un- der the influence of Michelangelo's paintings of the roof of the Sistine {arUea), he has with a masterly freedom succeeded in dividing his picture into histories and decora- tive parts, the last partly stone- coloured Atlantes, partly excellent sitting nude figures in attitudes, partly children, masks, garlands of fruit, bronze-coloured medallions, &c. The grand harmonious effect of colour which the whole pro- duces, in spite of particular coarse parts, was only to be brought about by this gradation according to sub- jects. All the better painters of the seventeenth century studied here for similar undertakings ; the inferior ones, at any rate, copied. In Bologna the Caracci, for instance, in the frescos of the

fi Pal. Magnani (frieze of the large hall), produced simpler but in their kind not less excellent decorative pictures (stone-coloured Atlantes, seated, mocked at by Cupids in natural colour, each accompanied by two bronze- coloured accessory figures of half size), works which in style and colouring are far better than the subjects to which they serve as frames. Even their latest followers sometimes produced ex- cellent things of this kind, as, for instance, dgnarvCs famous Eight Cherubs, with a medallion to each two, over the doors of the principal

h nave of 8. Michde in Bosco. Such models gave even to simple decora-

ctors (Colorma^ in S. Bartolommeo a Porta Bavegnana, and in S. Donu-

dnico, Capella del Bosario, on the

cleft; — Franceschinif in Corpus Bo-

fmini; — Canvti, in S. Michde in Bosco, Chamber of the Legates, &c.) a harmony which is less charac- teristic of other schools. Unfortu- nately perhaps the best frescos as to colour of Lodovico and his school,

g in the octagonal hall which incloses a little court of this cloister, are miserable ruined ; one cannot look


at the remains without grief. (The compositions, some of them very good, are known by engravings. )

Domenichino is very unequal in his colouring ; of his frescos those in S. Andrea della Yalle at Home, iD other ways also masterpieces, should have the preference (the Pendentives with the Evangelists ; the dome of the choir, with the stories of S. Andrea and allegorical figures ; their merit is best seen by comparison with the lower paint- ings of the walls of the choir, by Cdlabrese.)

The greatest colourist of the school, when he chose, was Guido Beni. His single figure of S. An- drea Corsini {Pinacotecaoi Bologna) h may be considered unsurpassed in delicacy of tone ; perhaps a similar perfectness is attained here and there in pictures of his silver-toned second manner ; for instance, one of his nude figures of S. Sebas- tian (of which the most beautiful is there, others in various places) ; his best nude figure in gold tone is (also there) the Victorious Samson (copy in the Ttcrin €h.llery\ a pic- * ture of Venetian joyousness. (Com- pare with the St. Sebastian tended by holy women, of his pupil Simonej da Pesaro, in the Pal. Colonna at Borne.) Of his frescos the Aurora is admired to the utmost on account of its harmony of treatment ; but the greatest effect of colour is in the Glory of S. Dominic (in the semi- dome of the Chapel of the Saint at S. Domenico of Bologna). k

Ouercino is in his colour some- times clear like the Venetians, even in the deepest, but he often ends also with a dull brown. The large picture of S. Petronilla (Gallery of I the Capitol — see below among the Sante Conversazioni), but espe- cially the death of Dido {PcU, Spada at Borne), display his palette m on its strongest side ; the pictures mentioned before (p. 226 i) are also


Caramggio — Spagnoletto.


229


more dignified and moderate in colour. Of the frescos those in the

a Casino of the Villa Ludovisi (Aurora on the ground floor, Fame in the upper story) are especially power- ful in colour ; so also the Prophets and Sibyls in the cupola of the

h Cathedral of Fiacenza, including the Allegories on the Pendentives.

Among the Naturalists, the ear- liest, Caravaggio, from whom also Guercino learned indirectly, is cer- tainly one of the best colourists. The strong cellar light, in which he and many of his followers love to place their scenes, indeed excludes the endless richness of beautiful local tones, which can only be con- ceived with the assistance of clear daylight ; it is characteristic, be- sides this, that the Naturalists, in spite of all their preference for in- closed light, should so little enter into the poetry of chiaroscuro.* Caravaggio's histories of St. Mat- cthew ia «*?. Luigi de^ Francesi at Borne (last chapel on the left) are indeed so placed that one can hardly judge of the effect of colour, though this may have grown very much darker ; but it is certain (also from his other works) that he inten- tionally aimed at the impression of harshness and gloom, and that

• Still we must recall his youthful works, which ia their clear harmonious tone, principally golden yellow, betray the study of the Venetians (Giorgione) ; as the famous picture, the Gamesters, in the P. Sciarra; a Judith with the Maid, for- merly in the Scarpa collection at La Motta near Treviso, now in England ; also the splendid Woman playing on the lute in the Lichtenstein Palace m Vienna. Here too belongs, though a little later perhaps, the Conversion of Paul in figures of life- size, in the Pal. Balbi-Piovera at Genoa— a remarkable instance of his careful choice of a noble and ideal subject, which he afterwards drags down, con amove, into triviality and common-place. But in painting it is a master-piece. The chiar- oscim) has the true artistic feeling, and is captivating in its charm — the shadows quite transparent, the drawing sharp, the execution most careful and irresistibly beautifUL— Mr.]


the absence of reflections is an essential means for this. In Bem- brandt, on the contrary, in spite of all the fastastic figures and cos- tumes, there is a cheerful, com- fortable tone, because the sunlight lights up and makes the whole space inhabitable, partly directly, partly by the golden vapour of the reflections.

Of Caravaggio's pupils, the two who were not Neapolitans, Carlo Saraceni and Valentin,* had the most colour, and were also toler- ably conscientious. [By Saraceni : Stories of S. Benno in the Anima d at Borne, first chapel on the right, and first chapel on the left : Death of the Virgin in S. M. della Scala e on the left : [before his attractive bright Repose in Egypt, in the P. Doria at Rome, first gallery, No. / 32, t (see below) one is strongly re- minded of the beginning of natur- alism in painting in modern Ger- man art] ; by Valentin : Joseph Interpreting the Dreams, Pal. {f Borghese ; Beheading of the Bap-^ tist, Pal. Sciarra : Judith in Pal, i Manfrin at Venice.

Spagnoletto is often hard and harsh in spite of his Venetian associations. He is so already in his horrible Bacchus of 1626 {Mu-j seum of Naples) ; his S. Sebastian (sdso there) is remarkable as the last picture of his painted with feeling, of the year 1651. His small figure of St. Jerome (Uffiziy Tri-A; bune) appears to me the most Venetian. Stanzioni is much milder and tenderer ; of the rest, SaU voter Rosa, when he chooses, has the warmest light and the clearest

• [His name is not Moyse, which ap- parently is only the Italian transfoima- tion Mositi, from the French "Monsieur." —Mr.]

t [This very picture, weak, flat, and uninteresting in its heads, is pretty cer- tainly a copy by the hand of Niccola CaS' mim, from the oiiginal in Casa Martelli ut Florence.— Mr.]


230


Painting of the Seventeenth Century,


chiaroscuro (Conspiracy of Cati- o, line, Pod. Pitti, but else often pale and dull). Caloibrese and several others have only a very external bravura of colour,

Pietro da Cortona is as great a colourist as any one can be without any serious conception of the sub- ject. His colouring is in a high degree pleasing ; in the large ceil- ing paintings, intended more for de- corations than serious subjects, he first aimed at the impression most likely to tell upon the thoughtless idly wandering eye. The prevail- ing qualities are clearness of tone, sunny air, easy movement of the figures in illuminated space, a super- ficial agreeable chiaroscuro especi- ally in the flesh tints. Ceiling pic-

^ tures of the Chiesa Nuova at Home (in the Sacristy, the Angels with in- struments of martyrdom) ; dome of

cthe colossal principal hall in the

d Pal. Barberinij a hall in the Pal.

e Pamjili, in the Piazza Navona ; a number of ceilings in the P. Pitti ; wall frescos in one of the halls there, in which his half -thorough- ness is more repulsive than nis former complete sketchiness. Among the easel pictures, perhaps

/the Birth of the Virgin {Palazzo Coraini) gives the most favourable idea of his colouring.

From him and from Paul Vero- nese proceeds the colouring of Liica Giordano, which, because of his indestructible cheerfulness, some- times rises to a real joyfulness. In

gthe Tesoro at SL Martino of Na- ples he painted the stories of Judith and the Brazen Serpent within forty-eight hours on the ceiling ; his St. Francis Xavier baptizing

A the Savages (Museum) was com- pleted in three days, — both in a manner w^hich makes us envy something in his palette. His re- maining pictures also (of which there is a selection in the Museum), though without any really firm out-


line, without any choice in forms or motives, yet exercise a great charm, chiefly through a certain careless absence of pretension (compared with the pretensions of Salvator and his friends), and through the whole pleasing appearance of life. His followers, at the best bril- liant decorators with glowing^ colouring : — Solimena : the frescos of the Sacristies of S. Paolo and 8. \ Domenico Maggiore, large history ^ of Heliodorus inside above the en- trance of the Gesii Nivovo ; Ltiigi^ Garzi: frescos on the roof and front wall of S. Caterina A For- ^ mello ; Conca : large centre pic- ture of the roof of Sta. Chiara, ^ David dancing before the Ark of the Covenant ; Francesco de Murd : large picture on the roof in S, Se- vcrino ; Bonito : smaller picture on the roof in Sta. Chiara, &c. — » After the decay of the local schools throughout Italy these Neapolitans traveUed about as virtuosi of the expeditious style of painting, and also penetrated into Tuscany, after Salvator Hosa had already passed a great part of his life there. For instance, Conca in the Hospital ^ della Scala at Biena painted the niche in the choir quite grandly with the story of the Pool of Be- thesda ; CalaJjrese covered the Choir and Cupola of the Carmine at "Ko-P dena with his improvisations, &c.

Among the Romans, Sacchi is in colouring more powerful and more solid than Cortona (the Mass of S. Gregory, and S. Ro- ^ muald with his monks, Vatican gallery; Death of S. Anna, in S. Carlo d Catinari, altar on the left) ** Maratta with all his carefulness is here strikingly duU ; single heads, like **la Pittura " in the Pal. Cor- «  sini succeed best, and are full of life and beautiful ; his Madonna with the Sleeping Child, in the JPaZ.i)oria^ t is also in colour a reproduction of Guido.

Of the Florentines, Furini, already


Rubens.


231


mentioned (p. 218) is incessantly

striving to represent the flesh of his

female nude figures more and more

a mellow aad tender. {Pal. Pitti, Cre-

h ation of Eve ; Pcd. Capp(yiii, David

cand Abigail; Pal. Corsini^ nude

figures and mythological subjects.

The later Venetians (p. 212) at

hegt borrow from Paolo; Tiepolo

studies especially a silver tone.

FLEMISH AND SPANISH COLOURISTS.

After long observation perhaps our readers vfill agree with us that the greatest master-pieces of colour- ing which Italy possesses of this period are a few pictures by Ru- bens, Van Dyck, and Murillo. Rubens can be followed in Italy from his earliest period, that is from the time he settled there. The earliest one, a Trinity in the d library at Mantua with the ducal family of Gonzaga as donors (un- happily spoilt and cut into two pieces), painted 1604-5, still shows some remains of his Flemish ap- prenticeship, as well as the strong influence of Tintoretto. The three large pictures in the choir of the c Ckiesa Nuova at Borne (painting of the Madonna surrounded by Angels, and two colossal paintings each of three saints) show how his peculiar characters and his colour- ing begin to work themselves free of the various manners by which he was surrounded; even in the /Circumdsion on the high altar of 8. Amhrogio at Ctonoa he still strug- gles with the conception and colour of the Caracci: — he comes out almost quite himself in the S. Se- bastian, from whose wounds angels g are drawing forth the arrows {Pal. Corsini at Uome), and in the idyUic naive Finding of Romulus and Re- Amus (Capitoline Gallery) ; both pic- tures with yellowish tones in the flesh tints. The twelve half-length ^ figures of Apostles (Casino Rospi-


gliosi) I look upon as being genuine works of his nearly perfect period. Then the maturest and most splen- did, the Allegory of War \Pal.i PiUi)f in which colour, form, and incident are felt to be inseparable. The Holy Family with the cradle of basket-work there is strikingly glassy in colour and weak in tone, and pretty certainly a copy of the remarkable original possessed by the Marchese Giacomo Spinola atk Genoa. Two remarkable pictures, on the other hand, are in the Pal, Adomo at Genoa — Hercules 2 with the Apples of the Hesperides, and Dejanira with an old woman holding the garment of Nessus. Mars with Venus and Cupid in the Palazzo BrijnO'Salc is a flncT^t picture, in spite of all that dis- pleases us. —Mr.]. Lastly, the great masterpiece on the high altar ton the left in 6L A mbrogio at Genoa, S. Ignatius curing a Possessed Person by his intercession, is in con- ception, form, and colour of a re- tined noble naturalism which im- mensely surpasses the Neapolitans : in the Saint, for instance, the Spanish nobleman is still repre- sented ; his expression is im- mensely brought out by the cunning indififerent character of the priests and chorister boys round him. The two large pictures in the Niobe room in the Uffixi, the Battle ofo Ivry and Henry IV. 's Entrance into Paris, should, as quite genuine im- personations of the best time, be distinctly preferred to most of the pictures of the gallery of Marie de Medicis in the Louvre ; they show us the Prometheus of colouring as it were in the midst of the glow of creation. [The gallery of Turin p possesses among many doubtful . things (Holy Family ; copy of the Brazen Serpent) a precious, beauti- ful sketch for the Apotheosis of Henry IV., somewhat smaller than that in Munich, and apparently also somewhat different from it. In


232


Painting of the Seventeenth Century,


a the sacristy of S. Maria Zohenigo at Yeniee, a Holy Family of his school. —Mr.]

h Later works ; Pal. Pitti, Nymphs ia a -wood, surprised by Satyrs-; the second Holy Family, perhaps a

ccopy. Brera at Milan, the Last Slipper [a perfectly genuine picture, of excellent colouring, powerful, even somewhat coarse. The sub- ject and the efifect of light at night are not attractive. An excellent altar-picture, certainly for the most part by Ruben's own hand, is the Ascension of the Virgin in the Pal.

d Col&iina at Bome. All the remain- ing atelier-pictures, which could be cited in dozens, are not worth men- tioning. — Mr.]

Among the portraits, there are jewels of the first rank : a lady of middle age. the painter's first wife, Elizabeth Brant, with a prayer- -book {Uffiziy No. 197) ; the artist himself, bare-headed, aristocratic- looking, dressed in black, with collar and golden chain (Uffizi); [better than either, the poi'trait of the painter by himself, in the collection of painters there. The picture of the so-called Four Law-

/yers. Pal. Pitti, has something puzzling about it, since some parts (in the accessories and in the head of Grotius) are excellent, and others (especially the head of Kuben's brother) are weak, even coarse. The master may have left the picture unfinished. Genuine and early in the still hard and smooth manner of the master, but also unusually warm in the flesh tints, is the so-called Confessor of Kubens, with a peculiar cross or

^disdainful expression. Pal, Doria, at Bome, second gallery, No. 50.

A Philip IV., in full length, Pal. Burazzo at Genoa, is a distin- guished picture of Rubens ; only the canvas having been twice added to, is disturbing. There also is a beautiful half-length pic- ture of a Knight of the Golden


Fleece (round). — Mr.] Concerning many other portraits, I do not venture to judge.

Van Dyck is still more richly represented in Italy than Kubens ; the number of portraits especially, left by him, mostly in Genoa, borders on the incredible. Except the genuine but early Deposition, painted in Italy, in the Pal. Bar- * ghese at Bome, room 15, No. 7 [with the very coquettish but charming Magdidene and the strik- ingly weak Madonna, distinguished by powerful colouring and beauti- ful light], he has left hardly any ideal subjects in Italy besides a few heads, — as the Madonna looking up (in Pal. Pitti)t whose unusual/ beauty perhaps betrays the in- fluence of Guido. [Two goDuine Holy Families, one larger and one smaller, are possessed by the Pal. Balbi-Piovera at Genoa. But far^* the most beautiful is the Holy Family of five half-length figures io the Turin Gallery, No. 247, clearly I suggested by Titian, of glowing colour. Lastly, Christ with the two Pharisees {Pal. Brignole\ sim- «t ply a new edition of Titian's Cristo della Moneta ; the head of Cluist empty ; those of the old men, on the contrary, excellent. The Brera, n too. possesses a life-size Madonna with S. Antony, — by no means an in- significant picture ; and the A ccade- mia S. hmxi at Bome, a Holy Family o with two Angels playing on musical instruments, — originally excellent, but unfortunately much injured.

With regard to Van Dyck's por- traits, Turin stands first. Thejp Prince Thomas of Savoy, on a white horse, is one of the grandest portraits ever painted ; the three children of Charles L are among the best ; also a Clara Eugenia in the dress of a nun is excellent (No. 300). In Genoa, also, after excluding the non-eenuine and the imitations,* the pslaces of the old

  • [The name of Van Dyck is l)ome by


Van Di/ck's Portraits.


233


nobility of the Republic possess an astonishing number of works of his hand, unfortunately many of them irreparably spoiled ; thus in great part the valuable portraits of the Pal. Brignole-Sale, of which the best are — a young man in Spanish costume, with a twisted column ; Groronima Sale Brignole, with a little daughter ; the equestrian por- trait of Antonio Giulio Brignole, bowing, with his hat in his right hand, his wife with a rose in her right hand. (The two female por- traits very much injured. In the

a Pal. Filippo Durazeo (Strada Balbi), three genuine portraits in one room ; among them the most beautiful which Genoa possesses, the lady seated, in white silk, with two children in blue and gold ; the ex- cellent picture of the three chil- dren coming quickly forward with a little dog ; last, a youth dressed in white on a chair, with a parrot, monkeys, and fruits (the accesso- ries obviously by Fr. SnyderK), In

b the Pa/. Balbi, observe a young lady with a peculiarly saucy air, with red hair, in which is placed a white feather. The Marchese Giorg^io

c Doria has the beautiful, though unfinished, portrait of a Bride in a cherry-coloured velvet dress, with garden background ; and the elegant three-quarter picture of a young lady with a fan, in black.

d The Cattaiieo family possesses, in- deed, in one of their palaces (Casa Casaretto), not less than eight genuine portraits by Van Dyck, only all, for the sake of the frame, some- what enlarged.

e [In the Brera : three-quarter length of a blonde young English- woman, excellent. — Mr.}

/ In the FUH: Cardinal Bentivo- glio, whole-length, seated, ex- tremely elegant and aristocratic, a

pictures of Giov. Bernardo Carhone, Bene- detto (kutiglione, Micchele Fiammingo, Cor- nelia Wael, Giov, Rosa, Giov. Andrea Fer- rari, ftc— Mr.]


marvel of painting [unfortunately the background insufficiently worked up, and become very brown — ] ; the half-lengths of Charles 1. and Henrietta of France might be repetitions [hardly to be ascribed to Jauson vanKeulen. — Z.] Ujfizi : an aristocratic lady, of his g later paler palette : the equestrian portrait of Charles V., elevated by beautiful and not obtrusive sym- bolism to an ideal historical height. [Yet one sees in the head that the artist had not nature before his eyes. There, also, the half-length picture of John de Montf ort. Cer- tainly genuine, but dirty and ill- favoured.— Mr. ] [His portrait, said h to be by himself, in the gallery of Painter^ Portraits, is not genuine. — Z. ] In the Pal. Colonna at Some : i the equestrian portrait of Don Carlo Colonna, wherein the symbolism is too evident; and Lucretia Tor- nacelli- Colonna, a whole-length. [Both insignificant. Better, though somewhat tame, Marie de Medicis with two roses in her hand, in the P. Borghese ; lastly, in the Capita- i line collection^ the splendid double Ar portrait of the poet Thomas Killi- ^w and Henry Carew (half-length hgures). — Mr.]

Numerous portraits of other ex- cellent Nethenanders {Franz Hals ? Mirevelt?) are divided in the gal- leries between these two names ; Pal, Doria in Some, second gallery, I No. 37, and elsewhere [as also these masters, Hals, Mirevelt, JRa- vestyn Van der Heist, D, MytttiSy Grebber, Comelis Jansens van Keulen, &c., are confounded to- gether. — Mr.]

Single works of Snyders, Jor* daens, and other pupils, are found in the Uffizi and in the Turin OaU m lery. We will linger for a time over the portraits : We shall speak further on of genre and landscape.

Bembrandt has some genuine portraits, worthy of admiration for colour and light ; his own well-


234


Painting of the Seventeenth Century,


o known face {Pal Pitti, between the Doni couple, by Raphael ; aJso the old Rabbi (there too), of his

h latest period : in the ujizi (Por- traits of Painters), the portrait in a dressing-ffown is better than the stout haJf-length with cap and chain, which is a mere repetition of one of the excellent portraits of old

cmen in the Miiseum of Naples. [The Brera also possesses a female half-length portrait in the well- known early manner of Rembrandt, signed with his name and the year 1632. Of other subjects : a genuine

<^Holy Family, in the Uffijzi, No.

c 922. In Turin there is not one genuine Rembrandt.] The Sacri-

/iice of Isaac, in Pal. Doria at Borne, second gallery, No. 26, is by one of his followers, Gerhraind van den Eccklumt, [Undoubtedly by Jan Zive»«.— Mr.]

g In the MiMeum at Naples^ a three-quarter length portrait of a young Senator, and a half-length, both excellent, are ascribed to Mi-

h revelL In the Pittiy the (probably Dutch) portrait of a young man,

i and in the Uffizi the excdlent head of the sculptor Francavilla, are ascribed to the younger Pour-

jhu8. In the Pittiy by Peter Lely (Peter^ van der Faes)^ Cromwell conceived with great depth and truth, on the intellectual as well as on the coarse side, with a shade of anxiety [but yet somewhat feeble in drawing, wanting in power and tone. — Mr.] ; the other portraits by Lely, in the Niobe

^ room in the Uffizi, are not equal to this work.

