Bernard Mandeville  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670, Rotterdam – 21 January 1733, Hackney), was a philosopher, political economist and satirist. Born in the Netherlands, he lived most of his life in England and used English for most of his published works. He became famous (or infamous) for The Fable of the Bees.


  • Aesop Dress'd, or a Collection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse (1704)
  • Typhon: a Burlesque Poem (1704)
  • The Planter's Charity (1704)
  • The Virgin Unmasked (1709, 1724, 1731, 1742), a work in which, the coarser side of his nature is prominent
  • A Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (1711, 1715, 1730 (the issue of 1730 was entitled A Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Diseases)) admired by Johnson (Mandeville here protests against speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connection with "stomachic ferment": he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham)
  • The Fable of the Bees (1714)
  • The Mischiefs that Ought Justly to be Apprehended from a Whig-Government (1714)
  • Free Thoughts on Religion, the Church, and National Happiness (1720, 1721, 1723, 1729)
  • A Modest Defence of Publick Stews (1724)
  • An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at Tyburn (1725)
  • An Enquiry into the Origin of Honour, and the Usefulness of Christianity in War (1732)

Other works attributed, wrongly, to him are The World Unmasked (1736) and Zoologia medicinalis hibernica (1744).

See also

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