Ars Amatoria  

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Ars Amatoria ("The Art of Love") is a series of three books by the Roman poet Ovid. Written in verse, their guiding theme is the art of seduction. The first two, written for men about 1 BC to AD 1, deal with 'winning women's hearts' and 'keeping the loved one', respectively. The third, addressed to women telling them how to best attract men, was written somewhat later.

The publication of the Ars Amatoria may have been at least partly responsible for Ovid's banishment to the provinces by the Emperor Augustus. Ovid’s celebration of extramarital love must have seemed an intolerable affront to a regime that sought to promote ‘family values’. When finally in AD 8 Ovid’s position in Rome became untenable, it was because of the error (‘mistake’), about whose nature there has been much inconclusive speculation, and the carmen (‘poem’), which is presumably the Ars Amatoria (Tristia 2.207: Perdiderint... me duo crimina, carmen et error).

For the modern reader part of the appeal of the Ars Amatoria lies in the vivid snapshots of contemporary Roman life.


Genre and tradition

The Ars amatoria is, on one of its many levels, a burlesque satire on didactic poetry. While claiming 'Aeacidae Chiron, ego sum praeceptor Amoris' ('As Chiron was to Achilles, so I am to Cupid' - in other words, 'I taught Cupid everything he knows'), Ovid hardly offers lore of great potency to his eager disciples. He advises that, if one is accompanying a lady to the horse-racing in the Circus Maximus, one should gallantly brush the dust from her gown. And if there isn't any dust there, brush it nonetheless. A young man should promise the moon to the object of his affections in letters - even a beggar can be rich in promises. A small woman, meanwhile, would be better advised to receive her suitor lying down... but should make sure that her feet are hidden under her dress, so that her true size is not disclosed.

Although Ovid protests 'Siqua fides arti, quam longo fecimus usu, /Credite: praestabunt carmina nostra fidem' ('If you trust art's promise that I've long employed/ my songs will offer you their promise'), his erotic advice comes less from 'longo usu' than from a literary tradition, especially the two previous exponents of the Latin love-elegy, Propertius and Tibullus, and the (mostly lost) erotic poetry of the Greek Hellenistic period.


The first two books, aimed at men, contain sections titled, for example, 'Don't Forget Her Birthday!', 'Let Her Miss You - But Not For Long' and 'Don't Ask About Her Age'. The third gives similar advice to women: 'Make-Up, But In Private', 'Beware of False Lovers' and 'Try Young and Older Lovers'. In fact, however, Ovid gives no advice that is immediately usable, but employs cryptic allusions, while on the surface treating the subject matter in all its many aspects with the range and intelligence of urbane conversation. His intent is often more profound than the brilliance of the surface suggests. In connection with the revelation that the theatre is a good place to meet girls, for instance, Ovid, the classically educated trickster, refers to the story of the rape of the Sabine women. It has been convincingly argued that this passage represents a radical attempt to redefine relationships between men and women in Roman society, advocating a move away from paradigms of force and possession, towards concepts of mutual fulfilment.

The superficial brilliance, however, dazzles even scholars (paradoxically, Ovid consequently tended in the 20th century to be underrated as lacking in seriousness). The standard situations and cliches of the subject are treated in a highly entertaining way, spiced with ever-colourful details from Greek mythology, everyday Roman life and general human experience. Ovid likens love to military service, supposedly requiring the strictest obedience to the beloved woman. Women, meanwhile, he advises to make their lovers artificially jealous so that they do not become neglectful through complacency. For this purpose, a slave should be instructed to interrupt the lovers' tryst with the cry 'Perimus' ('We are lost!'), compelling the young lover to while away some time in a cupboard. Readers can follow the allusive chatter of the poet with a smile, without ever being able to be quite certain how seriously he means any of it. The tension implicit in this uncommitted tone is reminiscent of a flirt, and in fact, the semi-serious, semi-ironic form is ideally suited to Ovid's subject matter.

It is striking that through all his ironic discourse, Ovid never becomes ribald or obscene. Of course 'embarrassing' matters can never be entirely excluded, for 'Alma Dione / Praecipue nostrum est, quod pudet, inquit, opus' '..."what you blush to tell", says Venus, "is the most important part of the whole matter"'. Sexual matters in the narrower sense are only dealt with at the end of each book, so here again, form and content converge in a subtly ingenious way. Things, so to speak, always end up in bed. But here, too, Ovid retains his style and his discretion, avoiding any pornographic tinge. The end of the second book deals with the pleasures of simultaneous orgasm. Somewhat atypically for a Roman, the poet confesses, 'Odi concubitus, qui non utrumque resolvunt. Hoc est, cur pueri tangar amore minus' ('I abhor intercourse which does not relieve both. This is also why I find less pleasure in the love of boys').

