From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
- "Painting is an essentially concrete art and can only consist in the representation of real and existing things" --Courbet, 1861
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819–31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting, best-known today for paintings such as The Origin of the World, The Stonebreakers and Burial at Ornans.
Best known as an innovator in Realism (and credited with coining the term), Courbet was a painter of figurative compositions, landscapes and seascapes. He also worked with social issues, and addressed peasantry and the grave working conditions of the poor. His work belonged neither to the predominant Romantic nor Neoclassical schools. Rather, Courbet believed the Realist artist's mission was the pursuit of truth, which would help erase social contradictions and imbalances.
For Courbet realism dealt not with the perfection of line and form, but entailed spontaneous and rough handling of paint, suggesting direct observation by the artist while portraying the irregularities in nature. He depicted the harshness in life, and in so doing, challenged contemporary academic ideas of art.
Born in Ornans (Doubs), into a prosperous farming family which wanted him to study law, he went to Paris in 1839, and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse. An independent spirit, he soon left, preferring to develop his own style by studying Spanish, Flemish and French painters and painting copies of their work.
Among his early works, he painted his own portrait with his dog, and The Man with a Pipe, both of which the Paris Salon jury rejected. However, the younger critics, the Neo-romantics and Realists, loudly sang his praises, and by 1849 Courbet was becoming well known, producing such pictures as After Dinner at Ornans (for which the Salon awarded him a medal) and The Valley of the Loire.
Courbet was born in 1819 to Régis and Sylvie Oudot Courbet in Ornans (Doubs). Though a prosperous farming family, anti-monarchical feelings prevailed in the household. (His maternal grandfather fought in the French Revolution.) Courbet's sisters, Zoé, Zélie and Juliette, were his first models for drawing and painting. After moving to Paris he returned home to Ornans often to hunt, fish and find inspiration.
He went to Paris in 1839 and worked at the studio of Steuben and Hesse. An independent spirit, he soon left, preferring to develop his own style by studying Spanish, Flemish and French painters and painting copies of their work.
His first works were an Odalisque suggested by the writing of Victor Hugo and a Lélia illustrating George Sand, but he soon abandoned literary influences for the study of real subject matter. Among his paintings of the early 1840s are several self-portraits, Romantic in conception, in which the artist portrayed himself in various roles. These include Self-Portrait with Black Dog (c. 1842–1844, accepted for exhibition at the 1844 Paris Salon), the theatrical Self-Portrait which also known as Desperate Man (c. 1843–45), Lovers in the Countryside (1844, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyon), The Sculptor (1845), The Wounded Man (1844–1854, Musée d'Orsay, Paris), The Cellist, Self-Portrait (1847, Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, shown at the 1848 Salon), and The Man with a Pipe (c. 1848–1849, Musée d'Orsay, Paris).
Courbet achieved greater recognition after the success of his painting After Dinner at Ornans at the Salon of 1849. The work, reminiscent of Chardin and Le Nain, earned Courbet a gold medal and was purchased by the state. The gold medal meant that his works would no longer require jury approval for exhibition at the Salon—an exemption Courbet enjoyed until 1857 when the rule changed).
In 1849 Courbet painted Stone-Breakers, which was destroyed in the British bombing of Dresden in 1945, which Proudhon admired as an icon of peasant life, and has been called "the first of his great works". The painting was inspired by a scene Courbet witnessed on the roadside. He later explained to Champfleury and the writer Francis Wey, "It is not often that one encounters so complete an expression of poverty and so, right then and there I got the idea for a painting. I told them to come to my studio the next morning."
A Burial at Ornans
The Salon of 1850–1851 found him triumphant with Stone-Breakers, the Peasants of Flagey and A Burial at Ornans. The Burial, one of Courbet's most important works, records the funeral of his grand uncle which he attended in September 1848. People who attended the funeral were the models for the painting. Previously, models had been used as actors in historical narratives, but in Burial Courbet said he "painted the very people who had been present at the interment, all the townspeople". The result is a realistic presentation of them, and of life, in Ornans.
