Bernardino Ramazzini  

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Bernardino Ramazzini (3 November 1633 – 5 November 1714) was an Italian physician.(Italian pronunciation: ['bernardino ramat'tsini])

Ramazzini was an early proponent of the use of cinchona bark (from which quinine is derived) in the treatment of Malaria. His most important contribution to medicine was his book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers).

Occupational Medicine

His book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers) outlined the health hazards of chemicals, dust, metals, repetitive or violent motions, odd postures, and other disease-causative agents encountered by workers in 52 occupations. This was one of the founding and seminal works of occupational medicine and played a substantial role in its development.

He proposed that physicians should extend the list of questions that Hippocrates recommended they ask their patients by adding, "What is your occupation?".

He is often called "the father of occupational medicine".


In regards to malaria, Ramazzini was one of the first to support the use of the quinine-rich bark cinchona. Many falsely claimed that quinine was toxic and ineffective, but Ramazzini recognized its importance. He is quoted, "It [quinine] did for medicine what gun powder did for war."


He was born in Carpi in 1633. He studied medicine at the University of Parma, where his interest in occupational diseases began. He was appointed to the chair of theory of medicine at University of Modena in 1682. He served as professor of medicine at the University of Padua from 1700 until his death. The first edition of De Morbis was published in 1700 in Modena, the second in 1713 in Padua. He died in Padua in 1714.

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