A glance at the collection of painters in the Uffizi is sufficient to convince us of the great supe- riority of the Netherlanders. The Italians of the seventeenth century endeavour in their portraits to ex- press above all things a certain spirit, a certain energy ; and thereby fall into showiness or pretentious- ness ; the Netherlanders (here in-


deed we have only inferior exam- ples) ffive the complete picture of life, ^o the moment and its tone of feeling ; by means of colour and light, they also elevate the portrait to the height of a genersd type. (The French portraits, from Lebrun onwards, in this collection are in- teresting by their careless and yet so good natured and refined expres- sion of countenance. )

A Fleming, Susterviians of Ant- werp (1597—1681), passed his life at Florence, and produced here a number of really excellent por- traits, which often approach Van Dyck [and still more Velasquez]. Manv likenesses of the reigning family ; also one of the Grand Duchess Victoria with the Crown Prince, represented as the Virgin and the Child : a Danish Prince among others in the Pi^^i;— others, I among them Galileo, in the Uffizi ; w — also in the Pal, Cornni andn Giiadagnif &c.). The portraits o painted in Florence by SalvcUor may have been inspired by him, or else by Rembrandt ; thus in the Pitti his own and the three- quarter leneth of a man in armour, which could never have been pro- duced but for Rembrandt. Other Italians also in their portraits al- most openly acknowledge foreign models : Oristofano Allori (in the portrait of a Canon, Pal, Capponi atp Florence), adopts Velasquez ; the Venetian Tiberio Tinelli Van Dyck or Murillo as a model {Uffizi ;q portrait of an intellectual bon vivant with a laurel branch ; P. r Pitti; an elderly noble [somewhat weak and watery in the flesh tints, but undoubtedly a genuine portrait by Van Dyck. — Mr.] Acade^ny of* Venice : the portrait of the painter?) One has most chance of find- ing an original conception among the first Bolognese; portraits by Danie7iichino {Uffizi: Pal, Spadat at Some) and Guerdno {Gallery of u Uodena) are free yet dignified and v


Murillo. — Velasque.


z.


235


a historical. The so-called Cenci, pro- fessedly by Guido, in the P. Barhc- t rini^ is a pretty head, which charms us by its mysteriousness. [Much romance has been collected round this picture. At all events the head, as it still hangs there, quite exemplifies the dexterous handling of Guido's pencil. — Mr.] A youthful picture of Carlo Dold

^ {Pal, Pitti) 'is one of his best works. [Excellent and unusually attractive also is Dolci's own por- trait at the age of fifty-eight in the

<^ collection of the Uffizi. — Mr.] ; also the portrait of a priest in the Bor-

dghese Gallery , by Sacchi. The noble, truly historical portrait of

^ Poussin (Casino JRospigliosi) is su-

f)erior to all those last mentioned. Copy from the original in the Louvre. — Mr.]

The great Spaniards, whose co- louring and conception were in- fiuenced by Titian as much as were the Flemings (but leas than the latter by Paolo) are only represented in Italy by sinsle scattered works. MuriUo^s Ma- / donna in the P. Corsini at Bome is not only most simple and pleasing in the charactera of the Mother and Child, but (though in part very slight) a marvel of colour. 9 The two Madonnas in the PUH do no.t attain this loveliness of tone ; the one which is most studied (the child playing with a garland of roses) is also in the painting less life-like. By Velasquez there are ^ only portraits ; in the UJiai his own, almost too obviously intended to be noble, and the powerful eques- trian portrait of Philip IV., with grooms and allegories in an open landscape, painted with extraordi- nary mastery of colour and tone [the latter seems doubtful, and more .probably the work of some scholar

  • of Rubens.— Z.] ; in the PUti, a

gentleman with passionate features, his louff aristocratic hand on the J mlt of his sword ; in the P. Doria


at Bome, Innocent X. seated — ^per- haps the best papal portrait of the century. [The Capitoline collection h possesses a real treasure, far too little esteemed, in the half-length portrait of a young man with whis- kers and moustaches, serious, won- derfully living, and modelled as if with the breath. All Velasquez's greatness as a portrait-painter is shown in this simple nead, the work of his early years. Less striking, but, as it appears to me, also genuine, is the female portrait at Parma, although it has a certain I hardness, black by the side of bright lights. But the hand with the three rings, which holds the white pocket handkerchief , is un- equalled in pictorial treatment and the brilliant clearness of the tone of colour. — Mr.] The MuriUos and Velasquez m the Gallery of m Parma are hardly to be received ; of the two at Turin the half-length n of Philip IV. is most probable. — There is a Pieth by Sanchez Coello in S. Giorfflo at Chenoa, first altar o on the left of the choir.


THE COMPOSITION OF THE MODERN SCHOOL.

In all undertakings of an ideal kind this modern painting fails in the highest aims, because it at- tempts too much direct representa- tion and illusion, while yet, as the product of a late period of culture, it cannot be subhme by simple in- genuousness (naivetd). It aims at making aU that exists and occnn real ; it regards this as the first condition of all effect, without counting on the inner sense of the spectator, who is accustomed to look for emotions of quite a different kind.

The realization of movement in space, as it was observed in Cor-


236


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


reggio and copied from him, had already made art indifferent to all higher arrangement, to the simply grand in construction and the con- trast of groups and single figures. Ouido Iteniy through his sense of the beautiful, most preserved the architectonic impression. His grand a Madonna della Pieta (Pinacoteca of Bologna) owes its strongest effect to the symmetrical construction of the lower as well as of the upper group ; the same is true of the picture of the Crucified Saviour and his followers : the noble and grand treatment, the beautiful expression, alone would not suffice to assure to those works their quite excep- tional position. (Another Cruci- fixion by Guido, without the per- sons round), but also of great value bin the GcUlery of Modena.) The c Assumption at Honich, the Trinity clover the high altar of S. Trinitd e de* Pellegrini at Bome, five further proof of this ; even the sketchy work of the second manner, the Oaritas (Pinacoteca of Bologna). Lodovico Caracd's Transfiguration (also there) and the Ascension of /'Christ (high altar of S, Cristina at Bologna) are really pleasing only on account of this architectonic element. Annibale*s Madonna in a niche, on the pedestal of which lean John the Baptist and Catherine, from the same cause (as well as its forcible painting) produces a great effect, in spite of the common and not very noble forms ; the same ele- ments of life appear in the similar ^ large picture of Guercino in the Pal. Brignole at Genoa. (Guercino in a beautifully painted picture, S. % Vincenzo at Modena, second chapel on the right, misses the right thing ; his God the Father blessing, a half - i length figure, in the Turin (SfcUlery, Kopem to be inspired by Guido's lenity.) Even the symmetry set in movement, the processional parts, in short, all that keeps down the pathos which in this school so often


causes confusion, is capable of producing most excellent effect ; of this kind are the two colossal pictures of Lodovico Carcuxi, in the Gallery at Parma (formerly side j pictures of an Assumption), espe- cially the Burial of the Virgin, where the ceremonial, fixing the attention chiefly on the masterly foreshortening of the body, entirely puts the subjective pathos into the background. DoTneniehino also, whose composition is so extremely unequal in his Death of S. Cecilia, 8. Luigi at Bome, second chapel on k the right, gives a splendid example of severe and yet beautifully de- veloped symmetry. Of the two pictures of the last Communion of St. Jerome {Agostiru) Caracci ; Pina- 1 coteca of Bologna; — Doincnichino ; m Vatican Gallery) ^ that of Domeni- chino has the great merit, that the two groups (that of the Priests and that of the Saint), are as it were measured trait for trait against each other, so that move- ment and repose, ornament and flowing drapery, giving and taking, &c. , mutually bring each other out ; besides this, the figure of the Saint is as it were imbedded in the piety and devotion of his attendants, and yet kept quite free before the eye. Nicolas PoiissiUj the greatest admirer of Domenichino, often goes too far, so that his groups appear constructed on purpose. (Rest during the Flight, Academy of Venioe. ) [A copy, and n perhaps not quite exact. — Mr.] Sometimes the Milanese surprise us, wild as their composition may he, by a grandly felt symmetrical arrangement. Observe in the Brera the large picture of Cerano- o Crespi (Madonna del Bosario); in the P. Brignole at Ctonoa, the S. p Carlo bome to heaven by ansels, by one of the ProcaAxin% a striking picture, however naturalistic may be the struggles of the angels ; in the Turin Gallery, the Madonna q adored by S. Francis and S. Carlo,


Caravaggio, Albani, Tiarini, Sassqferrato. 237


represented in a characteristic man- ner as a statae, by Giulio Cesare Procacdni : — Sassoferrato in his beautiful Madonna del Kosario ^ {S. Sabina at ^me, chapel on right of choir) followed the old severe arrangement, with full intention.

Far the greater number only acknowledge the higher laws of composition yet in a limited degree, and the Naturalists hardly at alL Even with the best of the Bolognese, a iine nude figure (if possible, artistically foreshortened in the foreground) is sometimes worth all the rest of the picture ; some of them carefully seek out such occasions (Schidone's S. Sebas- tian, whose wounds are gazed at by

^ jsrypsies, in ike Museum at Kaples). The Naturalists desire really no- thing but the moment of passion.

^ Caravaggiol's Deposition ( Vatican Gallery), always one of the most important and solid pictures of the whole school, is for the sake of the unity and force of expression as a group made quite on one side. How coarsely Caravaggio could compose and feel when ne did not care for expression, the Conversion of St. Paul {S. M, del Popolo at

^^ Borne, first chapel on the left of the choir) shows, where the horse nearly fills the whole of the picture. Spa- finoletto^s chief picture, the Descent from the Cross, in the Tesoro of

^ ^S'. Martino at Naples, is unpleasing in its lines, wliich certainly one may pass over for the sake of the colour and the impressive, though by no means glorified sorrow.


EXPRESSION AND ARRANGEMENT.

We must now endeavour to examine this question of expression and emotion, to which modem painting sacrifices so much, accord- ing to its subject and its limits. We begin with the narrative pic- tures of sacred subjects (Biblical or


legendary), without confining our- selves strictly to any particular arrangement. Even the altar- pieces after Titian often have a narrative subject; everything is quite welcome which is in any way impressive.

In S. Bartolommeo d Portaf BavegTuma at Bologna (on the fourth altar on the right), is one of the finest pictures m. Albania the Annunciation ; Gabriel, a beautiful figure, flies eagerly towards the Virgin. (Compare the colossal fresco of Lodovico Caracci over the choir of S, Ptciro at Bologna. ) The g Birth of Christ, the Presepio, formerly always naively repre- sented, had, through Correggio*8 "Notte" become a subject for the highest degree of expression and effect of light. (The last we find reproduced, for instance, in two of the better pictures of JETonfJwrst in the Ujffizif according to his capa-^ city.) How entirely Tiarini^ for instance, misunderstood the calm, idyllic feeling of the scene in a picture otherwise excellent (S. SaUatore afc Bologna, left transept), i He paints it on a colossal scale, and makes Joseph point rhetorically to Mary, as if to call the attention of the spectators. The adorations of shepherds and kings are usually treated more indifferently ; among others by Cavedone^ who, with aU his merits, brings the ordinary ele- ^ ment very much forward. ( 8, Paolo i in Bologna, th ird chapel on the right.) An Adoration of the Shepherds by Sassoferrato {Naples Museum), ^ gives just the cheerful effect, whidi is especially his element, — a pecu- liar instance in this ace of senti- ment. Of the stones of the personages belonging to the Holy i Family the pathetic subjects, espe- I cially deathbeds, are treated in I preference ; the death of S. Anna

(by Sacchi, in S, Carlo A Catinari I

at Borne, altar on the left), the , Death of S. Joseph (by Lotti, in


238


Painting of the Seventeenth Century,


the jInnunzicUa at Florence, Cap. Feroni, the secoDcl on the left ; by ^ Franceschinif in Corpus Domini at Bologna, first chapel on the left). Caravag^y on the contrary, who often intentionally represented sacred subjects in an eveiy-day manner, paints (in a picture in the c P, Spada at Some) two hideous seamstresses, which signify the education of the Virgin by S. Anna. d in the P. Corsini ; also a " Weaning the Child " in his coarsest manner. We feel in the various Births" « {Lodovico Caraccij Birth of John, Pinacoteca of Bologna, a late reso- lute, grand picture), even uncon- sciously, the disadvantage which they were under since the time of Ghirlandajo : then the principal con- ception was ideal, the details indi- vidual ; now the principal idea was prosaic, the details commonplace. (The now rather dull-looking pic- tures of Agostino and LodovicOf in fS. Bartolommeo di Reno at Bologna (first chapel on the left). Adoration of the Shepherds, Circumcision and Presentation, must have been pe- culiarly impressive.) Amous the stories of the childhood of Christ, which now are much arranged in a sentimental point of view, the ftest during the Flight always keeps the first place, and in this Cor- reggio's Madonna della Scodella (antea) gives the tone. A beautiful little sketch by Annibale in the g Pittiy for example, shows this clearly ; also the same thing in Bonone^a excellent frescos in the /* choir of 8. Maria in Vado at Ferrara. AmoDffst others Saraceni again at- tains the true idyllic stoiy, though in the "baroque" manner. (Plc- i ture in PaZ. Doria at Bome, first gallery. No. 32: the Mother and Child are asleep, an angel plays the violin, and Joseph holds the notes.) With most painters the scene becomes a great angelic court in a wood ; so it is in the splendid picture (mentioned antea) by


RiUilio Manetti; but it is alto- gether amusing to see what a late Neapolitan has made out of it. (Picture of Giacomo del Po in the right transept of S. Teresa at/ Naples, above the Museum,) The scene takes place on an island in the Nile. Joseph awakes ; there is a heavenly court ; the Madonna speaks to an angel, who offers a skiff, and commits the child to the admiration and adoration of numerous angels of various ranks ; the elder amoug them teach the younffer, &c, In other scenes of the childhood of Christ, Sassoferrato alone is almost always naYve and sentimental : a Holy Family in the Pal. Doria at Bome : Joseph's car- ^ penter's work -shop, where the child Christ sweeps the shavings, in the Museum at Naples. Among I the Bolognese sometimes the treat- ment properly beloDging to Christ is transferred to the boy Christ in not quite a sound manner, as, for instance, in a picture by Cignani {S. Lucia at Bologna, third altar m on the left), where the Bambino, standing at his mother's knee, rewards S. John and S. Teresa with garlands. In Albani{Madonna n di GcUliera at Bologna, second altar on the left)i the presentiment of the Passion is expressed by the child Christ looking up with emotion to the cherubs floating above with the instruments of martyrdom (like playthings) ; at the foot of the steps are Mary and Joseph ; above God the Father, sad and calm. Of the numberless pictures of Joseph one by Guerdno is good {S. Giovanni in o Monte at Bologna, third chapel on the right) ; the child holds out to his foster-father a rose to smell.

A scene such as Christ among the Doctors {anteay note) must in the naturalistic treatment become still more perplexing than it already is in itself. Salvator Rosa (Naplesp Museum) paints the most brutal people round the helpless child.


Liica Giordano, CaravaggiOy Caracci, Stanzioni. 239


Special pictures of the Baptism and the Temptation will he mentioned later. The miracles of Christ are almost entirely replaced by the miracles of the Saints ; in the Marriage at Cana the miracle is very little brought out (a pleasing large genre picture of this subject by £onone, Ateneo at Ferrara). The Driving out the Buyers and Sellers from the Temple has been represented by Ouerdno in an in- different picture {Pal. Brignole at a Genoa) ; it is more instructive to see, in the great fresco representation of this scene which Luca Giordatw has painted at Naples over the b portal of S. Philippo cl Qerolomini, with what delight the Neapolitan depicts such an execution. Of the representations of the Resurrection coi Lazarus, that by Caravaggio {Pal. Brignole at Oenoa) is one of the remarkable productions of the less refined naturalism. The Last Supper is undignified, whether it is treated as a genre picture or as an emotional scene. The large picture of Alessaridro Allori d {Academy at Florence) may be called a beautifully painted, lifelike after-dinner scene. With J)omenico e Piola {JS. Stefano at Oenoa, in the building joined on on the left) there is no want of pathos of all kinds ; but the '* Unus Vestrum" is lost in a studied effect of light and in the additions (beggars, attendants, children, also a row of cherubs floating down). In the choir of fS. Martino at Naples, besides the large Birth of Christ hj Guido, four colossal pictures of this species are to be found, whose authors, though some of them are famous, do not here appear at their best : Rihcra, the Communion of the Apostles ; Caracciolo, the Washing of the Feet ; Stanzionif Last Supper with many figures ; ffeirs of Paolo Veronese, Institution of the Eu- charist (so says Galanti, whom, for want of clear recollection, I must


follow) [according to Murray, the Eucharist by Carlo Cagliari]. Of the scenes of the Passion (apart from single figures, like the Ecce Homo, the Christ Crucified), it is chiefly the moment of emotion in the special sense, which is repre- presenteda thousandfold ; thePietk, the body taken down from the cross and surrounded by Mary, John, Muy Magdalene, and others. The original types of Titian and Correggio justified them, and excited them to the highest climax of feel- ing. As with the scene under the cross, here also, according to the realistic principle, the Madonna is almost always fainting ; that is, the moral element must be made equal with the pathologicaL Where this trait is excluded, as, for in- stance, in the pictures which only represent the Madonna with the dead body on her knees {Lod. Caraccif in the Pal. Corsini at(^ Borne ; Aimihalc, in the Pal. Doria h and in the Naples Museum), thei impression is far purer. The most important of these more compli- cated representations is certainly the Madonna della Piet4 of Guido {PinoAxteca of Bologna), already/ mentioned for its arrangement {arUea) ; unfortunately, he had not the courage to transfer this scene,, like Kapnael his Transfiguration,, into a distinct upper space arranged for a second point of view (as on & hill), but gives it as if painted on a tapestry hanging above the kneel- ing saints, — a picture within a pic- ture, only to keep to the reality of the space. The Pieth of Stansioni, over the porch of S. Martino &t7c Naples, is splendid even in ruin ; equal to the most feeling pictures of Van Dyck, and in its noble keep- ing and foreshortening of the dead body excelling all Neapolitans, including Spagnoletto {antea). Luca Giordano (picture in the Museum), who here endeavours to I be intense, at least does not sur-


240


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


round the body with Caravaggesque gipsies, but with good-natured old manners. Among the Depositions those of Caravaggio have already been mentioned ; a picture of Anni-

a hale in the gallery at Parma is of the time when he entirely followed Oorreggio. Of the scenes after the Kesurrection Guercino painted the Thomas, who not only touches the bounds of Christ, but thrusts in

i) two fingers ( Vatican Gallery). One asks oneself who could be the spec- tator who would find pleasure in fio coarse a realization and such ignoble characteristics ? But it is possible to be far more vulgar still. The Capxiccino Genovesc has con-

cceived the same story {Pal. Bri- gnohj) as if the drainatis persona; were deciding a wager. The Ascen- sion of Christ almost always gives way to that of Mary, of which we shadl speak further on.


MARTYRDOMS.


In the incidents of the lives of the Saints the moments of emotion and movement are made as promi- nent as possible.* A great picture of this kind is the Resurrection of da. boy by S. Dominic, by Tiarini (chapel of the Saint, in S. D<nnenico at Bologna, on the right) : this is filled with all degrees of reverence and adoration. Opposite, on the left, is the masterpiece of Lionello Spada; S. Dominic burning the heretical books, an outwardly pas- sionate action, the development of which in grouping and colour is the best that can be cot out of so decided a naturalist. But historical scenes of this kind only take up a small space alongside of the prin- cipal subjects of this time ; which often enough are united in one

  • One especial source of such inspira-

tions was to be found in the frescos, now destroyed, in B. Michele in Bosco, a Bologna.


picture, the martyrdoms and the heavenly glories.

For the martyrdoms, which, in the mannerist time {antea), had decidedly taken a fresh and firm hold in art, there existed a glaring^ precedent by Correggio {aivtea\ All painters vie with each other in being impressive in the horrible. (Juido alone in his Massacre of the Innocents {Pinacotcca of Bologna) e retained some moderation, and did not represent actual slaughtering. He personified hardness in the exe- cutioners, but not bestial ferocity ; he softened the grimace of lamen- tation, and even oy beautiful truly architectonic arrangement, and by nobly-formed figures, elevated the horrible into the tragic ; he pro- duced this effect without the acces- sories of a heavenly Glory, without the doubtful contrast of ecstatic fainting at the horrors : his work is certainly the most perfect com- position of the century as to pathos. (The Crucifixion of Peter, in the Vatican Gallery, looks as if painted/ against the grain.) But even Do- Tnenichino, usually so mild and delicate in feeling, what a butcher he becomes in some circumstances. To begin with his early fresco of the Martjrrdom of S. Andrew (in the middle one of the three chapels near S. Gregorio, at Bome), was it 7 choice, or a happy chance, that his fellow pupU, Guido (opposite), should represent the procession to the judgment seat and the splendid moment when the Saint sees the cross afar off, and kneels down in the middle of the procession? Domenichino, on the other hand, paints the very rack itself, and uses, to make this and other similar scenes enjoyable, spectators of them, especially women and chil- dren, obviously taken from Ra- phaeFs Heliodorus ; his Mass of Bolsena, Gift of Rome, Death of Ananias, Sacrifice at Lystra, &C. (antea) ; from Domenichino


Martyrdoms.