The painting, which drew both praise and fierce denunciations from critics and the public, measures 10 by 22 feet (3.1 by 6.6 meters), depicting a prosaic ritual on a scale which previously would have been reserved for a religious or royal subject.
According to art historian Sarah Faunce, "In Paris the Burial was judged as a work that had thrust itself into the grand tradition of history painting, like an upstart in dirty boots crashing a genteel party, and in terms of that tradition it was of course found wanting."
The painting lacks the sentimental rhetoric that was expected in a genre work: Courbet's mourners make no theatrical gestures of grief, and their faces seemed more caricatured than ennobled. The critics accused Courbet of a deliberate pursuit of ugliness.
Eventually, the public grew more interested in the new Realist approach, and the lavish, decadent fantasy of Romanticism lost popularity. The artist well understood the importance of the painting. Courbet said of it, "The Burial at Ornans was in reality the burial of Romanticism."
Courbet became a celebrity, and was spoken of as a genius, a "terrible socialist" and a "savage". He actively encouraged the public's perception of him as an unschooled peasant. While his ambition, his bold pronouncements to journalists, and his insistence on depicting his own life in his art gave him a reputation for unbridled vanity.
Courbet associated his ideas of realism in art with political anarchism, and, having gained an audience, he promoted democratic and socialist ideas by writing politically motivated essays and dissertations. His familiar visage was the object of frequent caricature in the popular French press.
To a friend in 1850 he wrote,
- ...in our so very civilized society it is necessary for me to live the life of a savage. I must be free even of governments. The people have my sympathies, I must address myself to them directly.
During the 1850s Courbet painted numerous figurative works using common folk and friends as his subjects, such as Village Damsels (1852), the Wrestlers (1853), Bathers (1853), The Sleeping Spinner (1853) and The Wheat Sifters (1854).
The Artist's Studio
In 1855, Courbet submitted fourteen paintings for exhibition at the Exposition Universelle. Three were rejected for lack of space, including A Burial at Ornans and his other monumental canvas The Artist's Studio.
Refusing to be denied, Courbet took matters into his own hands. He displayed forty of his paintings, including The Artist's Studio, in his own gallery called The Pavilion of Realism which was a temporary structure that he erected next door to the official Salon-like Exposition Universelle.
Although artists like Eugène Delacroix were ardent champions of his effort, the public went to the show mostly out of curiosity and to deride him. Attendance and sales were disappointing, but Courbet's status as a hero to the French avant-garde became assured. He was admired by the American James McNeill Whistler, and he became an inspiration to the younger generation of French artists including Édouard Manet and the Impressionist painters, many of whom were still in art school. The painting was recognized as a masterpiece by Delacroix, Baudelaire, and Champfleury.
The work is an allegory of Coubet's life as a painter, seen as an heroic venture, in which he is flanked by friends and admirers on the right, and challenges and opposition to the left. Friends on the right include the art critics Champfleury, and Charles Baudelaire, and art collector Alfred Bruyas. On the left are figures (priest, prostitute, grave digger, merchant and others) who represent what Courbet described in a letter to Champfleury as "the other world of trivial life, the people, misery, poverty, wealth, the exploited and the exploiters, the people who live off death."
In the Paris Salon of 1857 Courbet showed six paintings. These included the scandalous Young Ladies on the Banks of the Seine (Summer), depicting two prostitutes under a tree, as well as the first of many hunting scenes Courbet was to paint during the remainder of his life: Hind at Bay in the Snow and The Quarry. By exhibiting sensational works alongside hunting scenes of the sort that had brought popular success to the English painter Edwin Landseer, Courbet guaranteed himself "both notoriety and sales". During the 1860s, Courbet painted a series of increasingly erotic works such as Femme nue couchée. This culminated in The Origin of the World (L'Origine du monde) (1866), which depicts female genitalia and was not publicly exhibited until 1988, and Le Sommeil (1866), featuring two women in bed. The latter painting became the subject of a police report when it was exhibited by a picture dealer in 1872.
By the 1870s Courbet had become well established as one of the leading artists in France. On 14 April 1870, Courbet established a "Federation of Artists" (Fédération des artistes) for the free and uncensored expansion of art. The group's members included André Gill, Honoré Daumier, Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Eugène Pottier, Jules Dalou, and Édouard Manet.