At the end of the third part, as in the Kama Sutra, the sexual positions are 'declined', and from them women are exhorted to choose the most suitable, taking the proportions of their own bodies into careful consideration. Ovid's tongue is again discovered in his cheek when his recommendation that tall women should not straddle their lovers is exemplified at the expense of the tallest hero of the Trojan Wars: 'Quod erat longissima, numquam Thebais Hectoreo nupta resedit equo' ('Because she was very tall, the Theban bride (Andromache) never sat on her Hectorian horse').

The polysemous word ars in the title is not, then, to be translated coldly as 'technique', but here really means 'art' in the sense of civilized refinement.


The Ars amatoria exerted considerable fascination from the start, and has remained a widely-read source of inspiration no doubt because of its literary brilliance and popular accessibility. A similar tone is struck on a smaller scale by Martial's Epigrams (late 1st-early 2nd cent. AD). The list of later manifestations of the poem's influence is immense: reference is made to the almost equally extensive literature on the subject. The Ars amatoria was included in the syllabuses of mediaeval schools from the second half of the 11th cent., and its influence on 12th and 13th cent. European literature was so great that the German mediaevalist and palaeographer Ludwig Traube dubbed the entire age 'aetas Ovidiana' ('the Ovidian epoch').

As in the years immediately following its publication, it has also subsequently fallen victim to outbursts (or exhibitions) of moral opprobrium. All of Ovid's works were burned by Savonarola in Florence in 1497; Christopher Marlowe's translation was banned in 1599, and another English translation of the Ars amatoria was seized by US Customs in 1930. (by J. Lewis May?)

It seems possible that Edmond Rostand's fictionalized portrayal of Cyrano de Bergerac makes an allusion to the Ars amatoria: the theme of the erotic and seductive power of poetry is highly suggestive of Ovid's poem, and Bergerac's nose, a distinguishing feature invented by Rostand, calls to mind Ovid's cognomen, Naso (from nasus, 'large-nosed').

See also


Full text[1]





1 9 19,


Should any one of the people not know the art of loving, let him read me ; and taught by me, on reading my lines, let him love. By art the ships are onward sped by sails and oars ; by art are the light chariots, by art is Love, to be guided. In the chariot and in the flowing reins was Automedon skilled : in the Haemonian ship of Jason Tiphys was the pilot. Me, too, skUled in my craft, has Venus made the guardian of Love. Of Cupid the Tiphys and the Automedon shall I be styled. Unruly indeed he is, and one who oft rebels against me ; but he is a child ; his age is tender and easy to be governed. The son of PhUlyra made the boy Achilles skilled at the lyre ; and with his sooth- ing art he subdued his ferocious disposition. He who so oft alarmed his own companions, so oft the foe, i's believed to have stood in dread of an aged man fuU of years. Those hands which Hector was doomed to feel, at the request of his mkster he held out for stripes' as commanded. Chiron was the pre- ceptor of the grandson of iEacus, I of Love. Both of the boys were wild ; both of a Goddess born. But yet the neck of even the buU is laden with the plough ; and the reins are champed by the teeth of the spirited steed. To me, too, wUI Love yield ; though, with his bow, he should wound my breast, and should brandishhis torches hurled against me. The more that Love has pierced me, the more has he relentlessly inflamed me ; so much the fitter avenger shaU I be of the wounds so made.

Phoebus, 1 pretend not that these arts were bestowed on me

> For strtpes.'] — Ver. 16. Statius, in the Thcbaid, ineiitLons the strict. Deas of the discipline of Chiron. See the Ajnores, Bo}k i. £1. xiii. i. 18.

380 ABs AMAtOftlA ; [»■ «• 2&-56,

by thee; nor by the notes of the birds of the air am I inspired. Neither Clio nor the sisters of Clio have been beheld by me, while -watching, AscFa, in thy vajes, my flocks. To this work _exgerience gives rise ; listen to a Poet well-versed. The truth wiU I sing ; Mother of Love, favour my design. Be ye afar," ye with the thin fillets on your hair, the mark of chastity ; and thou, long flounce, which dost conceal the middle of the foot. We win sing of guiltless delights, and of thefts allowed ; and in my song there shall be nought that is criminal. >3t- " In the first place, endeavour to find out an object which you may desire to love, you w ho are now coming for_the^ rst ! time to e ngage as a soldier In a new service. The next task I after ~thatT is to prevail on the fair bv ^ pleasing her. The I third is, for her love to prove of long'tion. This is my I plan,; this space shall -fce marked out by'my^ariot ; this the turning-place to be grazed by ray wheels in their fuU career, -v J/jm^ While you may, and while you are able to proceed with flow- ing reins ; choose one to whomi you may say, " You alone are pleasing to me." She will not come to you gliSing through the 'yielding air; the fair one that suits must be sought with your eyes. The hunter knows full weU. where to extend the toils~f6r the deer ; full well he knows in what vale, dwells the boar gnashing with his teeth. The shrubberies are known to the fowlers. He who holds out the hooKs, knows what waters are swam in by many a fish. You, too, who seek a subject _f aL. enduring love, first learn in what spot the fair are to be met