241


onwards these motives descend to most of the works of his suc- cessors. In his Martyrdom of S. Sebastian (choir of S, M. degli

f^ Aiigeli at Bome, on the right) he even makes his horsemen rush against these spectators, and there- by quite divides the interest. Most repvdsive, as well as unpleasantly painted, are his Martyrdoms in the

^ Piiuicoteca at Bologna; in the Martyrdom of S. Agnes, the stab- bing on the pile of wood, with its accessories, makes the harshest possible contrast with all the violin- playing, flute-blowing, and harping of the angelic group above ; the Death of S. Peter Martyr is only a new edition of that of Titian ; the Institution of the Kosary I confess myself to be incapable of under- standing at all : among the female characters and angels, the nice soubrette-like little head with the little red nose, special to Domeni- chino, is especially prominent. Such examples could not but find followers in Bologna itself. Canuti, an excellent scholar of Guido, has

<^a painting in S. Cristina (fourth altar to the right) of the ill-treat- ment of the ^aint by her father, which one must see, for it is beyond description. MaraMa also, for- merly Guide's faithful admirer, in such cases prefers to take his in- spiration from Domenichino's S. Sebastian (Martyrdom of S. Blasius,

<^in S, M. di Carignaiio at Genoa, first altar on the right). Guerdiw is in his martyrdoms more tolerable than one might expect. {Gallery of

« Modena : Martyrdom of S. Peter, principal picture. CatJiedral of

/Ferrara, transept to the right : Martyrdom of S. Lawrence, well worthy of restoration.) By the Florentine Cigoli there is in the

UJizi a Martyrdom of S. Stephen, painted with wonderful technical excellence, where he is already being stoned and trodden underfoot in the presence of calm Pharisaical


spectators. Carlo DolcVs S. Appol- lonia {Palazzo Corsini^ at Bome) is A satisfied with presenting to us the pincers with one of her teeth torn out in the most delicate manner possible.

The Naturalists proper are in such cases truly horrible. Cava- vagglo himself shows us in one single head the whole false ten- dency of naturalism : we mean his Medusa, in the Uffizi. Always ^' desirous of a momentary expression, and on this very account indifferent to the deeper lasting impression (which in his Deposition he did succeed in attaining), he paints a female head at the moment of beheading ; but might not this, for instance, look just so if a tooth were torn out? The element of horror, as it is conceived by this school, necessarily rouses rather disgust than deep emotion.

Sometimes he endeavours to ex- cite horror by the representation, true to nature, of spilt blood : his Martyrdom of S. Matthew {S, Luigi, at Bome, last chapel on the/ left) beconaes almost ridiculous through its accessories. His pupil ValerUm has too much cleverness to follow him in this line : in his Beheadingof the Baptist {P, Sciarra at Bome), the interest of expression ^ takes the place of that of horror. The same scene, the best picture by Honthorst, in S, M. della Scala, at Bome, on the right, leaves us almost I unmoved. Others, on the other hand, paint as crudely as possible. Subjects like the murder of Abel (by Spada, in the Naples Mtcscurii), frir by Elis. Sirani, Turin Gallery ; the ii Sacrifice of Isaac (by HoiUJwrst, P. o Sciarra, at Bome), are now treated in the true hangman style, but especially the heroism of Judith, for which a certain Artemisia Gen- tilcsclii* possessed a sort of mono-


id


  • [Artemisia GentilescM, daughter of the

excellent Orazio Gentileschi, with whom she lived many years at the Court oC


242


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


a poly {Uffizi; Pah Pitti; Pal.

b Sciarra) ; the Cavalierc CaUibrese also did all that was possible in

csnch subjects. (Naples Museum). We pass over other legendaiy mar- tyrdom scenes. By a singular chance the first Boman commis- sion of importance which Nicolas Poussiii received was the Martyr- dom of S. Erasmus, whose bowels were torn out of him. (Painted for S. Peter's, now in the Vatican

dGaZlery). He produced a work which, ast-egards art, is amonffthe best of the century. (A small ori- ginal replica [or perhaps more pro- bably the original sketch by the

e master. — Mr.] in the Pal, Scia-n-a),

CEREMONIAL TREATMENT OF

SACRED SUBJECTS. While all limits of this kind are broken down for the sake of givins an impression of reality supposed to be effective, the same painters (some of them bearing the title of Cavalieri) endeavour to introduce into sacred subjects the good style and the measured forms of contem- porary society. (Comp. Parmegia- niuo, aiUea.) The angels especially are now brought up to represent an aristocratic attendance, to form the court of the sacred personages. In /the Refectory of the Badia at Fiesole we cannot see without amusement how Christ is waited on by angels

Charles I. of England, highly honoared and favoured especially for her portraits, does not deserve such a slighting epithet The choice of the subject is, indeed, re- markable, but it is conceivable that the heroism of the widow of Bethulia had something attractive in it We find it three times in Florence alone, once in the Ufflzi, twice in the Pitti, where is also a charming figure of Mary Magdalene. The <«ntury pmdneed little to compare in careful and afi'ectionate execution, m clear colour and striking chiaroscuro, with the works of Artemisia. The same quali- ties distinguish the famous life-size An- nunciation of Orazlo, in the Turin Gallerj*. On the other hand. Indeed, the merit of the composition in both is small, and the characters are decidedly not noble.— Mr.]


after the Temptation ; but in Giovanni da 8. Giovanni, who painted the fresco, such thin^ always seem naive. The angels in the great Baptism of Christ by Albani (Pitiacoteca of Bologna) are ^ jdready much better trained : one ' remembers involuntarily, in the midst of their service, how in me- diaeval pictures the angels who hold up dnpery have still time and feeline to spare for adoration. One sees Chemm as lacqueys, waiting outside the scene, in a "Marriage of S. Catherine " by Tiarini (also /^ there) ; besides the saints above named, S. Maigaret and S. Barbara also assist at the ceremony: the good Joseph in the meantime con- verses in the foreground with the three littie messengers who have in charee the wheel of S. Catherine, the (&agon of S. Maigaret, and the little tower of S. Baroara. A cer- tain ceremonial was usual in the Venetian presentation pictures antea). But now such things appear in pictures as a visit of condolence by all the Aposties to the mourn- ing Madonna : Peter, as speaker, kneels and wipes away his tears with a pocket handkerchief (painted by Lad. Caraeci, as ceiling picture in the Sacristy of S. Pietro at i Bologna). Or S. Dominic pre- sents S. Francis to the Carmelite S. Thomas, in which the polite curiosity is quite evident which is suitable in such circumstances. (Lod, Caracci, in the Pinacoteea.) j How quite differently does the XVth century cive such a meeting of saints. In the Coronation of the Virgin by Allesandro Allori {a^fli Angelif Caiimldolese, in Florsnee, Xr high altar), the Virgin kisses her son's right hand most respectfully. Also S. Antony of Padua does not always receive the child in his arms, but it is merely held out to him that he may kiss its hand (picture by Lod, Caracci, Pinncoteca ^ of Bologna).


Singh Figures, Ecce JE[o7no, Mater Dolorosa. 243


SINGLE FIGURES.

We . now turn to those pictures in which mental expression pre- dominates over the narrative ele- ment, then to pass into the treat- ment of the supersensual.

The expression of longing ardour, ecstatic adoration, of self-forgetfvd- ness in joy and devotion, was by the great masters of the golden time reserved for a few rare occa- sions. Perugino indeed already began to make capital out of it, but Kaphael only painted one Christ like that in the Transfigura- tion, only one S. Cecilia ; Titian only one Assumption like that in the Academy of Venice. Now, on the contrary, this expression be- comes a chief element of the emo- tion without which painting seems unable to exist.

Now begins an enormous increase in the single half-length figures, which were painted by the earlier schools for a different purpose ; for instance, in Venice, as beautiful life pictures. Now their chief value lies in the opportunity of producing an elevated impression without further motive. The half-length sentimental figure henceforth be- comes a recognised style. (An earlier single example with certain foUowers of Lionardo, antea.) Next, instead of a simple head of Christ, we have always the head crowned with thorns, the Ecce

ci Homo. (Pah Corsini at Borne, by Guido, Otierdno, and C, Dolci ;

h Pinacoteca at Bologna, the excelleat chalk drawing of Gtiido ; Turin

c Gallery, remarkable Ecce Hoipo by Guercino.) The motive, as it was given, is originally derived from Correggio; but the reproduction may sometimes be called free, ele- vated, and thoughtful. Among the Madonnas the pictures of the Mater Dolorosa become more numerous. The many half-length figures of Sibyls, of which the best by Guer-


cbw and Domenichino are scattered in and out of Italy, bear mostly the expression of heavenly longing, an- tea). For prophets and saints of all kinds there were special workshops. Spag^ioletto and Carlo Dold worked at the same things in a very dif- ferent manner, and yet very much to the same purpose. The first may be followed out in the Gal- leries of Parma and Naples; thed latter in the Pitti, in the Uffizi, and e especially in the PaX, Corsini at Florence, where also we become/ acquainted with his inutator, Onorio MaHnari. Dolci's sentimentalism, his conventional devotion, with drooping heads and.turned-up eyes, his olack shadows and smooth lights, his over elegant position of the hands, &c., must not make us forget a remarkable inborn sense of beauty, nor the care and melting tone of the execution. Of the Nea- politans, Andrea Vaccaro (Naples g Museum) has the most seriousness and dignity in such pictures, as he shows by keeping some measure, even in his Murder of the Innocents (his best picture besides the Christ Crucified with his followers, in the Trinitd de^ Pellegi'ini), h

Whether the personages repre- sented be sacred or profane, makes little difference on the whole. Lu- cretia, Cleopatra, also Judith, where she looks ecstatically up- wards {OiccrcinOy in the Pal, Spada at Rome), the victorious David at a i similar moment {Gennari, Pal.j PUti), even Cato stabbing himself {Guercino, Pal, Brignole at Genoa), k and other such, ouly display other instances of the same feeling.

Whole length, or nearly whole length figures, represented singly, become very common, for the sake of this expression. S. Sebastian stands at their head. I think the best pictures have already been named {antea), among which the Guercino, P. PUti, is to be counted. I Then come adoring saints in great

B 2


244


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


numbers; tlie repentant Peter

a (compare Guercino in the Naples Museum, here with the pocket- handkerchief ! Guido and C,

h Dold, both in the P. PiUi, Pier- francesco Mola in the P. Corsini at

c Rome), in all degrees of grief ; re- pentant Magdalenes of lul kinds, from the most vehement protesta- tion np to calm contemplation

d {Cfnstofano Allori, in the Pitti; Dmnenico Feti, in the Academy of

c Venice; Gii^rchw, in the Vatican

/ Gallery) f explain the emotion of the Magdalene by two angels show- ing her the nails of the cross. S. Francis in prayer (especially low

gin character in Cigoli, Pal. PUti and Vffizi). In representing monkish devotion the Carthusian order has a remarkable superiority in simple devotion. What is most impressive in Le Sueur^s histories of S. Bruno (Louvre) is found again in Italian Carthusian pictures. The circumstances are neither more nor less favourable for picturesque treatment than those of other orders ; they are the same kind of visions, penances, actions (especi- ally writing), praying, miracle- workiDgs by gestures, up to death on the hard couch or by the hands of murderers. But the deep and calm devotion of the soul, whether it turns its glance up- ward or casts it down in humble meditation, here seems to forget the world and the spectator more than anywhere else. In all the Certose of Italy one has this feeling ; most • beautifully perhaps in Staiizioni (in

h S. Martino at Kaples, chapel of S. Bmrume, second on the left, with legends and apotheosis of the Saint, with which compare his '* Intercession of S. Emidio " in the i TH/nitd de* Pellegrini^ as also with the picture of his pupil Finoglia in J* the Mtcseum, S. Bruno receiving the rules of the order). Guercino^s Madonna with the two Cartiiusians

^'jjraying {Pinacotcca of Bologna) is


one of his most attractive works. The complete renunciation of the world gives quite a peculiar type, in fact, to the order. For the rest also the white garments of the members of the order must have imperatively required a calm solemn demeanour. Several to- gether in violent movement would no longer make a picture.* There- fore is S. Romuald with his Camal- dolese friars so calm in the beau- tiful picture of Sacchi (in the Vatican ^ Gallery)

ECSTASIES AND GLORIES.

Along with this beautiful andcalm devotion arises a special painting of ecstacies ; above, a Gloria; below, the all but swooning male or female saint; around, the angels as at- tendants and spectators. The legend of S. Francis contains a moment justified in art, therefore also constantly represented, which contains the highest degree of ecstatic excitement — ^the receiving the stigmata. To make pain and delight and devotion thus flow into each other was the especial gift of the painting of the seventeenth century (picture by Gtoertinc, alU Stimmate at Ferrara, high altar;"* another in S. M, di Carignaiw, at'* Genoa, left of the entrance. But when with other Saints also they were no longer satisfied with good and true devotion, and in the re- presentation of rapture coidd no longer conceive any higher point than fainting (comp, antea), the result could not fail to be repulsive unreality. One very well painted picture of this kind may be named in place of all — the Swooning of S. Stanislas, in the Ges^ at Ferrara, o second altar on the right, by the late Bolognesc, Giuseppe Maria Crcspi,

  • [Carpnedo, however, representa this in

the legend of S. Jerome, before whose lion the brothers of the order are flying la terror (Scnola di S. Giorgio, in Venice), which produces a really comic effect — Mr.]


Ecstasies and Glories.


245


stirnamed lo Spagnuolo [an artist who in his healthy naturalism and pure artistic feeling shows an affinity to tiie great Spaniards. — Mr.] Only one thing is wanted to complete the desecration, a wanton look in the angels. LanfrancOy the Ber- nini of painting, supplies even this. (Ecstacy of S. Margherita

a da Cortona, Pa/. FiJUL) The cen- tury was in these things quite blind. A beautiful picture of Cam"

h d&rve (in the Finacoteca of Bologna), a Madonna on clouds, showing the child to the saints kneeling below, contains both expressions ; in the holy Blacksmith (S. Eligius?) the conventional ardour, but in S. Petronius with his three chorister boys there is a calm ritual devo- tion; did the master divine how far more impressive is the effect of this last ?

Now also they prefer to represent the Madonna no longer only as an object of adoration, but herself feeling the supersensual longing, the holy grief. The beautiful head of Van Dyck (p. 233) already shows this ; the Assunta or Mater Dolorosa almost always represents a higher being than the mere mother of the Child, who still falls into naturalism, without being naive as in the beautiful pictures of Murillo. There are good Mothers and Holy Families by the Caracci, especially Annibale, in the manner of Correggio. By Ouercino there are some single figures of the Ma- donna with a noble matronly ex- pression. Guido is very unequal; an excellent Madonna with the

c Sleeping Child, in the Quirinal ; a good early Holy Family, in the P.

d Spinola, Strada Nuova, at Oenoa ; but one of his most important Madonnas, which he has treated as

ea special picture {Turin Gallery ^

/copy in the Brera at Milan, an imitation by Elisdbetta Sirani in

g the Fal. Corsini at Bome), and also as a part of the great picture of


the Vow taken during the Plague {Fuiacoteca at Bologna) looks into- h lerably pretentious, as if she were showing the child for money. In general at tlus period the mother IS too often only an ill-humoured suardian of the child (oval picture by Maratta in the Fal. Corsini at i Borne) ; she often scolds, so that the musical children and other at- tendants only receive her commands quite timidly and with formal sub* missiveness, and the little John hardlyventures to approach. The aristocratic repelling manner that is here given to holy personages (comp. p. 241) has its parallel in the views of the time concerning the priestly order (Ranke, Popes, III. 120). Not without reason is one always charmed by Sasso/errato, whose mild beautiful carefully painted Madonnas without excep- tion show a motherly feeling for the sake of which one forgets the want of grandeur and hieher life. (Ex- amples in several places, especially Fal. Borghese at Borne, room 6.7 No. 412 ; Brera at Milan, Turin k Gallery; in S. Sahina at Bome, I chapel right of the choir, the only large altar-piece ; Madonna del Eosario, most excellent in execu- tion ; in the Uffizi and in the F. m Doria at Bome, room 3, No. 9, n adoring Madonnas without chil- dren, looking modestly down, with- out the glorilied expression by which Carlo Dolci, for instance, is essen- tially distinguished from Sassofer- rato.) Among the Madonnas of the Naturalist, one of the above- named (p. 224) pictures of Fellegi'o Fiola is among the best and most charming; CaravaggiOf on the other hand, transfers this most simple subject to his favourite Gipsy world. (Large Holy Family in the Fal. BorgJiese, room 5, No. 26.) So with Schidone {Fal. FaMavidni at Ghenoa). MaraUa^s Madonnas p again are the echo of Guido.


246


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


SANTE CONVERSAZIONI.

The Santa Conversazione (Ma- donna with Saints) has now to be adapted, as it was by the later Ve- netians, to some special emotion and moment, so that the Madonna and Child are in some special rela- tion to one of the Saints, whilst the others also take part in some way. This occurred frequently, for instance, after the example of Correggio with the hazardous sub- ject of the Marriage of S. Cathe- rine. Still more frequently the Mother and Child are transplanted beyond any earthly locality into the clouds and surrounded with angels ; the period of glories and visions begins, without which, at last, hardly any altar-piece is now produced. The tj^e therein is not a Madonna di FoHgno, but directly or indirectly the cupola of the Ca- ' thedral at Parma, with the view from beneath, the realization of the clouds, the troops of angels. Of this kind are several large pictures of

a the Piivacoteca of Bologna, as for instance Otcidd's already-mentioned picture of the Vow of the Plague, io the lower half of which kneel seven Saints, some of them with the most telling expression which he can command ; Giuirciiw^s In- vestiture of S. William of Aqui- taine shares with his Burial of S.

b Petronilla {gallery of the Capitol) the fault, that the heavenly eroup remains out of connection with the earthly, and yet is too near to it; but also the broad masterly energetic treatment is the same in both pictures. (Another in- stance of the substitution of the Santa Conversazione for a momen- tary action; properly only the Bishop Felix, S. WiUiam, S. PhiUp and S. James ought to be joined with the Madonna in one picture). Lium Giordano was rightly guided on


such an occasion by his equable temperament; his Madonna del Rosario {Naples Mtiaeum) floats c in on clouds under a Baldachin borne by angels, while in front S. Dominic, S. Clara, and others id devotion wait reverently for her ; this development of the Glory into a heavenly procession was cjuite ac- cording to national Neapolitan feel- ing, and the detail is of the same kind. (Another large picture by Luca in the Brera at Itilan.)^ Ercole €hnnari carries his double vision to the extreme {Piruwoteca of Bologna) : the Madonna appears c on clouds to S. Nicoolo of Baii, who is likewise floating upon clouds above a stormy sea. The contrast also of Glories with Martyrdoms (see. above), however poetically given, has something ifftistically wrong in it.

But the supernatural comes even into the lonely cloister cell, enters into the existence of a single holy man. Here, in inclosed spaces, the local realisation is as a rule very disturbing. It would sound like mockery if we were to test the best pictures of their kind on this point, and especially to describe exactly the actions of the angels here so altogether without g4ne, {Pinaco- tcca of Bologna, S. Antony of/ Padua, kissing the foot of the Bambino, by Elisabetta Sirani; S. Giacwivo Maggiore, at Bolopu^ g fourth altar on the ri^ht. Christ appearing to Giovanni da S. Fa- condo, by Cavedone.) If a ruder naturalist, as for instance Spagno' letto, altogether leaves out the visionary dement, there comes out at least an innocent genre picture ; his S. Stanislas Kostka {Pal, Bor-h gkcsc) is a simple young seminarist, who has had a child laid on his arm, and is now amiably watching how it catches hold of his collar.

The Madonna floating upon clouds is at this period hardly to be distinguished from the Assump-


Cupolas and Ceiling Pictures.


247


iion, the Virgin mounting towards heaven. (How clearly lutd Titian described the Virgin in the Aa- sumption !) Now, besides, certain pictures are expressly painted as Ascensions into Heaven. So the colossal picture by Chiido in S,

aAmbrogio at Genoa (high altar on the right)— one of those mas- terpieces which leave one cold. Of the Assumptions of Agostiyw and Annibale Caracci in the Piiiacoteca

b at Bologna, the first and most im- portant is an example of the reali- zation in a local space of the super- natural: the ** upwards" is made obvious by making the Madonna lie in an oblique position upon a beautiful group of angels ; happily the head also gives the beautiful impression of longing, losing itself in delight. The Apostles collected below at the tomb seldom rise to any pure inspiration.

Single alt^-pieces are also quite filled up with the Glory. In S,

c Paolo at Bologna (second chapel on the right) is to be seen one of the excellently painted pictures of Lo- domco Caracci, "il Paradiso"; re- markable as a complete specimen of those concerts of angels, by which the school are invomntarily distinguished from their author, Correggio. Sis angels have rarely time for making music. A pe- culiar Glory picture by Bonotie

£^ stands in S, Benedetto at Ferrara, on the third altar on the left ; the Bisen Christ is worshipped by nine Benedictine Saints grouped round him upon clouds, kissed, adored, marvelled at; the Santa Conver- sazione becomes a united ecstatic glorification. (Compare Fiesole^s

c fresco in S, Marco.


CUPOLAS AND DOMES.