Until about 1861, Napoléon's regime exhibited authoritarian characteristics, using press censorship to prevent the spread of opposition, manipulating elections, and depriving the Parliament of the right to free debate or any real power. In the decade of the 1860s, however, Napoléon III made more concessions to placate his liberal opponents. This change began by allowing free debates in Parliament and public reports of parliamentary debates, continued with the relaxation of press censorship, and culminated in the appointment of the Liberal Émile Ollivier, previously a leader of the opposition to Napoléon's regime, as (effectively) Prime Minister in 1870. As a sign of appeasement to the Liberals who admired Courbet, Napoleon III nominated him to the Legion of Honour in 1870. His refusal of the cross of the Legion of Honour offered to him by Napoleon III angered those in power but made him immensely popular with those who opposed the current regime, and in 1871 under the revolutionary Paris Commune he was placed in charge of all the Paris art museums and saved them from looting mobs. However when the power shifted back to the old guard Courbet found himself in an untenable political position.
Exile and death
- "Inasmuch as the Vendôme column is a monument devoid of all artistic value, tending to perpetuate by its expression the ideas of war and conquest of the past imperial dynasty, which are reproved by a republican nation's sentiment, citizen Courbet expresses the wish that the National Defense government will authorise him to disassemble this column."
This project was not adopted, but, on April 12, 1871, the dismantling of the imperial symbol was voted, and the column taken down on May 8, with no intentions of rebuilding it. The bronze plates were preserved.
For his insistence in executing the Communal decree for the destruction of the Vendôme Column, he was designated as responsible for the act and accordingly sentenced on 2 September 1871 by a Versailles court martial to six months in prison and a fine of 500 francs. During his incarceration, Courbet painted several still-life compositions. In 1872 he depicted his imprisonment in the Self-Portrait at Ste.-Pélagie.
After the assault on the Paris Commune by Adolphe Thiers, head of the new provisional national government, the decision was taken to rebuild the column with its statue of Napoléon. In 1873, the newly elected president Mac-Mahon wanted to resurrect the Column, On his own previous proposition, Gustave Courbet was singled out and condemned to pay the expenses. Unable to pay, Courbet went into a self-imposed exile in Switzerland to avoid bankruptcy. The next years he participated quite actively in some regional and national exhibitions. Observed by the intelligence service he enjoyed in the small Swiss art world the dubious reputation as head of the “realist school” and inspired younger artists like Auguste Baud-Bovy and Ferdinand Hodler.
From this period date several paintings of trout, "hooked and bleeding from the gills", that have been interpreted as allegorical self-portraits of the exiled artist.
On 4 May 1877, the estimate of the costs was finally established: 323,091 fr 68 cent. Courbet was allowed to pay the fine in yearly installments of 10,000 francs for the next 33 years, until his 91st birthday. On 31 December 1877, a day before the payment of the first installment was due, Courbet died, age 58, in La Tour-de-Peilz, Switzerland, of a liver disease aggravated by heavy drinking.
Courbet was admired by many younger artists. Claude Monet included a portrait of Courbet in his own version of Le dejeuner sur l'herbe from 1865-1866. Courbet's particular kind of realism influenced many artists to follow, notably among them the German painters of the Leibl circle, James McNeill Whistler, and Paul Cézanne. Courbet's influence can also be seen in the work of Edward Hopper, whose "Bridge in Paris" (1906) and "Approaching a City" (1946) have been described as Freudian echoes of Courbet's "The Source of the Loue" and "The Origin of the World."
An exhibition of his works was held in 1882 at the École des Beaux-Arts.
A major exhibition of Courbet's work, "The Born Rebel Artist", opened in 2007 at the Grand Palais, and traveled to the Musée Fabre (Montpellier, France) and the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City) during 2008.
'Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet!': The Bruyas Collection from the Musée Fabre,' 2004 exhibition at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute of Courbet's works from the collection of Alfred Bruyas, now at the Musée Fabre.
