Cosmetic surgery  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Cosmetic surgery is an optional procedure of plastic surgery that is performed on normal parts of the body with the only purpose of improving a person’s appearance and/or removing signs of aging. In 2006, nearly 11 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone.

The most prevalent aesthetic/cosmetic procedures include:

  • Abdominoplasty ("tummy tuck"): reshaping and firming of the abdomen
  • Blepharoplasty ("eyelid surgery"): reshaping of the eyelids or the application of permanent eyeliner, including Asian blepharoplasty
  • Phalloplasty ("penile liposuction") : construction (or reconstruction) of a penis or, sometimes, artificial modification of the penis by surgery, often for cosmetic purposes
  • Mammoplasty:
    • Breast augmentations ("breast implant" or "boob job"): augmentation of the breasts by means of fat grafting, saline, or silicone gel prosthetics, which was initially performed to women with micromastia
    • Reduction mammoplasty ("breast reduction"): removal of skin and glandular tissue, which is done to reduce back and shoulder pain in women with gigantomastia and/or for psychological benefit men with gynecomastia
    • Mastopexy ("breast lift"): Lifting or reshaping of breasts to make them less saggy, often after weight loss (after a pregnancy, for example). It involves removal of breast skin as opposed to glandular tissue
  • Buttock augmentation ("butt implant"): enhancement of the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting ("Brazilian butt lift") and transfer from other areas of the body
    • Buttock lift: lifting, and tightening of the buttocks by excision of redundant skin
  • Chemical peel: minimizing the appearance of acne, chicken pox, and other scars as well as wrinkles (depending on concentration and type of agent used, except for deep furrows), solar lentigines (age spots, freckles), and photodamage in general. Chemical peels commonly involve carbolic acid (Phenol), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), glycolic acid (AHA), or salicylic acid (BHA) as the active agent.
  • Cryolipolysis: refers to a medical device used to destroy fat cells. Its principle relies on controlled cooling for non-invasive local reduction of fat deposits to reshape body contours. In September 2010, the Food and Drug Administration approved the non surgical Zeltiq device for the purpose of selective fat reduction for “cryolipolysis”.
  • Cryoneuromodulation: Treatment of superficial and subcutaneous tissue structures using gaseous nitrous oxide, including temporary wrinkle reduction, temporary pain reduction, treatment of dermatologic conditions, and focal cryo-treatment of tissue
  • Labiaplasty: surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia
  • Lip enhancement: surgical improvement of lips' fullness through enlargement
  • Rhinoplasty ("nose job"): reshaping of the nose
  • Otoplasty ("ear surgery"/"ear pinning"): reshaping of the ear, most often done by pinning the protruding ear closer to the head.
  • Rhytidectomy ("face lift"): removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face
    • Neck lift: tightening of lax tissues in the neck. This procedure is often combined with a facelift for lower face rejuvenation.
    • Browplasty ("brow lift" or "forehead lift"): elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin
    • Midface lift ("cheek lift"): tightening of the cheeks
  • Genioplasty ("chin implant"): augmentation of the chin with an implant, usually silicone, by sliding genioplasty of the jawbone or by suture of the soft tissue
  • Cheek augmentation ("cheek implant"): implants to the cheek
  • Orthognathic Surgery: manipulation of the facial bones through controlled fracturing
  • Fillers injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections, such as hyaluronic acid
  • Brachioplasty ("Arm lift"): reducing excess skin and fat between the underarm and the elbow
  • Laser Skin Rejuvenation or Resurfacing:The lessening of depth in pores of the face
  • Liposuction ("suction lipectomy"): removal of fat deposits by traditional suction technique or ultrasonic energy to aid fat removal
  • Keloid removal - The keloid forms when the body fails to stop producing new tissue during healing. This leads to an overabundance of fibrous protein and collagen.


See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Cosmetic surgery" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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