The Glories are in especial the chief subjects for paintings of cupolas and domes. Correggio's


' hazardous and unattainable type is at first taken seriously. It is im- possible not to value a work like, for instance, the frescos of Lodo- vico Caracci on the arch before the niche of the choir of the Cathedral of Piacenza ; these rejoicing angels, / who hold books and strew flowers, have something grand in them, and display an almost genuine monumental style. Domenickino's four Evangelists on the penden- tives of the cupola of S. Andrea della VcUle at Home are in parts </ grander than any pendentive figure in Parma ; and if he does leave us immoved by his allegorical, very beautifully drawn figures of the pendentives of S. Carlo a Gati- h nari, if he mixes in an unpleasing manner, in the strikingly inferior pendentives of the Tesoro in the Caihcdral of Naples, allegory, his-^ tory, and supernatural things to- gether, we lay the blame in one place on the allegory as such, and in the other on the depressed mood of the much ill-used master. Ckddo, in his (much painted over) Concerts of Angels in S. Gregorio at Homey (the one on the right of the three chapels, by it) produces at least quite a naive, cheerful ilupression by the beautiful youthful forms without any pathos. In the Glory of S. Dominic (semi-dome of the A; chapel of the Saint in S. Domenico at Bologna), the Angels making music I certainly turn a conventional glance upwards. Christ and Mary are in their expression of receiving him quite unimpressive : hut the Saint is most grand, his black mantle spread out by angels. To these early Glories, painted with elevated feeling, belongs also Bonorui's beau- tiful semi-dome in S. Maria in Vado at Ferrara ; of adoring Patri- wi- archs and Prophets. Among the Neapolitans, Stanzioni is the most conscientious ; in the shallow cu- pola of the chapel of S. Bruno, in S. Martino at Naples (second on


248


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


left), in spite of the very realistically treated view, **di sotto in sh," the upward movement of the adoring Saint, the cloud of cherubs, the concert of full-ffrown angels is given with unusual beauty and grace of arrangement ; in the shallow cupola of the second chapel on the right, a on the other hand, Stamioni has paid his full tribute to the ideas of nis school in a subject which went beyond its power of conception — Olirist in lambo. Here, also, we must admire an artist from whom we are not otherwise accustomed to seek for anything superior in this kind — il Calabrese, In the h transept of S. Pietro d Majella, he has painted, in flat ceiliuff-pictures, the stories of Pope Celestine V. and S. Catherine of Alexandria, this time not only with outward energy, but with spirit and thought ; his naturalism becomes almost dig- nified where the body of Catherine is borne upon clouds to Sinai by singing angels bearing torches and strewiuff flowers.

But the painting of ceilings only too soon becomes the scene of con- tention for every kind of want of principle. Under the idea that no one often has the physical power to examine a ceiling picture long and carefully, and that credit is only to be gained by the general effect, painters fell into the style of which we have spoken on the occasion of Pietro da Cortona (p. 230). The transition is made by the unprin- cipled Lanfrmico, first by his steal> ing from Domenichino (pendentives of the cupola in the Geaii Niiovo at c If aples, also that in the ^^S'. Apos- dtoH there, where likewise all the uninteresting, untrue paintings of the ceiling, and the somewhat su- perior Pool of Bethesda over the portal, are by Lanfranco), then by these more bold improvisations (ceiling and wall lunettes in Si e Martino ; cupola in S. Andrea f delta Valle at Bome). The way


in which he usually attempted the supenensual is seen, for in- stance, in his S. Jerome with the angels (Naples Museum). Their g successors had not only cupolas, but church ceilings of all kinds to fill with Glories, Paradises, As- sumptions, Visions ; besides the floatmg groups and figures ho- vering in every possible plane above the head of the spectator, there is on the edge a whole popu- lation in groups, standing on balus- trades, terraces, ftc. ; for these Pozzo created a new space in the fonn of splendid perspective halls. Where do we now find the truly supernatural ? With incredible su- perficiality painters adopted from Correggio the most external part of his floating life, his passion, his ecstacies, especially his clouds and foreshortenings, and thereby com- bined out of it the thousands of brilliant scenes of light and foam, of which the illusory working is there enhanced and confirmed by the miserable accessories above described. Who would wish te dwell in this heaven ? Who believes in this beatitude ? To whom does it give a higher tene of feeling? Wmch of these figures is even exe- cuted so as to give us an interest in their existence in heaven ? How most of them idle about on their clouds ; how lazily they lean down from them.

Besides the works of Pozzo and others, cited above,. the following are most worth mentioning. Chiuli : the huge fresco in the nave of the GesU at Bome, with peculiarly/*^ smartly handled colours and fore- shortenings ; the painter uses every means to make us believe that his troups have floated out of the empyrean through the frame to the high altar. (Sketch in oil in the Pal Spada.) In Oenoa, the^' most brilliant are : Oiovanni Bat- tista Carlcyne (frescos of S, Siro, &o.)j and Carlo Baratta {S» M» dellnl'


Biblical and Mythological Pictures.


249


Pace, transept on the right, As- sumption of S. Anne.) In Venice : the bright coloured Giov, Bait, Tie- polo, who carries his foreshortening from below further than any, so that the soles of the feet and nostrils are the characteristic parts of his figures ; [id their intellectual live- liness, however, every pictorially cultivated eye will find pleasure. (Victory of Faith, on the ceiling of

a S. M, delta PieUX on the Biva ; Glory of S. Dominic in ^^^S^. Giovanni e

b Paolo, last chapel on the right;

c the same on S, M. del Hosario, ceiling paintings of the Scuola del

d Carmine; then, apparently the most beautiful thing that Tiepolo ever painted, the ceiling of the

e great nail in the Palazzo Ldbbia ; the altar pictures in the Chiesa delta

/Fava, in S. Alvise, in S, Paolo, and elsewhere.) Also the sometimes ▼ery tolerable mannerist, Giov, Batt Piazzetta, deserves mention (Glory of S. Dominic in SS. Gio-

gvanni e Paolo, last chapel on the right). In single heads and half- length pictures, Piazzetta is very attractive by his effective division of the masses of light and shadow. — Mr.]

How Mengs first entered his soli- tary protest against this rank de- generacy has been mentioned be- fore. The complete reaction through a new classic style, which we no longer attempt to describe, came in with Andrea Appiani. He '■ has frescos in S. Maria presso S. h Celso, at Kilan.


HISTORICAL SUBJECTS.

Profane painting in the times of universally adopted naturalism is hardly to be distinguished from sacred painting. The histories of the Old Testament, especiaUy, for instance, in the many pictures of half and whole figures which issued from Guerdno^s workshop,


do not vary in style from pro- fane lustones. There are, by Guercino, besides the uninte- resting histories, some excellent ones like those mentioned above (p. 226), or like his ** Solomon with the Queen of Sheba." {Sta. Grace in Piaoenza, transept on the l right.) Histories like that of Susanna, or Potiphar's Wife with Joseph (large pictures hy Biliverti in the Pal. Barberini at Some andy in the Uffizi), or of Lot and his k Daujghters, situations like that of Judith take nothing from the Bible but their occasion. (The Susanna of il Capucdno, in the Pal. Spinola, Strada Nuova, at Oenoa. ) The most I beautiful Judith is undoubtedly that of Cristqfano Allori {Pal. PiUi, i)t a small copy in the Pal. Corsini at n Florencs, a much damaged copy in the Pal. Connestabilc at Perugia) ; o certainly a woman of whom it is doubtful whether she is capable of any passion of heart, with swim- ming eyelids, full lips, and a de- cided corpulence with which her splendid attire harmonises remark- ably well. Guido's Judith is occa- sionally more noble (for instance, in the Pal. Adomo at Genoa), also^? that of Guercino (p. 243 i) ; both give here and there the expression of longing thankfulness. Also the Daughter of Herod, as a subject, ia best mentioned here. (Cold and pompous, by Guido, Pal. Coi'siniq at Borne.) With Domenichiiio the Old Testament histories are, on the whole, the weakest. Four ovals in fresco, in S. Silvestro d Monte Co- vallo at Borne, left transept ; in the r right transept is seen the careful large picture of one of his few pupils. Ant Barbalunga, God the Father in a glory; below, two Saints ; in the Casino Bospigliosi, s the Paradise and the Triumph of David (?) ; Pal. Barberini, the Fall, t consisting simply of ideas taken from other pictures. David with the head of (Goliath, the pendant to


250


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


Judith, perpetually repeated ; the most valgar is by Damcnico Feli, who makes him actually sit upon the head. {Pal, Manfrin at

AVeniee.)

The parables of the New Testa- ment, which by a noble treatment easily suit a Biblical type, are at this time entirely without this con- secration, without making up for it by cbarm of the genre kind (as for instance in Teniers) or by minia- ture-like beauty (as, for instance, Elzhcimer'8 "Prodigal son, in the

h Pal Sciarra). II Calabrese when he painted the Betum of the Prodigal

«Son (Naples Museum), evidently regarded the antecedents of his prmcipal personage as something very pardonable. "He could not help it." Domenico Feti (several

d small parable pictures in the PUti

£and the Uffizi) is here one of the best. [These. Parables of D. Feti appear in various places ; similar ones, ascribed perhaps erroneously to B. Schidone, are in the P,

fSciarray Bome. — Mr.]

Strictly profane painting of a my- thological, allegorical, and historical kind, in which appear especially a number of scenes from Tasso, can only be shortly touched on here. The Caracci gave the tone on the whole by their great work in the

g Pal. Farnese, Just as they con- structed ideal forms here without real greatness and without any really inspirinff life (p. 226), but with ability and consistency, so they also composed the Love Scenes of the Grods. What they painted at Bologna from Koman history, and so forth, in the friezes of halls

h {Pal. Magiiani, Pal. Fava) is com- pared with these hardly worth looking for. [The most important things left by the very talented Agostino Caracci, elder brother of Annibale, are the frescos in

2 the Pal, del Oardino at Parma (not by Lodovico Caracci)— Mr.] Of the chimney pictures of the


' school the best have nnhappfly ' beeu cut out, so that I have found • a beautiful improvised figure of I this kind by Guide for sue in a j shop. [In the feeling of numeroos spectators Ouido^s Aurora {antea)J will keep the first place amoa^ ideal mythological representations. J The best and most beautiful is founded on Donienichino, The pic- ture of Nymphs Bathing and Shoot- ine {Pal, Borgliese at Some) shows k indeed neither quite pure forms nor Venetian fulness of life, but n>len- did motives, and that truly idyllic character which, here as with the Venetians (antea), is the happiest quality of mythological pictures. The frescos removed from the VUla Aldobrandini at Frascati (now / there) preserve this same character by their arrangement in a grand landscape. The ceilins frescos in the principal room of tine Pal, Cos- tag%Ui at Acme contain indeed an ui unfortunate allegory (the Grod of Time helps Truth to raise himself to the Sun God), but the forms are more beautiful and conscientious than with other painters who have painted in tbis palace (Guercino, Albania Lanfranco, &c.) Two small very pretty little mythological pic- tures in the PUti. The nearest to » Domenichino in his treatment of the mythological was Albani, whose frescos in the Pal. Verospi at Bome (p. 226) have been already o mentioned. Of his circular pic- tures of the four elements, the one larger specimen {Turin Gailery^p among others) is one of the very best productions of modern mytho- logical painting, while the smaller {Pal. BorgJiese, fifth room, No. 11-? 14) attains at least the greater amount of coquettish charm of which a Bolognese is capable ; two pretty little pictures in the V^i ; r pretty children on the vault of the choir niche in S, M. della Pace at Some. Here too Domenichino must s , have made the deepest impression


Ceiling Pictures.


251


on NiclwlcLs Poussin, Hig pictures with the faint colours and some- what vulvar forms do not charm the eye ; but any one who looks at art historically, will follow this endeavour to remain pure and true in a time of false pretensions with real interest. And once he is quite naive and beautiful in the Shep- herd's scene or romance scene of the

a Pal. (7oZo7t7ia'[certainly a genuine but very early picture of ttie master, in some parts indeed without style and very dark in colour, not to be compared with his splendid Bac- chanalia in Paris ana in London. Of all his mythological pictures in Italy, the only one that is genuine

h is the Theseus at Troezene, Uffizi, not remarkable and very dark ; of

c copies, the Gallery of the Capitol possesses the Procession of Flora (after the beautiful early picture in the Louvre) ; in the P. Manfrin at

^Venice the Dance of the Hours, whose incomparably beautiful ori- ginal has passed orom the Fesch Gallery into that of Sir. R. WaUaoe. — Mr.] Ghierciiio has, besides the

e frescos of the Villa Ludovid antea\ painted a number of mostly uninteresting historical pictures (Mucins Scsevola in thePal.Pdllavi-

fdni at Genoa), among which only that called Dido on the Funeral

g Pile (in the Pal. Spada at Borne) is distinguished for beauty of expres- sion and unusual power of co£)ur-

hina.' There is in the Uffizi, left gallery, by a little known painter, Giacinio Geminiani, a ** Finding of the body of Leander,'* which ap- pears to combine in a high degree the best inspirations of Guercino and Poussin. Guido, as a rule, leaves us cold in such scenes. His

iNausicaa {Naples Museum) with great calm is holding a court of her maidens. His Hape of Helen j {P. Spada) takes place like any other departure in broad day. The excellent picture of a Nymph and a A; Hero in the Uffizi, The fighting


Genii (Turin Gallery), a beautiful I and happy motive. The Aurora, see p. 226. There is by ElisabeUa Sirani, who is never weary of re- producing Guide's second manner, a Caritas with three children in the P, Sciarra.


m


The Naturalists prefer painting sacred subjects in a profane man- ner to making the profane ideal; they make up for it by genre pictures. Salvador, who forsook the naturalists, and attempted all sorts of different manners, repre- sented, in his Catiline, a choice company {Pal, Martelli) of evil-?^ natured, vulgar, aristocratically attired vagabonds. Carlo Saraceni paints Juno, for instance (P. Doria o at Some), tearing out the eyes of the beheaded Argus with her own hands to give them to her peacock ; the character of the goddess is suited to this action.

With Pietro da CorUyaa, and with Liica Giordano, amongst the Nea- politans there begins a period of pure decoration for mythologies and allegorical fresco painting. Pietro's immense ceiling fresco, which glorifies the fame of the Barheriui family and his ceilings paintings in the P, Pilti have been q already cited ; to guess what he exactly means we require a con- siderable acquaintance with the family history of the Barberini and the Medici. The ceiling by Luca in the Gallery of the P. Eiccardi atr Florence, shows how Cardinal Leo- pold, Prince Cosimo IIL , and others come riding on the clouds as gods of light ; round about them is ar- ranged the whole of Olympus. How gladly one passes from these to Giov. da S. Giovanni, whose allegories (in the large lower hall of the P, Pitti) are still more ab- s surdly conceived, but yet are exe- cuted with care, feeling for beauty, and glow of colouring. Space for- bids us from naming again the


252


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


Cortonists and followers of Luca, scattered as they are through the palaces of all Italy. To form an idea of the comphcations of their style, one need only, for instance, follow the favourite theme of the Pape of the Sabines, and remark what are the points always and exclusively brought forward in this scene. Luca himself is sometimes Tialve in Eubens' style, in smaller pictures, as for instance the Galatea

am the Uffizi, In the seventeenth century the above-named Eoman painters strove also in the pro- fane style to produce careful and correct pictures without any special occasion : in the ceilings of prmcely halls they rather descend to Cor- tona's manner both in allegorical subjects and in style of pamting.

h (P. Colonna : in the gallery, the Battle of Lepanto allegoricaJly glo- rified in honour of Marcantonio Colonna ; another ceiling, by Luti, in honour of Pope Martin V.)


GENRE PAINTING.

We must not dwell either on the genre painting, which especisdly prospered among the naturaHsto proper. Caravaggio, the creator of the new style, selects to express it in the life-size Venetian half-length figure, giving it on a plain dark ground a repulsively humorous or horribly dramatic purport. His c Card Players {P. Sciarra at Some), <2his Fortune Teller (OapUoline Gal- e levy), his Two Drinkers {Gallery of Modena), have a world-wide fame ; and his ** Tribute Money" and " Christ Among the Doctors " pro- perly belong to this set. This style, sometimes tending more to history, sometimes more to family portraits, soon met with approval throughout all Italy, in spite of its poverty and one-sidedness. The pupils of Guer- oino painted many thmgs of this kind, Mmvthorst goes especiidly


into this line, only more in bur- lesque. (P. Doria at Some ; Uffisif at Florenoe, where, among others things, is his best work, a supper- party of doubtful characters : other things in aU great collections.) Other Copyists : Manfredif Manetti, Giov. da S. Giovanni (all in the P. h PUti), Lianello Spada (large gipsy scene in the Gallery of Modena) ; i some really good things in the Academy of Venice— a Lute-player, / with wife and boy, a group of three Gamblers (perhaps by Carlo Sara- ceni, to whom belongs the excellcDt figure of a Lute-player in the P. Spinola at Genoa). A picture oik SpagnoUUo (Turin Gallery) is quite I original; Homer, as a blind im- provisatore with a fiddle, along- side of him his amanuensis, painted with feeling. Others go bsick into innocent existence pictures : il Ca- puedno and Luca Giordaiio paint cooks with poultry (P. Brignole at w Genoa, P, Doria at Borne); but?i U Calabrese, perhaps, like the last named, under Flenush influence, made a large grand concert in whole-length figures (P. Doria. o There is a readly good Flemish "Music at Table "in the P. Bar-p ghese^ room 11, No. 4.) SaZva- tor*s half and whole figures are in general only swaggering upholstery pictures. (P. Pitti : un Poeta ; q un Guerriero). In the Turin Gal- r lery an excellent genre picture of the Bolognese school by GiuMppc Maria Crespi, sumamed lo Spa- gniiolo (see p. 244 o), not Daniele Crespi, as pomted out there : S. John Nepomuk, hearing the Queen's Con- fession, while a poor man stands by waiting. (Whole figures under life-size.)

Alongside of this Caravaggio genre uiere existed from the be- ginning of the XVIIth century, at Kome, another in the proper Netherlandish manner. The Dutch Peter van Laar, sumamed Bam- boccio, Miclielangelo Cerquozzij


Animal Paintera.^^Battle Pieces.


253


Jan MUl, and many other northern and It^ian painters recognized the true laws and conditions proper to this style, and thereby produced much that is excellent. (The author has but a fragmentary knowledge of these painters. The chief coUection is P. Corsini at a Florence; the best by Cerquozzi are perhaps in foreign countries ; a good smfdl picture of Jan Miel, h the Thorn-Extractor, in the Uffizi), Ja>cqu€8 Callot^s paintinjgs have not nearly the charm of his etchings : many things also are not accurately named. [Hardly any artist's name is so misused as that of Callot. Paintings by his hand are difficult to authenticate, and in Italy, for instance, certainly are not to be found. What is ascribed to him (les Malheurs de la Guerre, series of pictures in the P. Corsini at ^ Borne, views of towns rich in figures and another series of smaller d pictures in the Academy 0/ Venice) is mostly repulsive unpleasant rub- bish, at the best, by the Pisan Pietro Ciafferi, surnamed lo Smar- giasso. — Mr.] All this is far sur- passed by the number of treasures of the proper Dutch and Antwerp c schools at Turin and in the Uffiziy of -which we cannot attempt to speak. [The combination of the most re- markable paintings of this kind, which both the above-named gal- leries possess, would alone form a collection which would not be far behind many larger collections of the North. Of fost-rate pictures : Jan Stem, No. 977, the Painter with his family ; G. Metm, 972 and 918, the Hunter, the Lute-player ; G. Dovjy No. 926, Groing to School ; F. Mieris, No. 854, the Charlatan. A fine collection of Dutch paintings once belonging to the Grand- Duchess Mary of Russia, in the / Villa Qtuirtonear Florence. Also the g Brera, P, Borghese^ and the Academy h at Venice possess some good things. But in the collection of the last the


catalo^e shows the greatest pos- sible Ignorance and confusion of ideas. — Mr.]

The recognized aesthetical view of that time of the Italians alto- ^ther eschewed genre, in so far as it did not turn to emotion, like the rest of their painting. Hence their preference for half-length figure pictures without local surrounmngs and without accessories.

In the smaller divisions Casti- glione represents animal painting, without any very distinct feeling for it : he worked in partly life-size decorative pictures {P. Colonna sAi Borne ; Uffi,zi) ; while Mario de* j Fiori represents flower-painting, meant only as decoration (glass cabinets in the P. Borghese). Com- pare with it the infinite love of nature of BaJiel Ruyseh, and the certainly more conventional but still most elegant palette of Huy- sum {P, PUti), The greatest coVjc lection of flower pieces among which are excellent ones by De Beem, is in \}3ie Turin Gallery, There I also is a genuine Potter (four cows) ; [perhaps the most valuable Dutch picture which Italy possesses any> where ; by Snyders and J. Fyt, ex- cellent still-life pictures. — Mr.]

Their battle pictures formed a special branch of Italian art of that time. Their chief idea was the representation of the tumult as such, arranged according to colour and masses of light. ScUvator Rosa as well as Cerquozzi gave the tone in this, in which still there is a distinct reminiscence of the Battle of the Amazons by Keubens. In the Naples Museum there are battle 97^ pieces and popular tumidts by him and his Neapolitan imitators, Ani- ello Falcone and Micco Spadaro ; also there is by him a large and a small battle piece in the P, Pitti, n also some things in the P, Corsini at Florence. By Bottrgnignon, more rich in colour, who combines Cer- quozzi and Rosa, the so-called


254


Painting of the Seventeenth Century.


Battle of St. Quentin, in the Turin a Gallery, is considered as genuine ; among others, [No. 420, sood and ^nnine. — ^Mr.] two batue pieces dm P. Borgheae, a large one in P. ePitti, two lAree ones (apparently descriptions of particular events) d and two smaller ones in the Uffisd, e two in the P. Capponi at Florenee, /and several in the P. Corsini, where also one becomes acquainted with the whole school which belonged to these artists. Compared with the battle pieces of the Mannerists (e. g. of Tempesta), once copied from the battle of Constantino, and now become quite meaningless, this new mode of treatment must be called a great advance. Still, along with excellent episodes which are prominent (which are there constantly repeated), there is also the nioet empty-minded patchwork. In the course of a short period people had, as it appears, so com- pletely seen and exhausted this style, that it died out ; or else the unwarlike Italy left it to the Flem- ings {Wouvermans), the French (Van der Meulen), and the Ger- mans, among whom Rugendas eave them a new and original life. (Large series of battle pictures in ^the Turin Gallery, by Van der Meulen and Hughterdmrg, as well as excellent things by Philip Wou^


LANDSCAPE.


One of the most beautiful forms taken by the European spirit of art of this period is landscape painting. The most important works of this kind are found on Italian ground, in Rome, mostly by per- sons who were not Italians.