Selected list of works
More complete list of works
- La Biche morte, musée d'Oran : volé en 1986, aurait été retrouvée en 2001
- L'Enfant et la Vierge, musée d'Oran ; également volé en 1986, ces deux œuvres sont recherchées par interpol.
- Portrait de Régis Courbet, vers 1840, huile sur toile, 73 x 59,5 cm, coll. part.
- L'Embouchure de la Seine, 1841, palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille
- Autoportrait au chien noir, 1842, huile sur toile, 27 x 23 cm, Pontarlier, musée de Pontarlier
- Portrait de Paul Ansout, 1842-1843, huile sur toile, 81 x 62,5 cm, Dieppe, château-musée de Dieppe
- Portrait de l'artiste dit Le Désespéré, 1843-1845, huile sur toile, 45 x 54 cm, coll. part.
- Courbet au chien noir, 1842-1844, huile sur toile, 46 x 56 cm, Paris, musée du Petit Palais
- Les Amants dans la campagne, 1844, huile sur toile, 77 x 60 cm, Lyon, musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon
- Le Coup des dames, 1844, huile sur toile, 25 x 34 cm, Caracas, coll. Adolfo Hauser
- Loth et ses filles, 1844, huile sur toile, 89 x 116 cm, coll. part.
- Le Hamac, 1844, huile sur toile, 71 x 97 cm, Winterthur, coll. Oskar Reinhart
- Portrait de Juliette Courbet, 1844, huile sur toile, 72 x 62 cm, Paris, musée du Petit Palais
- Jeune homme dans un paysage dit Le Guitarrero, 1844, huile sur toile, 55 x 41 cm, coll. part.
- Jeune fille à la balançoire ou Sara la Baigneuse, 1845, huile sur bois, 69 x 52 cm, Nantes, musée des Beaux-Arts de Nantes
- Le Sculpteur, 1845, huile sur toile, 55 x 41 cm, coll. part.
- Portrait de l'artiste dit L'Homme à la ceinture de cuir, 1845-1846, huile sur toile, 100 x 82 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay
- Portrait de H. J. Van Wisselingh, 1846, huile sur toile, 57,2 x 46 cm, Fort Worth, Tx, Kimbell Art Museum
- Portrait d'Urbain Cuenot, 1846, huile sur toile, 55,5 x 46,5, Ornans, musée Courbet
- Sentier enneigé en forêt, huile sur toile, Châlons en Champagne, musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie de Châlons-en-Champagne
- Portrait de Baudelaire, vers 1848, huile sur toile, 54 x 65 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- L'Homme à la pipe (autoportrait), 1848-1849, huile sur toile, 45 x 37 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- Les Casseurs de pierres, 1849, 159 x 259 cm. Détruit pendant les bombardements alliés sur la ville de Dresde en février 1945 (le tableau se trouvait à la Gemäldegalerie) voir Bombardement de Dresde.
- Le Casseur de pierres, 1849, 45 x 54,5 cm, version avec un seul personnage (le vieux), Milan, collection particulière
- L'Après-dînée à Ornans 1848-49, huile sur toile, 195 × 257 cm, palais des Beaux-arts, Lille
- Un enterrement à Ornans, 1850, musée d'Orsay, Paris, à son sujet, le critique parisien Champfleury avait écrit Template:Citation
- Portrait d'Hector Berlioz, 1850, huile sur toile, 61 x 48 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay
- Les Demoiselles de village, 1851, huile sur toile, 195 x 261 cm, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Portrait d'Adolphe Marlet, 1851, huile sur toile, 56 x 46 cm, Dublin, National Gallery of Ireland Collection
- Les Baigneuses, 1853, huile sur toile, 227 x 193 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- La Fileuse endormie, 1853, huile sur toile, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- Portrait d'Alfred Bruyas, 1853, huile sur toile, 91 x 72 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- Courbet au col rayé, 1854, huile sur toile, 46 x 37 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- La Rencontre ou Bonjour Monsieur Courbet, 1854, huile sur toile, 129 x 149 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- Les Bords de la mer à Palavas, 1854, musée Malraux , Le Havre
