Call and response  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Call and response is a form of "spontaneous verbal and non-verbal interaction between speaker and listener in which all of the statements ('calls') are punctuated by expressions ('responses') from the listener", as stated by Smitherman.

In African cultures, call and response is a pervasive pattern of democratic participation — in public gatherings, in the discussion of civic affairs, in religious rituals, as well as in vocal and instrumental musical expression (see call and response in music). It is this tradition that African bondsmen and women have transmitted over the years in various forms of expression — in religious observance; public gatherings; even in children's rhymes; and, most notably, in black music in its multiple forms: gospel, blues, rhythm and blues, jazz and jazz extensions, and hip-hop.

However, modern anthropologists believe the origins of African-American call and response religious meetings derives from the religious practices of original Scottish settlers to the South, whose Protestant religion influenced African-American culture.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Call and response" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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