Inspired by the Flemish pictures, they had produced the first back- grounds according to nature, not ioT their own sakes, but to elevate


the feeling of the beholder, as far as possible, by the view of holy scenes {ardea) and faces painted with tenderness. Then Raphael had employed them for a higher, more systematic combination, when he had to depict the life of the Patriarchs with as few details as possible {antea)» By Polidoro and Maturino there are two fresco land- scapes in S. Silvestro a MoTUecavallo at Borne (in a chapel on the left), h At the same time Titian perceived the great necessity for them in existence painting, and when prompted by some decisive mo- ment in the story, filled up the poetical impression by the character of the landscape surroundings. He first fully discovered this part of the world in its pictorial connec- tion, and artistically employed the close union of landscape effects and tones of feeling [Schiavone]. Tintoretto and the two Bassani followed him as far as they could [aniea), Dosso Dossi, perhaps in- dependently, came nearly as far as Titian.

From the end of the sixteenth century there exists in Italy a general desire for landscape, which the Mannerists who were still in power disdained to . satisfy. Then whole shiploads of pictures were ordered from the great Antwerp manufactory of Brueghel. Every Italian gallery contains more than one, often many, of these green, bright, overladen, miniature-like pictures, which are garnished with all possible sacred and profane his- tories. Many of the most carefully painted, and also many by Jan, so caHedSammet Brueghel (1568-1625), painted for his patron the Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, are in the Am- brosiana at Milan. [One excellent i one in the Brera ; one very good in/ the Gallery at Turin.] One quite k small one in Borne, at the P. Doria, I combines, for instance, the follow- ing : — Whale-fishing, Oyster-catch-


Landscape Painting.


255


inff, Boar-liuntiiig, and one of the Visions of Jolm upon Patmos. The same eaUery, one of the most valu- able for all landscape painting, contains also landscapes by the Bos- sanif among others by a not other- wise known Appollonio da Bassano^ a large one bv Giovanni Battista Dossiy furnished with the scene of a princely reception ; and, also, by the way, an Orpheus in the Lower World and a Temptation of S. Antony, by the more rare Peter^ the HdlUn- brtighel, the brother of Jan. [Pic- tures also exist in various collec- tions by Jan, the younger son of the Sammet Brueghel. — Mr. 1 The Antwerp pictures are indeed most- ly, on account of their variety of colour and the microscopic style of their execution, less sympathetic than those of the Bassani, who make sharp lights and hazy sha- dows float over their mountains and hill cities.

Besides their pictures there came also painters from the Netherlands, as MaMhdus Bril, who painted al fresco, e. g. in the Vatican {Sola

a Ducale and Biblioteca), views and imaginary compositions, both equal- ly wanting in feeling. (A picture

h in P. Colonna. ) Also his younger brother, Paul Bril (1556-1626), the important mediator for the combi- nation of Flemish and Italian land- scape. His early pictures are still

e over brisht {P. Sciarra), and the poet only gradually becomes an artist and learns how to express his feeling for nature grandly. Whether he owes more to Annibale Caracci, or the converse, may be a question ; in any case he is the first Netherlander in whom there ap- pears a higher feeline for lines. There are pictures of aU his periods

^in the Uffizi ; two of the middle

^period in the P. Pitti, Fresco landscapes in the building added on

y to the right of S, Cecilia at Borne. Parallel with him Adam Elzheimer, of Frankfort (1574-1620), shows


real artistic power in his exc^uisite miniatures. Uffizi: Hagar m the^ Wood, a scene from the story of Psyche, Shepherds with Syrinx. His oaks, his beautiful distances, his cliffs of rock, give the poetry of nature in really beautiful lines. What exists in Italy by Vinckeboomst by Jodocus Momper, and other painters of this generation in Italy, might, if it were worth the trouble, easily be distinguished ; but, when- ever the author has the happiness to go to Florence, the two landscapes of Bubens {P, IHUi) are among bis h greatest delichts. The '* Hay Har- vest at Mechlin," in the quietest landscape lines, gives quite a de- lightful sense of air and light : while the ** Nausicaa," with its rich landscape of rocks and sea and its fanciful effects of light, elevates us into the enjoyment of a fabulous state of existence. (Not painted as pendants to each other, as the un- equal size shows clearly.) What there is in Italy by Ruysdael (Turin i Gallery, P, Pitti), Backhuyzcn, smdj other Dutch painters in Italy, hardly deserves consideration in comparison with the treasures of northern collections — the '* Little Castle in the Moat," by Andr. iStalbent {Uffizi) and the gloomy /j landscape of Bemhrandt (also there) might almost counterbsdance it. [The last-named picture may be ascribed with tolerable certainty to Philip Kmvinck, — Mr.] [More pro- bably by Hercules Sfighcrs. — Bode.] The impulse comes apparently from Titian, which had in the meantime inspired the Bolognese with their conception of landscape. In opposition to the absence of system of the Flemings, they set up the laws of composition, the arrange- ment and noble form of the objects, the sequence of colour. They mean- time but rarely give the principal place to landscape ; Annibale clearly aimed at a mixed style, in which landscape and history should pro-


256


Painting of tlus Serenteenth Century.


\


duce a harmonious expression. (Several semicircular pictures with

a histories of the Virgin, P, Ihria, third ^ery, Nos. 1, 16, 18, 24 ; a small Magdalene, there also, first gallery. No. 3 ; another in F. Pal-

if Tavicini at Genoa ; a yery excellent rocky landscape with bathers in body colours, by Agostino, exe- cuted with wonderful mastery in

c P. PittL) By Grimaldh the prin- cipal landscape artist of the school, one can see but little in Italy ; un- fortunately also by Domenichinc. (A beautiful landscape with bathers

d in the P. Torrigiani at Florenee ; two others, much darkened, in the

c Uffizi ; frescos in the Casino of

ythe Villa Ludovisi.) Fraticesco Mola often has a S. Bruno in a beautifid mountain landscape (among others

g P. Doria), [A great picture in the

h Zouvre. — Mr.]

ScUvator Horn, half self-taught ' in landscape, is more truly and powerfully mspired in this stylethan in any other ; he only owes his higher cultivation to the works of the Bolognese and to the French about to M mentioned. Eocky land- scapes with evening lights, often stormy and precipitous ocean bays

•^ (P. Cohnim at Kome), garnished with mysterious effects, are, to begin with, his chief subjects ; There he rises to a calmly grand tnanuer, overpowering by remark- able forms and streams of light. (La Selva de' Filosofi, that is the

J Story of Diogeijtf, in the P. Pitii ; the Preaching orwhn and the Bap- tism of Christ in the P. Otuidagni

ksX Florence, principal pictures ; others in the P. Corsini and Cap-

l poniy as also in the Uffizi, ) In the interval, or later, he also painted more audacious bravura pictures 9d (la Pace in P. Pitti), and cold, careful, large, crowded sea-pictures (also there). Of what date is the fanciful landscape with the ghostly ! corpse of Saint I^aul the Hermit, I

n do not venture to decide {Brcra at '


Milan). [Others in the P. Maffei at Yolterra, where there is a large collection of letters by Salvator. — J.] There are pictures by his pupil Bartoloinineo Torregiani in the I*. Doria at Borne, first gallery, No. o 743.

Of them aU the master most coo* scions of his purpose, the definite creator of the laws of landscape, is N, Poussin, His more important landscapes are nearly all in St. Petersburg or in Paris ; still, one finds in the P. Sciarra that beauti-i> ful simple water landscape, in which St. Matthew with the angel sits among ruins [now in Qie Berlin Museum . — Ed. ] Oaspard Dtighet, surnamed Poussin (1613- 1675), was his pupil and relation. With him nature speaks the power- ful language which still is heard from out the mountains, oak forests, and ruins of the neighbourhood of Home; this tone is often heightened by stormy wind and tempest, which shudder through the whole picture ; in the forms tne sublime predomi- nates ; especially the miadle dis- tances are treated with a serious- ness found in no other artist. In both the aisles of S. Martino a' Monti at Bome there are a number q of mostly much disfigured land- scapes in fresco, with the stories of Elijah ; in the P. Colonna there are r thirteen landscapes in water-colour, and as many in the P. Doria : these s series stand the wce&t test whether a landscape can oe made effective only by lines and principal forms, without the charm of brilliant colour and detail. In the P. Corsini t at Bome, among several hardly less good, the Storm and the WaterfaJl, the latter much injured by unfor- tunate blackening, especially of the green, like many other pictures by Gaspard. In the Academia di 8. f c Luea several good pictures. In the P. Pittij four excellent little pic- v tures, which have remained un- usually dear ; in the Uffizi a small ^o


Landscape Painting.


237


orest landscape. In the Oallery of a Turin two oblonc pictures.

The type of which Annibale had given the first idea, the same which the two Poussins had carried out, remained for a long time the ruling type ; so that the Dutch, with their more realistic landscape, formed, on the whole, a (certainly glorious) minority. It represents a virgin nature, in whicn the traces of human work only appear as archi- tecture, chiefly as ruins of old times, also as simple huts. The human race which we imagine or find represented there belongs either to the old fabulous world, or to sacred history, or to pastoral life ; BO that the whole impression is heroic pastoral.

This type reached its highest point in the contemporary of the Poussins, Claude Gelie, sumamed Zorraine, {1600— 1682). He was for a long time the assistant of Agostino Tassi, a fellow- worker of Paul Bril (works of Tassi are found in the P. i Corsini at Borne, in the Uffizi^ and c in the P. PiUi ) ; he reached his greatest height after a youth at Home very full of trials. His landscapes are less powerful in their composition than those of Poussin, but there is in them an inexpressible charm. Claude, as a jSnely attuned soul, hears in Nature the voice which is especially quali- fied to console the human race, and repeats her speech. For him who buries himself in his works — their smooth, beautiful perfectness alone makes this a grateful work — no further words are necessary. In dthe P. Doria at Borne, third gal- lery, No. 12, il Molino (early pic- ture). No. 23, the Temple of Apollo (principal work) ; first gallery, No. 55, Repose in Egjrpt. (In the P.


Eospigliosi, impossible to see : e among others the Temple of Venus.) In the P, Sciarra, lUders near a/ Harbour; the Flight into Egypt, both Httle jewels. In the P. Bar- berini, an excellent small landscape. In the Naples Miiscum, a Sunsets on the Sea; the Grotto of Egeria (almost too cool for Claude). In the Uffidy evening landscape with i bridges, stream, and mountain; evemng sea-piece landscape with palaces. In the Turin Gallery, j two beautiful pictures forming a pair (genuine).

There is nothing in Italy by his followers which at all approaches him. The pictures of Swanevelt (in the P. Doria at Borne and in the P. k Pitti), by Johannes Both (also there), I by Tempesta Molyn (pictures of all sorts of places), up to the improvi- sations of Orizzonte (with which an upper room in the Villa Borghese m is quite filled), and the often very careful architectural pictures of Pannini {P. Corsini at Some, Turin n Gallery), only give forth single rays of the light which shines out full in Poussin and Claude.

Any one who comes across these two masters out of Italy will feel them awake in him, much more strongly even than the most bril- liant modem views, the longing for Home, once seen, never to be forgotten, which can only slumber, and never dies out. The writer has had his own experience of this. He wishes to those who may read and approve him, and take him as their companion across the Alps, the calm joy of soul which he tasted in Home, the remembrance of which comes back to him so powerfully even when looking at the feeble copies of the grand masterpieces of art.


B


INDEX OP PLACES.


Alba

S. €Ho. BattUta

Bamaba, 49 a

Macrino, 82 a Albino

Moroni, 201/ Ancona 8. Domenieo

L. Lotto, 189

Titian, 193 a JS, Francesco

CriveUi, 84 Abcevia S, Medardo

Signorelli, 71 d Ajlezzo

Cathedral

Spinello, 29 k

P. della Francesca, 69 a

Painted Glass, 110 ^', 111 < S. Agoatino

Spinello, 29 I S. Annumiata

Painted Glass, 110 k JS. Bernardo

School of Giotto, 29 n JS, Domenieo

Parri Spinelli, 29 m JS. Francesco

P. della Francesca, 68 t

Spinello, Bicci di Lorenzo, JS. Margarita

Signorelli, 71 1 La Pieve

Lorenzetti, 46 h JS. Spirito

Signorelli, 71 1 Aceademia

Yasari, 215 e Public QaUery

Loi'enzetti, 46 h

Signorelli, 71 ^ Casa Montoitti

Yasari, 217| note


30a


A&ONA

(Upper Church) Uaudenzio Ferrari, 120 b

AlSCOLI

Cola, 102y

ASCONA

' Seminario

Lagaia, 120 e

ASINALUNOA

Principal Church

Sodoma, 174 g

Pacchia, 175 i Assist tS. Francesco (Upper Church)

GiuntaPisano, 20(^,22

Cimabue, 21, 22 b, d

Painters of tJiirteenth century, 21 Cy 22 c^ d

Giotto, 22 e (Lower Church)

Cimabue, 22 c

Giotto and his school, 30 6-/, 38 c, dy 42 b

Cavallini (P.), 30/

Puccio Capanna, 30 ^, k

Gio. da M^lano, 30 t

Giottino, 30 y, I

Buff&lmacco, 30 k

Simoni Martini, 30 I

Spagna, 97 i

Adone Doni, 98 «, o

The Lorenzetti, 30 /, /^ /, 46 0^ S. Antonio

Ancient Umbrian School, 92 S. Chiara

Giottino, 31 a S. Damiano

Eusebio di S. Giorgio, 98 d Cathedral

Alunno, 92/ Madonna degli Angeli

Tiberio d'Assisi, 98/

s 2


260


Index of Places.


ASTI

Macrino, 82 a Avignon Fapal Palace Simone, 45


Bassano Public Gallery

Dario da Treviso, 73 e

Franc. Bassano, 211 i Bastia (La)

Alunno, 92 g

3BLLVNO

Speranza, 79 d

J. da Valentiai 83 m Beboamo

Cariani, 199 S. Andrea

Moretto, 200 r S. Bartolommeo

Lotto, 189 k S. Bernardino

Lotto, 189 k S. Spirito

iJorgognone, 81/

Lotto, 189 k Various Churches

Lor. Lotto, 189 k Public Gallery

Mantegna, 77 g

Genga, 78 h

BuonconsigliOi 79 c

Foppa, 80 a

Conti, 80 d

Giovenone, 82 c

F. Santa Croce, 84, note

Previtali, 89 g

V. BeUi, 89 m

Bartolommeo da Yenezia, 99

Moroni, 201/

Cariani, 199 e

Antonello da Messina, 85 e

Beltraffio or Lionardo, 119 y So. of Signer Fnzzotii

GioY. da Udine, 187 A Count Ronealli

Cariani, 199^ Ca^a Baplione

Ganani, 199 e Bologna 8, Petronio

Wall Frescos (about 1400), 48/

Antonio Alberti, 48/

Fr. Cosso, 75 a

Lor. Costa, 75 a, b

Painted Glass, 110 h

Girol. da Treviso, 169 a


Bologna — continued S. Pietro {Cathedra^

Bagnacavallo, 168 I

Lod. Caraoci, 237 y, 242 % S. Bartolommeo a Porta Ravegnana

Colonna, 228 c

Albani, 237/ S. Bartolommeo di Beno

Caracci, 238/ Capucemi

Zoppo, 73 a S. Cecuta

Lor. Costa, 75 c

Fr. Francia and pupils, 100 Corpus Domini

Franeeschini, 228 ^, 238 6 S. Gristina

Giaeomo Francia, 100 m

Lod. Caracci, 236/

Canuti, 241 c S, Donienico

Filippino, 64 h

Cesi, 220 b

Colonna, 228 d

Guide Reni, 247 /

Tiarini, 240 d

Spada, 240 d S. Francesco

Frescos in the Court, 222 m S, Giaeomo Maggiore

Simone de' Crocefissi, 48 e

Jac. Pauli, 48 h

Lorenzo Costa, 75/

F. Francia, 99/

Innocenzo da mola, 168 q

Laureti, 187 e

Passerotti, 219 ff

Pr. Fontana, 219 t

Cesi, 220 e

Pell. Tibaldi, 220/

Cavedone, 246 g S. Giovanni in Monfe

Lor. Costa, 75 d

Paintings on Glass, 110 c

Guercino, 238 o S. Lucia

Lavinia Fontana, 219 u

Cignani, 238 m Madonna di Galliera

Albani, 238 n S. Martino

Lor. Costa, 75 g

Fr. Francia, 100 a

Aspertini, 101 c Mezzaratta

Old Bolognese Paintings, 48 r S. Michele in boseo

Bagnacavallo, 168 A, k


Index of Pheea,


261


"BoLOOVA-^eontinited S. Miehele in boaeo

I. da Imola, 168 « 

Cignani, 228 b

Canuti, 228 /

Caraca, 228 y S, Faolo

Cayedone, 237j

Lod. Caracci, 2i7 e JS. Proeolo

Giottesques, 48 a

Lippo iJalmasi, 48 a JS. Salvatore

L dalmola, 168 jp

Garofalo, I7O m

Pr. Fontana, 219 r

Tiarini, 237 % Ai Servi

Lippo Dalmasi, 48 a

I. da Imola, 168 r

Calyaert, 220 a

Frescos, 222 m JS, Stefano

Simone de' Crocefissi, 48 b

L. SabbaUni, 219j9 JS. Vitale ed Agricola

Fr. Francia and pupils, 100 b .Bag^iacayallo, 100 Colleaio di Spagfta

Zoppo, 73 e University

PeU. Tibaldi, 220 e JPal. Fava

Caracci, 250 h Fal. Magnani

Caracci, 228 0, 2dO ^ Pinacoteca

Vitale, 47 h

Simone de' Crocefissi, 48 d

Jac. Pauli. 48 g

Ayanzi, 48/

Bolognese of fifteenth century, 48/. m

A. ana B. da Murano, 52/

Fr. Cossa, 75 a

Alunno, 92 %

Perugino. 95 h

F. Francia, 99 (f, «  Copy, 100 h

Giac. Francia^ 100 I Am. Aspertim, 101 a

G. Aspertini, 101 d Chiodarolo, 101 c Pontormo, 134/ Bugiardini, 134/, 136/ After Raphael, 144 b


Baphael, 144 d Tim. d. Vite, 168/


BoLO OKA — eontinued Finaeoteca

Bagnacayallo, 168/ I. da Imola. 168 m-o Girol. MarcnesI, 169 e Parmegianiiio, 183/ Pr. Fontana, 219 a Contemporaries, 220 d i B. Mengs, 227 /

Guido Beni, 228 A, k, 236 a, e,

239 y, 240 e, 243 b, 245 A,

246 a Lod. Caracci, 236 «, 238 f , 242/, I Ann. Caracci, 247 b Ag. Caracci, 236 /, 247 b Domenichino, 241 b Albani, 242«r

Tiarini, 242 A Guercino, 244 k Cayedone, 245 b Gennari, 246 e Elis. Sirani, 246 g

BOMDO

Moroni, 201/ BoRQO San Sbfolcbo 8. Agostino

Gerino da Pistoja, 98 S. Antonio Abbate

SignorellL 71 m

P. della Francesca, 69 c, d BoEGO Sbsia S. Fietro Faolo

Lanini, 121 n Brescia Ancient Cathedral

Moretto, 200 d JS. Barnaba

Foppa. 80 a

Ciyercnio, 80 d

Sayoldo, 199 r S. Cletnente

Moretto, 200 c, i S. Eufemia

Moretto, 200 e S. Faustina

Moretto, 200 d 8. Francesco

Moretto, 200 e, I

Bomanino. 201 1 8. Giovanni JSvangeliata

Francia, 100^

Ferramola, 100/

Moretto, 200/

Bomanino, 201/ 8. Oiuaeppe

Moretto, 200/ 8. Maria di Calcnera

Cal. Piazza, 199 k


262


Lideai of Placesk


Bbbscia — continued S, Maria di Calchera

Moretto, 200 g 8, M, delle Chrazie

Moretto, 200 e 8. M. dei MiracoU

Meretto, 200 g, k 8. Nazaro e CeUo

Titian, 193 i

Moretto, 200 cj 8. Tietro

Moretto, 200 h

The remaining churches al- most all contain pictures by

Moretto Tost Gallery

Solario, 122 e

Timoteo della Yite, 168 d

Cal. Piazza, 199 I

Moretto, 200 x

Moroni, 201 f

Anffussola, ^02/ Fenarofi Gallery

Moretto, 200 to

Moroni, 201 <? BuSTO Arsizio Church

Gaudenzio Ferrari, 120 y

Cadosb Fieve

Titian, 193 ; F-VeceUio, 197 a Cagli 8. Angela

Vite, 168 g Church of the Dominicans GioTanni Santi, 78 e Canobbio, on the Lago Maggiore Church

Gaud. Fen-ari, 120 d Cafbabola Castle

Zuccaro, 216 b Capua Cathedral

Madonna della Bosa, 53 d Manner of Buoni, 102/ Museum

Fiorenzo, 93 8, Angelo informis

Miediseyal paintings, 16 h Cababsa Cathedral

6. A. Fordenone, 203 g Castblfbakco Frineipal Church Giorgione, 18d d


Castblnuoyo Frincipal Church

Lor. Lotto, 189 m Castiolione del Laoo

Caporali, 98 r Castiglione Fiobentino

Segna, 23 c

B. Gozzoli, 66 i Castiolione d'Olona (near rese) Colleaiata and Baptistery

Masolino, 60 a Catania

SaUba, 85 / Cefalu

Mosaics, 16 6 Cenate

Moroni, 201/ Ceneda Cathedral

Jacobello, 52 d

J. da Valentia, 83 m

Previtali,89^

Natalino, 199 s

Previtali, 89 g Cebetto Badia

Don Lorenzo, 56/ Cebtaldo

D. Lorenzo, 57 c Cestello

J. del Sellaio, 63 e Chiayabi

Fasoli, 81 1 Chibionaoo

F. Santa Croce, 84 note Chiyasbo

D. Ferrari, 82 b

ClYlTA CaSTELLANA

Cosmati, 23/

CiTTA BELLA PlEYE

8, Maria de* Bianchi

Perugino, 95/ Other Churches

Perugino, 95 g

CiTTA DI CaSTELLO

8anta Cecilia

Signorelli, 71 p 8. Dofnenico

Signorelli, 71 n 8. Gio, Deeollato

Signorelli, 71 p 8. Fietro

Gerino, 98 o Town Gallery

Signorelli, 71 p Fal. Mancini

Signorelli, 71 g


Va-


Index of Places.