- Le Bord de la mer à Palavas, 1854, huile sur toile, 27 x 46 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- Les Cribleuses de blé, 1854, musée des Beaux-Arts, Nantes
- La Mère Grégoire, 1855-1859, 129 x 97.5 cm, huile sur toile Institut d'Art de Chicago, Chicago
- L'Atelier du peintre, 1855, musée d'Orsay, Paris
- Les Demoiselles des bords de la Seine, 1856, huile sur toile, 174 x 206 cm, Paris, musée du Petit Palais
- La Curée, 1856, huile sur toile, 210,2 x 183,5, Boston, M.A., musée des beaux-arts de Boston
- La Bretonnerie dans le département de l'Indre, 1856, huile sur toile, 60.8 x 73.3 cm, Washington, National Gallery of Art
- Portrait de M. Gueymard, artiste de l'Opéra, 1857, huile sur toile, 148,6 x 406,7 cm, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Le Pont d'Ambrussum, 1857, huile sur papier marouflé sur bois, 48 x 63 cm, Montpellier, musée Fabre
- La Mer à Palavas, 1858, musée Fabre, Montpellier
- La Dame de Francfort, 1858, huile sur toile, 104 x 104 cm, Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz Museum
- Vue de Francfort-sur-le-main, 1858, huile sur toile, 53,5 x 78 cm, Francfort-sur-le-Main, Städelsches Kunstinstitut
- Le Chasseur allemand, 1858, huile sur toile, Lons-le-Saunier, musée des Beaux-arts
- Le Retour de la Conférence, 1863, détruit
- La Source de la Loue, 1863, huile sur toile, 84 x 106,5 cm, Zurich, Kunsthaus Zürich
- Portrait de Laure Borreau, 1863, huile sur toile, 81 x 59 cm, Cleveland, OH, The Cleveland Museum of Art
- Le Chêne de Flagey, appelé Chêne de Vercingétorix 1864, 89 x 110 cm, Murauchi Art Museum, Tōkyō
- Les Sources de la Loue, 1864, 80 x 100 cm, musées royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Bruxelles
- Proudhon et ses enfants, 1865, Petit Palais, Paris
- Marine, 1865, huile sur toile, 53,5 x 64 cm, Cologne, Wallraf-Richartz Museum
- Les Trois Anglaises à la fenêtre, 1865, huile sur toile, 92,5 x 72,5 cm, Copenhague, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
- Le Ruisseau couvert ou Le Ruisseau du Puits noir, 1865, huile sur toile, 94 x 135 cm, Paris, musée d'Orsay
- La Femme au perroquet, 1866, 129.5 x 195.6 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- L'Origine du monde, 1866, musée d'Orsay, Paris
- Le Sommeil, 1866, huile sur toile, 135 x 200 cm, Petit Palais, Paris
- La Trombe, 1866, 43 x 56 cm, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphie
- La Pauvresse de village, 1866, huile sur toile, 86 x 126 cm, coll. part.
- La Remise des chevreuils en hiver, 1866, huile sur toile, (54 x 72,5), musée des Beaux-arts de Lyon
- L'Hallali du cerf ou Épisode de chasse à courre sur un terrain de neige, 1867, huile sur toile, 355 x 505 cm, Besançon, musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie
- Jo l'Irlandaise, 1866, huile sur toile, 54 x 65 cm, Stockholm, Nationalmuseum
- Pendant le reste de la saison de récolte, 1867, huile sur toile, 71 x 91,5 cm, Paris, musée du Petit Palais
- La Femme à la vague, 1868, huile sur toile, 65 x 54 cm, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Femme nue au chien, 1868, huile sur toile, 65 x 81 cm, musée d'Orsay, Paris
- La Vague, 1869, musée Malraux, Le Havre
- La Vague, vers 1869/1870, huile sur toile, 63 x 91,5 cm, Francfort-sur-le-Main, Städelsches Kunstinstitut
- Mer calme, 1869, 59,7 x 73 cm, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
- La Falaise d'Étretat, après l'orage, (1869), 162 x 133 cm .