263


CiTTA Di Castbllo — eontifiued JS. Trmitd

Kaphael, 137 note

ClYIDALE

S, Maria de* Battuti

M. da Udine, 204 m Monaster Ma off lore

Mart, da Udine, 204 o

COLALTO

S, Salvadore

Gr. da Treviso, 74 a Pordenone, 202 I

COMO

Cathedral

Gaudenzio Ferrari, 120 ♦ Luini, 118 a

CONEOLIANO

S. Antonio

G. A. Pordenone, 203 e Cathedral Cima, 88 r

CORTONA

Cathedral

Lorenzetti, 46 %

Signorelli, 70 i S, Domenico

Lor. di Niccolo, 43 b

Fiesole, 54/, k

Signorelli, 70 e Gesu

Fiesole, 54 e, m

Signorelli, 71 a Compagnia di S, Niccolo

Signorelli, 71 b Villa l^asserini

Caporali, 99 a Museo

Antique painting, 4 ff

COTIONOLA

G. Marchesi, 169/ Cbba

Macrino, 82 a Cbema

Diana, 89 m Cremona Cathedral

Boccacino, 90 h

£omanino, Bembo, and contem- poraries, 201 p G. A. Pordenone, 203 m S, Agata and other ChurcJies

Campi, and other Cremonese, 202 a, 6 S. Agostino

Perugino, 95 I

DiRUTA

Alunno, 92/


Eboli

B. de Oderisio, 31 g

Sabattini, 167 b Eooi

Spagna, 97/ Emfoli

Collegiata

Don Lorenzo, 57 e


Fabriano • Gallery

A. Nazi, 47 g

P. da Verona, 177 «» Faenza

Bertucci, 98 p

Girol. da Treviso, 169 b

Giorgione, 169 b Fano S, Croce

Giovanni Santi, 78 e S. Maria Kiwva

Perugino, 95 m

Gio. Santi, 78 e Fermo Spedale

A. da Bologna, 48 Monte S. Giusto

L. Lotto, 189 J? Ferrara Cathedral

Cosimo Tura, 74 c

Garofalo, 170 Oyp

Guercino, 241/ S. Andrea

Panetti, 76 c

Cortellini, 76 c S. Benedetto

Scarsellino, 219 I

Bonone, 247 d Certoaa

Bastianino, 219 h

Roselli, 219 k S. Domenico

Fourteenth eentury, 49 d S, Francesco

Garofalo, 170 ^, 171 m

Ortolano, 171 m

Bonone, 171 m Gesit

Bastarolo, 219/

Gius. Crespi, 244 o S, Maria in Vaao

Grandi, 75 i

Panetti, 76 b

Girol. Marchesi, 169 d

Garofalo, 170 r

Bonone, 170 r, 238 g, 247 m


264


Index of Places,


FsRBAEA — eontinued S.raolo

Gnmdi. 75/

Scaneliino, 219 / S, Spirito

Garofalo, 170 «  Alle StimnuUe

Guercino, 244 m Castle

Dosap and hig School, 171 h Pal. Sehifanoia

Tura and Costa, 74 b

Ercole da Ferram, 74 b Ateneo Fieture Gallery

Tura, 74 a, d

Stefano da Ferrara, 74 «, /

L. Costa, 75 h

Panetti, 76 b

Cortellini, 76 d

Carpaccio, 89 d

Mazzolino, 169 /

Garofalo, 74 e^ 170 n

Dosso, 171 a

Carpi, 172 d

Bastianino, 219 t

Bonone, 239 Marchese Strozzi

L. Costa, 75 h Costabili

Tura, 74 a

FlESOLE

S. Domenieo

Fiesole, 54 A', p

L. di Credi, 54 /, 70 ^

Jiadia

Giov. da S. Giovanni, 223 «, 242/

FlOKANO

Moroni, 201/ Florence

(Gates and Walls) Frescos by J). Ghirlandajo, 66, note 2 JSadia

Donzelli, 102 note Cathedral

Glass windows, 109 i GaddoGaddi, 22y Lor. Bicci, 27 t Orcagna, 27 i Giotto, 39 a Fra Benedetto, 56 e Uccello, 66y Castagno, 65 y, 68 k Zuccaro, 216 d

Santidi Tito, 217^ (Opera del Duomo) Mosaics in Wax, 17/


Flobencb — continued S. Ainbrogio

School of Giotto, 27 g

Gaddi, 27 9

Giottino, 27 g

C. Bosselli, 45 e S, Annunziata (Entrance Court)

A del Sarto and pupils, 132 Jk, 133

Franciabigio, 133

Pontormo, 133, 134 i

BoBSO. 133

Bosselli, 65 e, 133

BaldoTlnetti, 67 47,133 (Church)

Pollajuolo, 68

Lotti, 238

Aless. Allori, 222/

Empoli, 223 i

Biliyerti, 223 k

Mat. Bosselli, 223 o (Gappella de* Pittori and Cloister)

Pontormo. 134 i

Poccetti, 222/ S, Apollonia

Paolo di Stefano, 60 note

Castagno, 68 m Badia

Filippino, 64 e (Cloister) Baptistery (S. Giovanni)

Mosaics, Jacobus and Tafi, 20 dj 21 a

ApoUonius, 21 a

Pollajuolo, 68 r Bigallo

Giottino, 27 h

T. Gaddi, 27 A

V. di Moro, 27 h

P. Chelini, 27 note Camaldoli (agli Angeli)

Poccetti, 221 i

Al. Allori, 242 k Carmine

Masaccio and Masolino, 60 b, 61 b, 113 e

Filippino Lippi, 61 ^, 6ip



I


G. da Melano, 27 c (Sacristy)

Frescos, style of the Bicci, 27 e Certosa (near Porta Bomana)

Giottesques, 28 d

Mariotto, 131 b S. Croce

Cimabue 25 e

Margheiitone, 25 e


Index of Placet.


265


Florence — continued JS. Croce

Daddi, B., 25 e

Giottino, 25 e

Maflo di Bianco, 26

Giotto and hiB School, 25 e,

26, 33 a, d, 34 <;, 35 6, c Mainardi, 26

Gaddi, 25 e, 26, 33 d, 34 (^ Stamina, 26 Gioyanni da Melnno, 26 Gastagno, 68 k Paintings on Glass, 110, a, g Bugiardini, 136 d Vasari, 215/ Santi di Tito, 217/ ligozzi, 223 d CigoU, 223y

Giovanni da S. Giovanni, 223 u (Passage and Sacristy)

School of Giotto, 26, 44 a (Sacristy) School of Giotto, 26, 28/, 35/,

44 a Niccolfi di P. Gerini, 26 (Cap. Medici) School of Giotto, 26, 42 note Orcagna, 26 Kiccola Tommasi, 26 Lorenzo di Niccolu, 26 (Former Kefectory) Giotto, 26, 33 d Niccol6 di P. Gerini, 26 (C. Pazzi) Windows, 110/ S. Felice

Giotto 27 d Filippino, 64 I K. Ghirlandajo, 135 k JS. Felicitd

School of Giotto, 27 e T. Gaddi, 27 e Pontormo, 134 A:, ^ Poccetti, 223 b (Sacristy) Giotto? 27 e JS. Filippo Neri

Stradanus, 215 note JS. Francesco al Monte

Paintings on Glass, 110 ^ JS. Frediano

Currado, 223 I JS. Giovanni delta Calza Perugino, 93 e Franciabigio, 133 b • S. Giovannino

Currado, 223 m


Florence — continued Innocenti

P. di Cosimo, 65 h

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 m S, Jacopo

Sogliani, 136 b S. Zuea

Don Lorenzo, 37 a tS. Lorenzo

F. Lippi, 63 d

Painted Glass, 110 ff

Kosso Fiorentino, 135/

11. del Garbo, 135 o

Sogliani, 135 r

Bacchiacca, 135 s

Bronzino, 215 b Saffrestia Vecchia

E. del Garbo, 135 o S. Lucia d^ Bardi

D. Yeneziano, 68 8 JS. Lucia d^ Magnoli

Empoli, 223 t S. Marco

Fra Benedetto, 56 c

Fra Bartolommeo, 129 j, 130

Santi di Tito, 217 h (First Cloister)

Fiesole, 54 0-, 247

Poccetti, 222 h (Chapter-house)

Fiesole, 55 b, 247 e (Refectory)

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 i

Fra Bartolommeo, 130 a (Cells and Passages;

Fiesole, 55 a S. M. Maddalena de* Fazzi

C. Bosselli. 65 g Perugino, 93 d Painted Glass, 110/

S. Maria Novella Cimabue, 21 d Orcagna, 26 a, 40 b, 41 b Hasaccio, 62 a Filippino, 65 b

D. fihirlandajo, 67 I Painted Glass, 110 d Bugiardini, 136 g Vasari, 215 g Ligozzi, 223 d



Fiesole, 54 d (Chiostro Verde)

Uccello, 26 b, 65 i

Bello, 26 b (Cap. degli Spagnuoli)

School of Giotto, 26 c, 33 <r, e,


266


Index of Places.


Flokskce — continued JS. Maria Xorella

/, a, 36 fl, 38 r, 39 e, 40 e, 41 \ Cf and £?, /

T. Gaddi, 26 e, 27, 39 e

8imone Martini, 26 c, 27

Antonio Veneziano, 27

Andrea da Firenze, 27, 39 e (CloiBters)

Spinello, 27

Giottino, 27 a

Santidi Tito, 217^

Poccetti, 222^- JS, Maria Nuova

Bicci di Lorenzo, 28 a

Hugo V. d. Goes, 104 a

Fra Bariolommeo, 128 note, 129<?, 138

GioY. da S. Giovanni, 223 w 8. Martino

School of Masaccio, 62 b 88. Micheie e Gaetano

Mat. Bosselli, 2231? 8. Miniato al Monte

Mosaic, 22/

Spinello, 27 b

Masolino, 60 note

Paolo di Stefano, 60 note

Baldovinetti, 67/ Monte Oliveto

Don Lorenzo, 57 a

Lionardo da Vinci, 116/

R. Ghirlandajo, 116 b 8. Niccold

Gentile da Fabriano, 51 /

Baldovinetti, 67 d

Al. AUori, 222 g Ogniasanii

Giottesqne, 27/

Niccol6 di P. Gerini, 27/

Daddi, B., 27/

S. Botticelli, 64 b

D. Ghirlandajo, 67 h (Courts)

Ligozzi, 223 e

Giovanni da S. Giovanni, 223 v 8. Onofrio {Museo Egiziaeo)

Etruscan Vases, 1 c

Fresco of Last Supper (Peru- ginesque), 97 note Oreanmiehete

Lorenzo Monaco, 28 b

B. Daddi. 28 b

Ugolino aa Siena, 28 b 8, 8alvi

A. del Sarto, 116 ^, 133 a 8. 8pirito

FiUppino, 64 y


Florence— «o;j^tM ued 8. 8pirito

BafEiellino, 64 X-, 137 e D. Ghirlandajo, 68 a L.diCredi,70* Painted Glass, 110 e Boeso Fiorentino, 135 g R. del Garbo, 135 q I Ingegno, 137 e

' Al. Allori, 222 e

Spirito Santo I Pesellino, 66 m

I 8. Trinitd I Don Lorenzo, 56 d

I D. Ghirlandajo, 67 k

Lo Scaho

A. del Sarto and Franciabigio, 133 a 8, Pietro Martire Poccetti, 222 1 Palazzo Fitti (Lower rooms, left) Giov. da S. Giov., 223 r, 251 * Picture Gallery

Lippo Lippi, 63 e

Botticelli, 63 «, 64 0, 113 c

Fil. Lippi, 64 i

Pollajuolo, 68

Perugino, 95 h

Spagna, 98 e

G. Francia, 100

Bonsignori, 100 0, 112 ^

Giul. Francia, 101 e

Holbein? 106 6

A. Durer, 107 /

Clouet (School of), 109/

P. d. Francesca, 112 « 

Castagno, 113 « 

Costa, 114 a

L. di Credi, 114 ^

Lionardo da Vinci, 114 r

After M.Angelo, Wd

Rosso, 127 d

Fra Bartolommeo, 129 b, d,

130 a,/, 136 h Mariotto, 131 a A. del Sarto, 131 m, n, 132,

a, bj Cy df t, 134 b Franciabigio, 134 e Pontormo, 134, /, / Puligo, 134 n Bronzino, 134 r Rosso Fiorentino, 135 e R. Ghirlandajo, 135 A Bugiardini, 136 h Raphael, 138 b. and note, 139 b. d, 140 b, 141 r, 142 b, 144 e, 147 «, Cf df Cf 148 note


Index of Places.


267


Plobbnce — continued JPieture Gallerv

After Baphael, 142 b,f

G. Komano, 142/

Mazzolino, 169 ^

Garofalo, 170 b

Dosso, 170 u

Carpi, 172, ff, d

Sodoma, 174, n

Peruzzi, 176 ff

Parmegianino, 183^

Giorgione, 185 ff

S. del Piombo, 186 «', m

Palma Veccliio, 188, a

L. Lotto, 189 i

Titian, 190 <?, 191 «, 192 b, t,

196 c Marco Vecellio, 197 d A. Schiavone, 197 f Bonifazio, 198 ff, 205 c Polidoro Ven., 199 b G. A. Pordenone, 203 Bordcne, 205 c Tintoretto, 206 a, d Bassani, 211 «  Bandinelli, 215 c Zuccaro, 217 ^ G. Allori, 223 n Mat. BosseUi, 223 (? Guido Beni, 226 e, 244 b Salv. Rosa, 230 a, 234 o, 252 q,

253 n, 256 j\ k P. da Cortona, 230 e, 257 q Furini, 231 a

Enbens, 231 j, 232 b,f, 255 h V. Dyck, 232y, 233/^234 r Bembrandt, 234 a Pourbus, 234 > Lely, 234y Sustermans, 234 I Tinelli, 234 r

G. Dolci, 235^, 243<;,244d Murillo, 235^ Velasquez^ 235 i A. Caracci, 238 </ Artemisia Gentileschiy 242 ay

and note Gennari, 243 y Guercino, 243 / Crist. Allori, 244 d, 249 m Cigoli, 244^ Luifranco, 245 a Feti, 250 d Manfredi, 252 h Manetti, 252 h Gio. da S. Giovanni, h Flower Painters^ 253 k Bourguignon, 254 c


Flokbnce — continued Fieture Gallery Paul Bril, 255 e Buy8dael,255y Ag. Caracci, 256 b G. Poussin. 256-e; Tassi, 257 b Swaneyelt, 257 k Job. Both, 257^ Accademia

Cimabue, 21 e

Giotto School, 28 /, 32 /, 35

b Giotto, 32/, 33 a Taddeo Gaddi, 28/ Niccol6 di P. Germi, 28/ Agnolo Gaddi, 28/ Altar-pieces, 42 b, 43 a Lorenzetti (A.)) 46 a Gentile da Fabriano, 5\ d Fiesole, 54 a, b, Cy t, n Don Lorenzo Monaco, 28 f,

57 b Masaccio, 61 e Lippo Lippi, 63 a Botticelli, 63/ Filippino Lippi, 64 a PeselUni, 67 D. Ghirlandajo, 68 a Granacci, 68 i CastagnOj 68/ Verrocchio, 69 A, Hie L. di Credi, 69 y, k Signorelli, 71 ^ Peninno, 95^, 139 c Fra Bartolommeo, 128 note,

129 a, e, 130 a. i, k, I P. Nelli,130^ Mariotto, 131 d Fra Paolino, 131 k

A. delSarto, 134 a Mich, di Ridolfo, 135 m

B. del Garbo, 135 n Sogliani, 135-6 Baphael, 139 e Pacchiarotto, 176 k Yasari, 217 a

AL Allori, 239 d Falazzo Veechio Sala de' GigU

B. Ghirlandajo, 135/ Sala dell' Udienza

Salviati, 215 i (Large Hail)

Yasari, 215 h Fal. del Fodestd or Bargello

Giotto, 28(7

Castagno, 68 I


268


Index of Places.


Flo&bncb — continued VJizi (Passage towards Fonte Vecchio)

School of Bronzino, 13d d (Picture Gallery)

Cimabue, 21 note

Giottesque, 28 e

Lorenzo Monaco, 28 e

Giovanni da Melano, 28 e

Giotto, 32 a

Lippo Memmi, 45 a

Loreiizetti, 46 %

Sim. di Martino, 45 a

Fiesole, 53 0, 54 r, A

Don Lorenzo, 56 e^f

Hasaccio, 62 a, 65 a, 113 a

Lippo Lippi, 63 b

Botticelli, 63 e, 64

Pilipnino Lippi, 64 <^, 65 a,

P. di Cosimo, 65 h

Uccello, 66 a

Baldovinetti, 67 e

J). Ghirlandajo, 67 m, 68 ^

Granacci, 68 i

Pollajuolo, 68 ft

D. Yeneziano, 68 a

P. della Francesca, 69 h

L. diCredi,69/, 70fl, 113 i

Signorelli, 71 1

Hantegna, 77 ^, 113 A

Marc. Palmezzano, 78 g

Mansueti, 85 b

Antonello, 85 c

Giov. Bellini, 86 note, 113 b,

186 note Perugino, 94 note, 95 t, 113 b Cristus, 103 a Hugo V. d. Goes, 104 b B. V. d. Wevden, 104/ Memlingj 104 b Frumenti, 105 e Qu. MetsTs, 106 Master of Deatii of the Virgin,

106 Bles (H. de), 106/ L. y. Leyden, lOo t, and note A. DUrer, 107 c, *, k Schauffelin, 108 a G«org Pencz, 108 c L. Kranaeh, 108/ Holbein, 108 k Style of Clouet, 109/ Lionardo, 112 note» 116 a, 6,

1170 jiVfter Lionardo, 112 note P. d. Francesca, 112 6 Fr. Fi-ancia, 113 c


Flo&encb — eontmtted Uffizi

Lionardo, or L. di Credi, 114/y

116 » Collection of Portraits, 113

note FiUppino,64^, 1130 Holbein, 108 k, 109 Luini, 115 e, 117 a Michelangelo, 127 a, note Baniele daVolterra, 128 e, 215 a Fra Bartolommeo, 128 note, 130

Manotto, 131 e

A. del Sarto, 131 0, 132 b Franciabigio, 134 e, 136 note Pontormo, 134 g^ A, / Bronzino, 135 a, d

B. Ghirlandajo, 116 by 135 A, 136*

A. Allori, 135 note Soglianij 136 a Bugiardini, 136 «, i Baphael, 97 a, 136 t, 139 cr, e,

140 a, 144 0, 147 b, and note,

148 0, 186 d After Raphael, 144 Guercino, 147 note Giulio Bomano, 164 g Mazzolino, 169 k Dosso, 170 t Carpi (G. da), 172 b Sodoma, 174 /, n, Bre^cianino, 176 «  Beccafumi, 176 Correggio, 179 0, Cy and note Parmegianino, 183 A Giorgione, 185 /, m, 186 a Torbido, 185 / Caroto, 185 ; P. della Vecchia, 185 m Basaiti, 186 0, and note Schidone, 186 g Palma Vecchio, 188^ S. del Piombo, 148 0, g L. Lotto, 186 g, 189 A Titian, 190 d, 191 0, b. 0,

196* SaYoldo, 199 q P. Pino, 200 Moretto, 200 q Moroni, 201 S. Angussok, 202/ G. A. Pordenone, 203 e Bordone, 205 b Tintoretto, 206 *, 207 c Paolo Veronese, 209 A Bassani, 211 0, d


Index of Places.


269


Tlobencb — cont inved Uffizi

Bronzino, 215 a

Vasari, 217 b

Miniature Portraits, 217 note

Baroccio, 218 Cy e^ h

Cambiaso, 218 I

Scarsellino, 219 m

Ann. Garacci, 225 g

MengB, 227 y

8pagnoletto, 229 k

Rubens, 231 o, 232 e

Van Dyck, 233, g, h

Bembrandt, 234 b^ dy 255 k

Pourbus, 234 %

Lely, 234 k

Flemish Painters, 233 m, 234 k

Sustermans, 234 m

TineUi, 234 q

Domenichino, 234 1

Bold, 235 c

Velasquez, 235 h

Honthorst, 237 A, 252 g

Cigoli, 241 ^,244/7

Cararaggio, 241 i

Artemisia Gentileschi, 242 a

Carlo Dolci, 243 e

Sassoferrato, 245 m

Biliverti, 249 k

Feti,250^

Albani, 250 r

Poussin, 251 b

Geminiani, 251 A

Guide Reni, 251 Ar

Giordano, 252 a

Jan Miel, 253 b

Dutch Genre Painters, 253 c

Castiglione, 253 i

Bourguignon, 254 d

Paul Bnl, 255 e

Elzheimer, 255/, g

Stalbent, 255 k

Ph. ,J[oninck, 255 k

Seghers (H.), 255 k

Salvator Rosa, 256 k

G. Poussin, 256 w

Tassi, 257 b

Claude Lorraine, 257 «  Collection of Drawings :

Raphael } or Pinturicehio, 97 «  ^al. AUamndri

Botticelli, 63 note

Pesellino, 66 m P»/. Buonarroti

Pesellino, 66 m


Flobence — continued JPal. Buonarroti

Michelangelo Drawings, 127 b

Empoli, 223 e Pal. Capponi (Via di BardiJ

Fihppino, 64 n

Durer, 107 i

Luini, 117 b

Franciabigio, 134 e and note

Poccetti, 223 a

Furini, 231 b

Crist. Allori, 234 p

Bourguignon, 254

Salr. Rosa, 256 k Fed. Corsini

lippo Lippi, 63 e

Sandro Botticelli, 64 a

Ghirlandajo, 68 c

Signorelli, 71 A

Puligo, 134

Bronzino, 135 6

Florentines of the serenteentb century, 224 a

Furini, 231 c

Susteimans, 234 n

Carlo Dolci, 224 a, 243/

Marinari, 243/

Crist. Allori, 249 n

Genre Painters, 253 a

Salr. Rosa, 253 o, 256 k

Bourguignon, 254/ Fal. Guadagni

Miniature Portraits, 217 note

Sustermans, 234 o

Saly. Rosa, 256 k Casa Martelli

Saly. P^sa, 229 note, 251 m Tal. Faneiatiehi

After Raphael, 142 b Pal. JRiecardt (Upper rooms)

Giordano, 251 r (Chapel)

Benozzo, 66 e Pal. Strozzi

BotticelU, 113/

Titian, 191/ Pal, Torri^iam

Filippino, 64 i

Pesellino, 67

Signorelli, 71/

Credi, 114 a

Sogliani, 136 e

Paolo Veronese, 210/

Domenichino, 256 d Zawrie coll.

Raphael (?) 142 a


270


Index of Places^


FOLIONO

FtUazzo

Frescos of the fifteenth century,

S. Caterina

Barto di Folig^no, 91 h 8, M. in Camp is

P. Ant. da Foligno, 92 Ootnune

Barto. da Foligno, 91 h S. M. infra Portat

Alunno, 92 d 8. Niccolo

Alunno, 92 e

FONDI

Cathedral

Manner of Buoni, 102 g

FONZASO

F. VecelU, 197 a

FOHLI

8. Biagio e Girolamo Palmezzano, 78/ Fbascati

Villa Aldohrandini Domenichino, 250 I


Oatelli

Spagna, 97 i

<jENOA

Cathedral (8. Lorenzo)

Baroccio, 218 a

Cambiaso, 218/

Paggi, 225 b 8, Amorogio

Rubens, 231 /", « 

GuidoEem,'247a 8, Bartolomnieo degli Armeni

Cambiaso, 218 o 8, Bonato

B. V. Orley (?) 105/ 8. Giorgio

Cambiaso, 218 n

Coello, 235 o 8, Maria di Carignnno

Franc. Vanni, 217 r

Cambiaso, 218 m

Maratta, 241 d

Guercino, 244 n 8. Maria di Caatelh

Fifteenth centuiy, 51 c

P. F. Sacchi, 81 1

Brea, 81 i

Justus de AUemagna, 51 c, 103 e 8. Maria della Face

Baratta, 248 k, 249 8. Matteo

Cambiasoi 219 a


Genoa — eontimted 8, Fancrazio

Piaggia, 81 k 8, Fietro in Banehi

Paggi, 225 a 8. 8iro

Giov. B. Carlone, 248/ 8. Stefano

(riulio Bomano, 165 a

Dom. Piola, 239 e 8, Teodoro

Filippino, 64 I Falazzo Giorgio Doria

Castiglione, 225 c

Van Dyck, 232 e FaL Adorno

Hantegna, 77 i

Clouet, 109/

Perin del Ya^, 166 a

Palma Vecchio, 188 y

Cambiaso, 218 k

Rubens, 231 1

Guido Reni, 249 h Fah Brignole 8ale

A. del Sarto, 132/

B. Pordenone, 185 n Bonifazio, 199 a Moretto, 200 v Bordone, 205 </, h P. Veronese, 209/ Capuccino, 219 b, 240 <;, 249 I Pell. Piola, 225 d, e, 245 n Guercino, 226 /, 236 g, 239 a,

243 A-

Rubens, 231 in

Van Dyck, 232 m, 233

Procaccini, 236 p

CaraTaggio, 239 e Fdl, 8pinola

School of Luini, \Vt e

Cambiaso, 219 a

Rubens, 231 k

G. Rem, 245 d

Capuccino, 249 I

Saraceni 252 k Fal. Loria Tursi

Grer. David, etc., 105 a FaL'Balbi Fiovera

Filippino, 64 « 

B. Pordenone, 204 e

Titian, 204 c

Caravaggio, 229 note

Van Dyck, 232 k, 233 b F, Marcello Durazzo

Tintoretto, 206 c FaL Filippo Durazzo

Rubens, 232 h

Van Dyck, 233 a


Index of Places.


271


G'BsoJL^tontinued Fal. Fallavicini

Old FlemiBh, 106 e

After Baphael, 148 note

Schidone, 245 p

Guercino, 261/

Ann. Caracci, 266 h Tal, Doria

Peiin del Yaga, 166 c Caaa Casaretto (CattaneoJ

Van Dyck, 233 d

GORLAGO

Moroni, 201/ Gradara

G. Santi, 78 e Gbottafebilata Abbey Church

Domenichino, 226 h

GUBBIO

S. M. Nuova

NeUi, 51 c Cathedral

Ibi, 98/

Ad. Doni, 98 o

Tim. deUa Vite, 168^

GUALDO

M. da Gualdo, 92 Alunno, 92/

IliLASI

Stefano da Zevio, 50 d IsoLA Bella

Buttinone, 80 b Lionardo or Melzi, 119 i

IVREA

D. Ferrari, 82 b

Legnano Frincipal Church Luini, 119 a Legnaia

Casa Pandolfini Castagno, 68 I Locarno (Tessin) Madonna delle Grazie Bramantino, 80 c Fifteenth century, 81/

LODI

Cathedral

Cal. Piazza, 199 i Jncoronata

Borgognone, 81 /

Cal. Piazza- 199 h Various Churches

Piazza, Albertino and Martiiio, 78 t Loreto Church

Signorelli, 71 r


Loreto — continued Church

Palmezzano, 78/ BUJhop^s Palace L. Lotto, 189 n

LOTBRB

Tadini Gallery

Jacopo Bellini, 73 c

V. Civerchio, 80 d Lucca

Cathedral fS. Martino)

D. Ghirlandajo. 68 d

Paintings on Glass, 110 A

Fra Bartolommeo, 129/ 8, Agostino

Zacchia, 169 note 8. Frediano

Francia, 100 k

Frescos by Aspertini, 101 b 8, Giovanni

Painted Windows, 110/ 8. Faolino

Painted Windows, 110 i 8. Fietro Soinaldi

Zaccliia, 169 note 8. Eomano

Fra Bartolommeo, 129 g, h 8. Michele

Filippino, 64/ 8, 8alvatore

Zacchia, 169 note Lugano 8» Maria deqli Angeli

Luini, 118 y, 119

Macerata Church

Alegretto di Nuzio, 47 g Matelica

S» Sever inif 91 g Medole Church

Titian, 193/ Messina

Mosaic, 16/ Salvo d' Antonio, 85/ Alibrandi, 120 a Milan Cathedral

Paintings on Glass, 109 g 8. Ambropio

Mosaics, 13 ^, 14 ^ and note Antique Painting, 19 g Zenale, 80 b Borgognone, 81 a Lanini, 121/ 8, Caterina

Lanini, 121 ^


272


Index of Places.


Milan — contin ued J8. Evfemia

Oggionno, 119 ^ S. Giorffio in Palazzo

Luini, 119 S, Lorenzo

Mosaics, 13/ JS. Maria presso S. CeUo

Gaud. Ferrari, 120 g

Cal. Piazza, 199 g

Bordone, 205 n

Appiani, 249 h 8, Maria della Grazie

Buttinone and Zenale, 80 h

Lionardo, 116 ^

Bramantmo, 80 c

Montorfano, 80 d, 116 e

G.Ferrari, 121/

Bugiardini, 136.;' 8» M. dslla Paaahne

BorgogDone, 81 h

Liiini, 119 b 8. Maurizio (Monastero MaggioreJ

Luini, 118 & 8. Pietro in Gesaate

Civerchio, Buttinone, and Zenale, 80 by d 8. Satiro

Borgognone, 81/ ^S'. Sebastiano

Bramantino, 80 c 8. Sepolcro

Bramantino, 80 c

Luini and Fedrini, 121 8. Simpliciano

Borgognone, 81 & 8. 8tefano

^t. da Verona, 177 I Pal. Trivulzi

Mantegna, 77/

Antonello, 85/

Durer, 107 h Casa Borromeo

MicHelino, 5\b

Zenale, 80 b Jhtca Scott i

Borgognone, 81 d

Cesare da Sesto, 119 m Casa Perego

B. da Venczia, 90

Solario, 122 d Don Giacomo Poldi

Solario, 122 a, b Pal, Litta

Luini, 118 e Casa Rovelli

Marco d'Oggiono, 119 ^


liLiLASi— continued Casa Melzi

G. da Sesto, 119 o Munieipio

Bramantino, 80 c Ambrosiana

Zenale, 80 b

Bramantino, 80 c

Borgognone, Si e

Gima, 88o

Lionardo, 112 a, 114 c

After Lionardo, 116 ^

Luini, 117 rf, 118, 118 e

Salaino, 119 g

G. da Sesto, 119 k

Raphael, 151 a

Titian, 193 m

Dossi, 171 1

Gariani, 199/

Savoldo, 199 v

Giorgione, 201 /

Bomanino, 201 /

Jac. Bassano, 211/

Breughel, 254 i Brera Picture Gallery

Stefano da Zevio, 50 d

G. da Fabriano, 51 e

Signorelli, 71 k

Stefano da Ferrai-a, 74 g

Rondinello, 74 (/, 82 note

Dom. Morone, 77 c

Mantegna, 77 c^ e

G. da Fabriano, 51 <?, 52 note

Fra Camevale, 78 b

Santi, 78 e

Marc. Palmezzano, 78 g

Girol. Genga, 78 h

Montagna, 78/

Verlas, 79 d

Zenale, 80 d, 82 note

Liberale, 79 g

Foppa, 80 a

Bramantino, 80 c

Borgognone, 81 c

Temperello, 82 note

Mazzola, 82 m

Grivelli, 83 «, 84 b

Gent. Bellini, 84 d

Gio. Bellini, 87 4, e

Gima, 88 o

Previtali, 89 g

Boccacino the Younger, 90 »

Alunno, 92 b

Fr. Francia, 100 •

Giac. Francia, 100 p

Lower Rhenish, 107 b

Lionardo, 116 <7

Luini, 118, c, <f, and note


Index of Places.


273


Milan — coniin tied JBrera Picture Gallery.

Ogionno, 119 ^

Salaino, 119 y

Geaare da Sesto, 119 m, 122 a

Gaud. Ferrari, 120 e, 121 e

Lanini, 121 •

Pedrini, 122

Solario, 122 a

Michelangelo, 127 e

JOaphael, 137 « 

Binaldo Mantovano, 165/

Tim. della Vite, 168 e

Girol. Marchesi, 169/

Garofalo, 170y

Dosso, 171 b, /, 185/

Bonifazio, 185 a, 186 h, 198 b

Giorgione, 171 h 185 a, 185/, 186 6

Lor. Lotto, 190 b

Titian, 192^

Cariani, 199 e

Gal. Piazza, 199 m

Savoldo, 199 j9

Moretto, 200 n

Moroni, 201 d

Gio. Martini, 204/

Bordone, 205 m

P. Veronese, 209 b, ff, 210 b

Salmeggia, 219/

Domenichino, 226 i

Guercino, 226/

Mengs, 227/

Bubens, 232 <?

Van Dyck, 232 «, 233 *

Bembrandt, 234 c

Gerano, 236 o

Guido Beni, 245/

Sassoferrato, 245^

Giordano, 246 d

J. Breughel, 254/

S. Bosa, 256 n Busto Araizio (near Milan)

G. Ferrari, 120/ Mantua Fal, Dueale

Giulio Bomano, 165 6

Bubens, 231 d Fal. del Te

Gial. Bomano, 164 e

Binaldo, 165 e Castello di Corte

Mantegna, 76/, 178 note S. Andrea

Gosta, 75 h

Mantegna, 77 d


Matblica (near Fabriano) S, Francesco d^ Zoccolanti Palmezzano, 78/ Eusebio di S. Giorgio, 98/ Messina

Saliba, 85 / Cathedral

Mosaic, 16 g S. Gregorio

Antonello da Messina, 85 b

MiLAZZO

SaUba, 85 I

MODENA

Cathedral

Dosso, 171 e Al Carmine

Dosso, 171 e

Galabrese, 230 i? S. Fietro

Herri de Dies, 106 h

Dosso and School, 171 / 8. Vineenzo

Guercino, 236 h Gallery

Th. of Modena, 48 n

Parentino, 74 a

Bianchi-Ferrari, 82 rf, 100 g

Bonasia, 82 e

Melon!, 82 e

B. Losco, 82 e

Gerard of Harlem, 82 e

Stefano da Fen-ara, 82 e

Gosta, 82 e

Fr. Francia, 100 g

Memling, 104 i

Giorgione, 148 note

Baphael, 148 note

Palma Vecchio, 148 note

Niccold dcir Abbate, 165/

Garofalo, 148 note, 170 I

Dosso, 165/, 171 d, g

Pagano, 172 « -

Garoto, 176 k

Correggio, 182 /

Bonimzio, 199 6

Tintoretto, 206/

Scarsellino. 219 o

Gennari, 221 a

Spada, 222 a, 252 %

Guercino, 226 X:, 234 a, 241 e

Guido Beni, 236 b

Garavaggio, 252 e Fal. Oommunale

N. deU' Abbate, 165 »

MONREALB

Cathedral

Mosaics, 16 «,/

T


274


Index of Places.


HONTBCASSIKO

Sabattini, 167 h Marco da Siena, 217

MONTSFALCO.

B. Gozzoli, 66 h-d Lorenzo da Yiterbo, 66 note Melanzio, 99 h

MONTEFIORE

Santi, 78 e

MONTEFIOHFNTINO

liuijri Tivarini, 83 m Santi, 78 e Monte Oi-tvkto (South of Siena) B. Gozzoli, 66 h Sipnorelli, 70 f Sodoma, 172 X-

^rONTE ORTONE

S. Maria

Montagnana, T^a

MONTEPULCIANO

Misericordia

I/>renzetti, 46 j Monte S. Martino

Gii*oIamo di Gio., 91 g

MULTEDO

Sacchi, 81 b MuRANO (near Venice) Cathedral

Mosaics, 16 note Angeli

Pennacchi, 90 a

G. A. Pordenone, 202 i? S. Donato

Mosaic, 16 note

Sebastiani, 89/ SS. Pietro e Paolo

Giov. Bellini, 87 d

Basaiti, 89 ky I

MUSSOLONE

A. da Murano, 83 m

Xaples

Cathedral (S. Genuaro)

T. depli Stefani, 24 g

Santafede, 216 k

Imparato, 216 m

Marco da Siena, 216 o

Domenichino, 247 » S. Rcfttituta (adjoining building)

Mosaics, 24 f

Sil. de' Buoni, 102 d S. Angelo a Nilo

Colantonio del Fiore, 53 e S. Aniello

P. Negroni, 167 note S. Antonio Abbate

Niccola Tommasi, 31 A, 53 b

Colantonio del Fiorc, 53 b


Naples — continued S8. Apostoli

Lanfranco, 248 d 8. Caterina a Formello

Garzi,2d0; 8, Chiara

Giotto, 31 h

Giotte»que, 31 i

Cavallini, 31/

Gonca, 230 m

Bonito, 230 n 8» Domenico Maggiore

Fourteenth Century, 53

Stefanone, 53 a

Flemish style, 101 g

Marco da ^iena, 216^

Solimena, 230./ 8, Filippo {Gerolmnint)

Giordano, 239 b 8. Gennaro dei Poreri

Catacombs, 8 g

Sabbatini (?), 167 b Gesu Nuovo

Solimena, 230 k

Lanfranco, 248 c 8, Giacomo deqli Spagnuoh

A. del Sarto, 132/

G. B. Lama, 167 e 8, Giovanni a Carbouara

Bisuccio, 51 a 8, Giovanni Maggiore

School of Lioniurdo, 102 note Incoronata

Giotto and Giottesqucs, 31 /, 34 a, 37 ^

Bobcrto de Oderisio, 31 g 8. Lorenzo

Simone di Martino, 45 d^ 52 i

Simonc Napoletano, 52 i 8, Maria delle Grazic

Sabbatini, 167 a 8, Maria la Kitm'a

The Donzelli, 102 e

F. da Tolentino, 102 e

Ainemolo, 102 e

Papa the Younger, 216 i

Santafede, 216/

Imparato, 216 m 8. Martino

Giordano, 230 g

Spagnoletto, 237 e, 239 f (Pictures in the Choir), 239 f

Stanzioni, 239/ 239 k\ ^44 A, 247 >/>

Carrncciolo, 239 f

C. CaUari, 239/

Lanfranco, 248 e

Guide, 239/


Index of Places.


275


l^AVL^s— continued Monte Oliveto

Silv. de' Buoni, 102 b Zingaro, 102 b Monte di JPietd

Ippollto Borghese, 167 n Santafedc, 216 I S. Faolo

Kaphael Copies^ 143 Solimena, 230 % S. Fietro a MajeUa Calabrese, 248 b S. Pietro Martire

Flemish style, 101 i S. Sevenno

Flemish style, 101 i Zingaro, 101 y Amato, 102 h De Mura, 230 m JS. Teresa

Giac. delPo, 238y Trinita dc' Fellegrini Vaccaro, 243 h Stanzioni, 244 / Castel NtMVO (Chapel) John Van Eyck, 103 note Munieipio

Niccola Tommasi, 31 h Falazzo Reale

Titian, 190 e Museo Nazionale

Etruscan Vases, 1 a, 3 (Ground Floor) Old Italian Paintings, 3 a, 4 A,

hJx ^'i h 5 ff, b, f, 6, 7 Mosaics, 5fff(y a (Picture Gallerj') Byzantine Pictures, 17 d Masaccio, 61 a Gentile da Fabriano, 61 a Mantegna, 77 a Fil. Mazzola, 82^ Bart. Vivarini, 83 b L. Vivarini, 83 I Gir. da S. Croce, 84 note Giov. Bellini, 88 a Matteo da Siena, 91 c Pinturicchio, 97 b Simone Papa the Elder, 101/ Zingaro, 102 a Donxelli, 102 b S. de' Buoni, 102 c Hubert v. Eyck, 203 note R. V. d. Weyden, 104 ff Wohlgemuth, 105 d P. Breughel, 106^ Lower Rhenish, 106 k, 107


Naples — contin tied Museo Nazionale (Picture Gallery) Lucas Kranach, 108 a South Gennan, 108 h Holbein, 109 c C. da Sesto, 119 ;i After Michelangelo, 127 i Agnolo Bronzino, 127 t, 134 q Fra Bartolommeo, 130 JT A. del Sarto, 141 a, 142 d, Ul e Raphael, 141 a, 147 c, 148 note After Raphael, 141 a, d, 142 a G. Romano, 142 e Sabbatini, 166 g Lama, 167 c Amato, 167 f Cardisco, Aegroni, etc., 167 ky

Polidoro, 167y

Garofalo, 170 h

Sodoma, 174 i

Correg^o, 179, rf, e

Aretusi, 181 d

Parmegianino, 183 g

Seb. del Piorabo, 186y, I

Fr. Torbido. 187 I

Palma Vecchio, 188/

Titian, 190 e, 192 a, <?

Marco da Siena, 216 n

Spagnoletto, 229 y, 243 d

Giordano, 230 A, 239 ky 246 e

Rembrandt, 234 c

Mirevelt, 234 g

Schidone, 237 b

Sassoferrato, 237 /:, 238 I

Saly. Rosa, 238 j0

Ann. Caracci, 239 i

Spada, 241 m

Calabresc, 242 r, 250 c

Vaccaro, 243 g

Guercino, 244 a

Finoglia, 244y

I^nfranco, 248 g

Guide Reni, 251 i

Battle Painterci, 253 m

Claude Lonniinc, 257 h Casa Borromeo

Michelino, 51 b Cacaliere Santangelo

Durcr, 107 g

Negroni, 167 note Nabni

Seasrna, 97 k

Ghiilandaio, 97 k^ 98

R. del Garbo, 98 Nasciano

M. da Gualdo, 91 h

T 2


276


Lidex of Places.


Nepi 8,Elia

Mediasyal Painting, 16 i

NOCEBA

Alunno, 92/

XOBCIA

Siculo, 98 r

NOYA&A

Cathedral

Gaud. Ferrari, 120/ Lanini, 121 o


O&YIXTO

Cathedral

Simone Martini, 4S e

Lippo Memmi, 45 (^

Ugolino di Prete Ilario, 47 e

Gent, da Fabriano, 51 h

Fiesole, 56 a

Benozzo Gozzoli, 66 b

Signorelli, 56 note, 70 ^ Tal. (rualterio

Signorelli, 95 e

Eusebio, 96 note


Padua

Campagnola, 199 San Antonio (II Santo)

Giotto and Giottesques, 25 6, e

Avanzo and Altichieri, 49 e^ 50

Giov. and Ant. Padovano, 50 a

GiuBto, 50 b

Semitecolo, 52 d

Canozzi, 74 a

P. da Verona, 177 m Seuola del Santo

Titian, 194, 195

Campagnola, 194 e Cappella di S. Giorgio

Avanzo and Altichieri, 49 e Baptistery

Padovano (Giusto ?), 50 a Eretnitani

Giottesqnc, 25 e

Mantegna, 76 e

Guariento, 50 d

Ansuino, 76 e

Bono, 76 e

Pizzolo, 76 e S. Francesco

Fr. da S. Croce, 84, note 2

Girol. da S. Croce, 84, note 2

Gir. del Santo, 201 m i9. Oiustina

Parentino, 74 a


Padua — con t in ued S. Oiustina

Frescos of sixteenth century, 195 note

Girolamo del Santo, 201 m

P. Veronese, 209 d Episcopal Palace

Jacopo Montagnana, 74 a Santa M. in fanzo

Montagna, 79 b

M. da Yerona, 177 I Madonna delP Arena

Giotto, 25 0, 33 a, 34 ^, 35 a, 38 ^, 40 0, and note Seuola del Carmitie

Titian, etc., 194/ Town Gallei'y

A. and B. Vivarini, 52 gi

S^uarcione, 73 a

Pietro da Messina, 85 i

P. Pino, 200 b

Bomanino, 201 h Tal. delta Ragione

Miretto, 50 c Pal. Maldura

Caroto, 176 / Casa Lazzara

Squarcionc, 73 ff, b Casa Cavalli

Previtali, 89 g Paitonb

Moretto, 200 m Palermo S. Maria delF Ammiraglia

Mosaics, 16 d Cappella Palatina

Iklosaics, 16 c Gallery

Camulio, 51 b

Saliba, 85 /

Mem1in<;, 104 h Convent of Virgini

Vigilia, 85^- Hospital

Ciescenzio, 85 k Parma Cathedral

Foui'teenth and fifteenth cen^ turies, 49 c

Correggio, 181 e

Bondani, 183 c

Anselmi, 183 c

Gandini, 183 e Baptistery

Thirteenth century, 19 rf

Filippo Mazzola, 82 k S. Annufiziata

Marchesi, 169/


Index of Places.