- La Falaise d'Étretat, 1869, huile sur toile, 93 x 114 cm, Wuppertal, Von der Heydt-Museum
- L'Hiver, 1868, 61 x 81 cm, collection privée, France
- Portrait de Chenavard, 1869, huile sur toile, 54 x 46 cm, Lyon, musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon
- La Truite, gonflée et blessée est une allusion à la destinée de l'artiste, 1871, huile sur toile,52,5 x 87 cm, Zurich, Kunsthaus Zürich
- Portrait de l'artiste à Sainte-Pélagie, vers 1872, huile sur toile, 92 x 72 cm Ornans, musée Courbet
- Pommes rouges au pied d'un arbre, 1871-1872, huile sur toile, 50,5 x 61,5 cm, Munich, Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen
- Le Château de Chillon, 1874, 80 x 100 cm, musée Gustave-Courbet, Ornans
- Coucher de soleil sur le Léman, 1874, 55 x 65 cm, musée Jenisch, Vevey
- La Vigneronne de Montreux , 1874, 100 x 81,5 cm, musée cantonal des Beaux-arts, Lausanne
- Le Lac Léman soleil couchant, vers 1876, huile sur toile, 74 x 100 cm, Saint-Gall, Kunstmuseum
- Grand panorama des Alpes, la Dent du Midi, 1877, huile sur toile, 151 x 203 cm, Cleveland, OH, Cleveland Museum of Art
- Champfleury, Les Grandes Figures d’hier et d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1861)
- Chu, Petra ten Doesschate. Courbet in Perspective. (Prentice Hall, 1977) ASIN B000OIFL3E
- Chu, Petra ten Doesschate and Gustave Courbet. Letters of Gustave Courbet. (Chicago: Univ Chicago Press, 1992) ISBN 0226116530
- Chu, Petra ten Doesschate. The Most Arrogant Man in France: Gustave Courbet and the Nineteenth-Century Media Culture.(Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007) ISBN 0691126798
- Clark, Timothy J., Image of the People: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 Revolution, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); (Originally published 1973. Based on his doctoral dissertation along with The Absolute Bourgeois: Artists and Politics in France, 1848-1851), 208pp. ISBN 978-0520217454. (Considered the definitive treatment of Courbet's politics and painting in 1848, and a foundational text of Marxist art history).
- Danto, Arthur (January 23, 1989). "Courbet". The Nation: 97–100.
- Faunce, Sarah, Gustave Courbet, and Linda Nochlin. Courbet Reconsidered. ([Brooklyn, N.Y.]: Brooklyn Museum, 1988) ISBN 0300042981
- Fischer, Matthias, Der junge Hodler. Eine Künstlerkarriere 1872-1897, Wädenswil: Nimbus, 2009. ISBN 978-3-907142-30-1
- Forster-Hahn, Françoise, et al., Spirit of an Age: Nineteenth-Century Paintings From the Nationalgalerie, Berlin (London: National Gallery Company, 2001) ISBN 1-85709-981-8
- Hutchinson, Mark, "The history of 'The Origin of the World'", Times Literary Supplement, Aug. 8, 2007.
- Lindsay, Jack. Gustave Courbet his life and art. Publ. Jupiter Books (London) Limited 1977.
- Lemonnier, C, Les Peintres de la Vie (Paris, 1888).
- Mantz, "G. Courbet," Gaz. des beaux-arts (Paris, 1878)
- Masanès, Fabrice, Gustave Courbet (Cologne: Taschen, 2006) ISBN 3822856835
- Nochlin, Linda, Courbet, (London: Thames & Hudson, 2007) ISBN 978-0-500-28676-0
- Nochlin, Linda, Realism: Style and Civilization (New York: Penguin, 1972).
- Noël, Bernard, Dictionnaire de la Commune (Paris: Champs Flammarion, 1978)
- Schwabsky, Barry (March 24, 2008). "Daring Intransigence". The Nation: 28–34.
- Zola, Émile, Mes Haines (Paris, 1879)
- Eros and Courbet
- History of painting
- Western painting
- I have studied the art of the masters and the art of the moderns, avoiding any preconceived system and without prejudice