277


Parm A — con t in tied S, Annunziata

Correggio, 182 a Sala del Qmsorzio

CaseUi, 82 note JS, Giovanni Evangelista

Araldi, 82 h

G. Fiuncia, 100 n

Correggio, 181 a, b

Garacci, 181 e

Parmegianino, 183 h La Sieecata

School of Mazzola, 83 a Camera di S. Paolo

(Formerly a convent, front room)

Correggio, IHO d (Second room)

Araldi, 82 ^ Fal. del Giardtno •

Agost. Caracci, 250 i Farnese Falace (Gallery)

Masters of the fifteenth century, 82 e-h

Pierilario Mazzola, 82 h

Filippo Mazzola, 82 I

Giov. Bellini, 87 h

Cima, 88 j)

F. Francia, 100/

Holbein, 109 a

After Lionardo, 116 « 

Araldi, 116 c

After Eaphael, 148 note

Correggio, 179 /, ^, and note, 180, 180 a, b, e

Pupils of Correggio, 182 e

Spada, 222 a

Schidone, 222 a

Velasquez, 235 /, m

Lod. (Jaracci^ 236 j

Ann. Caracci, 240 a

Spagnoletto, 243 d (Library)

Correggio, 181 b Sala del Consorzio

Temperello, 82 note Pausola

A. da Bologna, 48

8. Seyerini, 91 ff Pavia Cathedral

Gatti, 183 a Certosa

Montagna, 79 b

Borgognone, 81 ^

Macrino d'Alba, 82 a

Solario, 122 e

Crespi, 222 e


Parma — continued S, Marino

School of Lionardo, 121 q Stabilmcnto Malatpina

Antonello, 85 h Perugia Cathedral

Signorelli, 70 h

Perugino, 95 g

Manni, 98 i

Baroccio, 218 i S. Agostino

Perugino, 95 <r, g S, Caterina

Bernardino da Perugia, 99 d S, Domenico

Fiesole, 54 g

"Windows, 109 h S, Francesco dc* Convent uali

Fiorenzo, 92 1

Baphael, 140 e 8. Girolamo de* Minori

Pintuiicchio, 97 c S, Fietro rfe' Caasinenai

Perugino, 95 d

Sassoferrato, 95 e

Ad. Doni, 98 m

Copy after Perugino, 137 note

Alienee, 208 b 8, 8evero

Perugino, 95 e

Raphael, 129 c, 138 a 8, Tommaso

Manni, 98 h Fitwcoteca

Fiesole, 54 g

"Fm Camevale, 78 c

FranccBca (P. deUa), 78 e

Boccati, 91 g

Alunno, 92 b

Buonfigli, 92 /

Fiorenzo, 92 /t, I, 93

Perugino, 93 b, 95 a

Pinturicchio, 97 b

Spagna, 98 d .

Euscbio di S. Giorgio, 98 d

Domen. di Paris Alfani, 98 I

Bern, da Perugia, 99 d

Amedei, 140/ Jl Cambio

Perugino, 95 a

Manni, 98 h Fal. del Commune

Buonfigli, 92/ Fal. Conneatabile

Raphael, 137 d

Crist. AUori, 249 o


278


Index of Places,


Febuoia — con tin tied Casa Alfani

Perug^ines^ues, 137 note Caaa Baldeschi

Drawings of Pinturicchio, 97 Scrvi di Maria

Perugino, 95 g Pehaho S. Francesco

Gioy. Bellini, 88 g S. Giovanni

Zoppo, 73 e

PlACENZA

CatJiedral

Guercino, 229 b

Lod. Caracci, 247/ S, Croce

Guercino, 249 % Mad. della Campaana

Fordenone, 202 i 8. Sisto

After Baphael, 143 note

PlENZA

S. Anna in Greta Sodoma, 173 a

PlONOLO

Moroni, 201/ Pisa

Cathedral

^Mosaics, 23 a

Gimabue, 21 h, 23 a

A. del Sarto, 134 c

Perin del Vaga, 166 b

Sogliani, 166 b

Sodoma, 174y

Empoli, 223 h Campo ban to

Buffalniacco? 28 /, g, 29 «, 36 d, 37 «, c

Tiiumph of Death, Last Judg- ment, and Hell, Orcagna, Lorenzetti ? 28 A, 32 d, 33/, 36 Cy 37 c, 38 «, b, c, 40 <? , d, 41 a, d, 44 b

Lorenzetti, 28 A, 36 <?, 41 c, 46 J

Simone Martini, 28 A, 45

Andrea da Firenze, 28 A, 32 d

Ant. Veneziano, 29, 32 c

Spinello, 29, 32 b

Franc, da Volterra, 29

Pietro di Puccio, 28 g, 29 «, 32 <?,41^

Benozzo Gozzoli, 29 a^ 06 j

Rondinozzi, 66 y S, Caferina

Traini, 29 rf, 42 a

Mariotto and Fra Bartolommeo, 131 /


Pisa — eotitinued S, Francesco

Tadd. Gaddi, 29 b

Nic. di Pietro Gerini, 29 c

Tadd. di Bartolo, 47 d S, Martino

Giottesques, 29 e S. Hanieri

Giunta Pisano, 20 c

Giottesques, 29/ Accademia

Traini, 29/

Sim. d^ Martino, 45 b

Barnabas, 49 a

Gentile da Fabriano, 51 g

Benozzo Gozzoli, 66 k

Macchiayelli, 66 I

Old Flemish, 105 e

Sodoma, 174 k Seminario Vescoviie

S. di Martino, 45 b S, Fiero in Grado {near Fisa)

Thirteenth century, 20 ^, 21 ^

PiSTOJA

Cathedral

Lor. diCredi,69i,70rf . S, Domenico

Fra Barto, 129 i

Empoli, 223 /' JS. Francesco al Frato

School of Giotto, 29 g

Niccolo di P. Gerini, 29 g

Puccio Gapanna, 29 h

POOOIBONZI

S. Lucchese

Pinturicchio, 97 e

Gerino, 98 p S. Fiero a Megognano

Tad. Gaddi, 30 d

POLIZZI

Hugo V. d. Goes, 104 a Pompeii

Old Paintings, 5 rf, e,f

Antique Landscapes, 7 Pordbnone Cathedral y Town Hall, and Church at Torre

G. A. Pordenone, 203 », I

Galderari, 204 r Prague

T. da Modena, 48 n Prato Cathedral

Angelo Gaddi, 29 >', Zih,d

Stamina, 29 i

Vite (A.), 29 i

F. Lippi, 62 r, 67 g

B. & D. Ghirlandajo, 135 /


Ivdex of Places.


279


P&ATO — contin ued JS. Damenieo

F. Lippi, 620 S, Francesco

Lor. di Niccolo, 29 J

Nic. di Pietro, 29/ I^al. del Commune

F. Lippi, 62/

School of Bronzino, 13o c Strada di S, MargJ^erita

Filippino lappi, Tabernacle, ^d

Banyebso

Macrino, 81 m

Ferrari, 82 c Bavenna 8, ApoUinare in Classe

Mosaics^ 13 / S» ApoUinare Nuovo

Mosaics^ 13 ^ (hmaldole

Longhi, 220 h S, Oiov. Evayigelista

Giotto, 25 d 8» Maria in Cosmedin

Mosaics, ldb,25d SS, Nazaro e Celso

Mosaics, 12 d 8. Vitale

Mosaics, 13 c Orthodox JBaptiatery, S. Giovanni in Fonte

Mosaics, 12 d Archbishop's Palace

Mosaics, 14 e Public Gallery

E. R. Grandi,74y Bbcanati, near Ancona

L. Lotto, 189 I Beooio Ckithedral

Thirteenth century, 19 e

SlETI

Antoniasso, 93 Bikini 8. Francesco

Piero della Francesca, 69 d Town Sail

D. Ghirlandajo, 68/

Giov. Bellini, 88/

BOME

Baths of Caracalla

Antique paintings, 4 e

Baths of Titus and Trajan Antiq^ue paintings, 4 a

Columbaria^ Via Zatina Antique paintings, i b, c


BoME — eont intied Palaces on the Palatine

Antique paintings, ^e^l a Catacombs

Antique paintings, S bet seq, 8. AgtieseFuori

Catacombs, 8 e

Mosaics, 14 a

Antique paintings, 18 b 8, Agostwo

Baphael, 161 b Alle Tre Fontane, see 8, Vincenzo 8, Andrea della Valle

Domenichino, 228 g^ 247 g

Galabrese, 228 g

Lanfraoco, 248/ 88, Apostoli

M!elozzo, 77 I

Eighteenth century Painters, 227 d 8, Calisto

Catacombs, 8 ^, 9 e7, & 8, Carlo a Catinari

Sacchi, 230 r, 237 I

Domenichino, 247 h 8. Cecilia

Mosaics, 15 h

Pinturicchio, 96/

Paul Bril, 256/ Chiesa Nuova

Cortona, 230 b

Bubens, 231 e 8. Clemcnte

Anti(|ue Painting, 18 ^

Mosaics, 18 A

Masaccio, 61

Masolino, 61 note 8. Cosimato

Umbrian school, 96 a 8, Cosma e Damiano

Mosaics, 13 a^j 8. Costanza

Mosaics, 12 a 8, Crisogono

Mosaics, 24 d 8, Croce in Germaleminc

Fiorenzo, 93

Peruzzi, 176/ 8. Fusebio

Mengs, 227^ 8, Francesca Eomana

Mosaics, 18 i

Ibi, 98 k BGesit

Gauli, 248 h 8. Giov. in Laterano

Jac. Torriti,23<ir

Giotto, 31 e


280


Index of Places.


KoME — continued S. Giov in Laterano

Bama da Siena, 46 y

Benozzo, 66, /

Gio Santi, 78 e

Falmezzano, 78 g fSacrifity) (Baptistery and adjoining Chapels)

Mosaics. 12 e, 14 h (Cap. Sancta Sanctorum)

Mosaics, 14/ S. Gr^orio

Eighteenth century Painters, 221 d Three Chapels left of Church

Domenichino, 240 g

Guido Reni, 240 g, 2Al j S. Lorenzo Fuori (Inner Church)

Mosaics. 13 a; (Entrance)

Thirteenth century frescos, 18 c S. Lorenzo in Fanispema

Pasq. Cati, 217/ Accademia di S. Luea

Baphael, 148 note 3

Titian, 191 A, 196 e

Vandyckj 232 o

G. Poussin, 256 u 8. Luigi rf«' Francesi

The Bassani, 211 g

Sermoneta, 217 I

l>eU. Tibaldi, 220 g

G. del Conte, 220 g

Domenichino, 2'2&f,g, 236 k

Caravaggio, 229 <?, 241/ SS. MarceUino e Fietro

Catacombs, 9 a 8. JUarcello

Perin del Vaga, 166 d •8. Marco

Mosaics, 10 a, 15 a

Crivelli ? 83 o 8. Maria degli Angeli (Baths of Diocletian)

Muziano, 201 o

Batoni, 227/

Domenichino, 241 a 8. Maria delV Anima

Paintings on glass, HI note

Giulio Komano, 164 h

Saraceni, 229 d 8, Maria in Ara Celt

Pinturicchio, 96 g 8. Maria della Concezione

Guido Bcni, 226 d 8. Maria Maggiore

Mosaics, 12 f, 23d,2iCye


EoME — continued JS^ Maria Maggiore

Madonna of ninth century, 17 a

Jac. Torriti, 23 d

Johannes Torriti, 23 d

Rusutti, 24 e

Gaddo Gaddi, 24 e

Arijmo, 216/ 8. Maria sopra Minerva

Mosaics of the Cosmati, 24 e

Filippino Lippi, 65 b

R. delGarbo, 135j9 8. Maria della Xavivella

Mosaics, 15 dr, i 8» Maria della Face

Raphael, 161 c

Timoteo della Vite, 168/

Bagnacavallo, 168 i

Peruzzi, 176 c

Sermoneta, 217 h

Albani, 250 a 8. Maria del Fopolo

Pinturicchio, 96 c

Painting on glass bv Wilhelm of Marseilles, 110 /

Maratta, 227 b

Caravaggio, 237 d (Capp. Chigi)

Raphael, 162 a

Seb. del Piombo, 186 / (Choir)

Pinturicchio. 96 e 8. Maria della Scala

Saraceni, 229 e

Honthorst, 241 / 8. Maria in Trastevere

Cavallini, 24 c

Mosaics, 18 /, g 8, Martiux) a J^iti

G. Poussin, 256 q 88. Nereo ed Achillco

Catacombs, 8 «, 9 a, ^

Mosaics, 14 g 8, Onofrio

Pinturicchio, 96 e

Lionardo, 115 a

Cesare da Sesto, 115 note

Peruzzi, 96 ^, 176 « 

Domenichino, 222 n 8, Faolo Fuori

Mosaics, 12 g^ 14 note, 19 a 8, Fietro in Montorio

Pinturicchio? 96 d

Seb. del Piombo, 128 b 8. Fietro in Vaticano (Colonnades)

Giotto, 31 b, 36 a


Index of Places.


281


Rome — ctmtimied S, Fietro in Vaticaho

Interior altar-pieces, Seven- teenth century, 227 e (Chapel of choir)

Giotto, 31 <?, 36 a

Melozzo, 77 /

Giulio BomanOf 164 g S. Fietro in Vineoh

Mosaics, 14 d JS. Fonziano

Catacombs, 8 e JS, Fratextatus

Catacombs, 8 e JS. Frassede

Mosaics, 14 •

Da Sesto. 119 n

Arpino, 216 e

Giulio Bomano, 164 i JS. Friscilla

Catacombs, 8 ^, 9 d S. Fudenziana

Mosaic, 13 h JSS. Quattro Coronaii

Thirteentii century, 18 d

Giovanni da S. Giovanni, 223 a: S. Sabina

Mosaics, 12/

SassoferratOj 237 dc, 245 I S. Silvestro a Monte Ca/vallo

Scip. Gaetano, 217 jp

Domenichino, 249 r

Barbalunga, 249 8

PoUdoro, 254 h S, Stephano Rotondo

Mosaics, 14 c

Pictures of martyrs, 216 g S» Smanna

Bald. Croce, 216 b S. Teodoro

Mosaics, 13 • SS. Trinitd de' Monti

D. da Volterra, 128 c, 166/

School of Raphael, 166/ S8. Trinitd de Fellegrini

Guido Reni, 236 d 8. TIrbano

Eleventh centurv, 18 a SS. Vincenzo ed Anastasio, near Fontana Trevi

After Raphael, 163 note SS. Vito e Modesto

XJmbrian school, 96 a Museo Capitolino

Vase with Mosaic paintings, 8/

Giov. Bellini, 113 b


Rome — continued Fed. d^ Cofuervatori (Upper rooms^

bodoma? 174 a

Laureti, 187 a (Chapel)

Ingegno ? 95 n (Picture gallery)

Cola dell' Amatrice, 102 i

Conti, 112 tf

Gio Bellini, 113 b

Yenusti, 127 note

Mazzolino, 169 i

Garofalo, 170 b

Carpi, 172 c

Titian, 205 a

Bordone, 205 a

Guercino, 228 6, 246 b

Rubens, 231 h

Van Dyck, 233 k

Velasquez, 236 k

Nio. Poussin, 251 e

Caravaggio, 252 d Fal. Barber in i (Picture Gallery)

Alb. Durer, 107 a

Justus V. Gent, 113 note

Raphael, 148 b

Polidoro, 167 t

Titian, 191 d

Palma Vecchio, 191 d

Guido Reni, 235 a

BiUverti, 249 y

Domenichino^ 249 t

Claude Lorraine, 257 g (Upper rooms)

Maratta, 227 a

Cortona, 230 ef, 251 p Casa Bartkoldy

Zuccaro, 216 e, 217 d Fal. Borghese

Lor. di Credi, 69 k

Antonello da Messina, 85 e

Giov. Bellini, 88/

Perugino, 94 a

Pintuiicchio, 97

F. Francia, 100 e

A. Durer, 107 d

South German or Flemish, 108 %

Lucas Kranach, 108 e

Lionardo, or Giov. Pedrini. 115 6

After Lionardo, lib d

Salaino, \\5d

Ogione, \\5 d

Solario, 122 e

After M. Angelo, 127 d

S. del Piombo, 128 b


282


Index of Places.


Boms — continued Fah Borghese

Fra. Bartolommeo and Mariotto,

131^ A. del Sarto, 132 Cy h Giul. Bugiardini, 136 k Haphael, 140 c After Baphael, 141 by 148 d and

note, 163 note Giulio Bomano, 164 a, d Tim. della Vite, 168 note Mazzolino, 169 ff Garofalo, 169 m, g Ortolano, 170 i Bosso, 171 i Sodoma, 174 m, % Da Sesto, 174 «  Peruzzi, 176 h Correggio, 182 c Parmegianino, 148 note, 183 e Giorgione, 185 k P. della Vecchia, 186 k Lotto, 189 q Pordenone, 189 r Caracci, 189 r Titian, 196/ After Titian, 196 g^ i Bonifazio, 198 h Cariani, 199^ B. Pordenone, 203^, q Zuccaro, 217 ^ Scip. Gaetano, 217 n Cambiaso, 219 b Valentin, 229 g Van Dyck, 232 i, 233/ Saechi, 236 d Sassoferrato, 148 (f, 245/ Oaravaggio, 245 o Spagnoietto, 246 h Domenichino, 250 /•;, I Albani, 250 q Flemish, 253 g Mario de' Fiori, 253/ Bourguignon, 254 b FaL del Bufalo

Polidoro, 167 g Fah Chigi

Garofalo, 170/ Fud. Oolonna Avanzi, 48 e Stefano da Zevio, 50 d Lor. di Credi, 70 e AlunnOy 92 a Spagna, 98 b Bosch & Cranach, 106 k Giulio Bomano, 164/ Garofalo, 170 d Palma Vecchio, 188 h


Bomb — continued F. Oolonna

Bonifazio, 198 i Bordone, 205 o Tintoretto, 206 e Bronzino ? 215 note M. Venuflti, 215 note Scip. Graetano, 217 nt Morrealese, 224 Ann. Caracci, 225 f Sim. da Pesaro, 228/ Bubens, 232 d Van Dyck, 233 i N. Poussin, 251 a Castiglione, 253 i M. Bril, 255 a SalY. Bosa, 256 i G. Poussin, 256 r Painted Ceilings, 252 b F, Corsini

Fiesole, 63/ Ercole Grandi, 76 a Qu. Metsys? 106 After M. Angelo, 127/ Mariotto & Fra Baxto, 131 % Fra Bartolommeo, 138 note Polidoro, 167 g Baroccio, 218 d Later Boman Painters, 227 c Cortona, 230/ Maratta, 230 8, 245 i Bubens, 231 g Murillo, 235/ Carayaggio, 238 d Lod. Caracci, 239 g Carlo Dolci. 241 A, 243 a Guercino, 243 a P. F. Mohij 244 c £lis. Sirani, 245 g Guide Beni, 243 a, 249 q Callot, 253 c G. Poussin, 256 t Tassi, 257 b Pannini, 257 n FaL Costaguti

Domenichino, 250 m Guercino, 250 m Albani, 250 on Lanfranco, 250 m Fal. Doria

Pesellino, 67

Mante^a? IT h

Parentino, 77 h

Mazzola, 82 n

Giov. Bellini, 88/

Bondinelli, 90 k

Memling, 104 <^ « 

Qu. Metsya and School, 106 d


Index of Places.


283


'BifxxR'-contimted J*aL Doria

After M. Angelo, 127 h

Bronzino, 134 i;

Baphael, 147 o

After Raphael, 147 h

Mazzolino, 169 h

Garofalo, 170 a^ e

Dosso, 171 i

Oorreggio, 182 d

S. del riombo, 186 k

Lor. Lotto, 189 r

Titian, 192 d

G. A. Pordenone, 202 q, 203 a

Bomanino, 203

B. Pordenone, 204 b

P. Bordone, 205 p

Scip. Gnetano, 217 o

Saraceni, 229/, 238 », 251 o

MHratta, 230 t

Bubens, 232 </

Plemish portraits, 233 /

Livens, 234/

Velasquez, z35 i

Sassot'errato, 238 k, 245 n

Ann. Caracci, 239 A, 255, 256 a

Honthorst, 252/

Giordano, 252 u

Calabrese, 252 o

Breughel, 254 k

The Bassani, 255

Appollonio da Bassano, 255

G.B. Dossi,255

Torregiani, 256 o

G. Poussin, 256 s

Claude Lorraine, 257 d

Swaneyelt, 257 k Tal. Faniese (Gallerj)

Garacci, 226 a, 227 m, 250 ^ (Other rooms)

Zuccaro, 216 a JPalace of t/te Lateran

(Upper rooms) Muse