I "with, in your search, 1 will not bid you give your sails to the windi" nor is a long path to be trodden by you, that you may find her.

Let Perseus bear away his Andromeda from the. tawny In-

  • dians,' and let the Grecian fair be ravished by Paris, the Phry-

gian hero. Rome^will present you damsels as many, and/wWaa fair; so that you will declare, that whatever has been on the

° Be ye afar.'] — Ver. 31. He quotes this and the following line in the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 248, to show that it was not his intention, by his pre- cepts, to inculcate breaches of chastity among the Roman matrons. Sec the Note to the passage, and to the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 30. The ' vitta,' or ' fillet,' was worn solely by women of pure character.

^ The tawny Indians.] — ^Ver. 53. Herodotus considers the ^Ethiopians to be Indians. According to some, the father of Andromeda was king of

Si>xiiopia ; but she is more frequently represented as a native of Joppa, aa

the coast of Syria.

B. I. 56—72.] OB; THE JkET OF lOTE. £81

earth, she possesses. As many ears of corn as Gargara has, as many clasters as Methymna ; as many -fishes as are concealed in the seas, birds in the boughs ; as many stars as* heaven has, so many fair ones does your own Rome contain ; and in hit own City does the mother of .ffineas hcJd her rei^n. Are you charmed by early and stUl dawning years, the maiden in all her genuineness will come before your eyes ; or do you wish a riper fair,' a thousand riper wUl please you ; you will be forced not to know which is your own choice. Or does an age mature and more strJd delight you; this throng too, beUeve me, will be even gre ater. Tf'^t'^T'/StA

Do you only saunter at your leisure in the shade of Pom- pey's Portico,^ when the sun approaches the back of the Lion of Hercules ;' or where the mother^ has aSded her own gifts to those of her son, a work rich in its foreign marble. And let not the Portico of Livia' be shunned by yqu, which, here and there adorned with ancient paintings, bears the name

  • As many stars as.] — ^Ver. 59. Heinsius considers this and tlie next

line to be spurious.

' Wish a riper fair.'] — Ver. 63. ' Juvenis,' applied to a female, would mean something more than a mere girl. ' Juventus ' was that age in which a person was in his best years, from about twenty to forty.

' Pon^ey's Portico.'] — Ver. 67. He alludes to the Portico which had been erected by Pompey at Rome, and was shaded by plane trees and re- freshed by fountains. The Porticos were walks covered with roofs, sup- ported by columns. They were sometimes attached to other buildings, and sometimes were independent of any other edifice. They were much resorted to by those who wished to take exercise without exposure to the heat of the sun. The Porticos of the temples were originally intended for the resort of persons who took part in the rites performed there. Law- suits were sometimes conducted in the Porticos of Home, and goods were sold there.

' The Hon of Hercuks.'] — Ver. 68. The Nemean lion ; which formed the Constellation Leo in the Zodiac.

  • WItere the mother.'] — ^Ver. 69. He alludes to the Theatre and Portico

which Augustus built ; the former of which received the name of his ne- phew Marcellus, the latter of his sister Octavia, the mother of Marcellus. \lter the death of Marcellus, Octavia added a public library to this Portico at her own expense. ' Here there were valuable paintings of Minerva, Philip and Alexander, and Hercules on Mount (Eta. Some suppose that the temple of Concord, built by Livia, and mentioned in the Fasti, is here referred to.

' The Portico o/Livta.] — Ver. 72. The Portico of Livia was near the street called Suburra. This Portico is also mentioned in the Fasti. We learn fygm Strabo that it was near the Via Sacra, or Sacred Street.

382 ' ■• , ABS AMATOIIIA ; [b. i. 72—83,

of its founder. " Where, too, are the grand-daughters of Be- lus, '" who dared to plot death for their •wretched cousins, and where their enraged father stands with his drawn sword. Nor let Adonis, bewaUed by Venus," escape you ; and the seventh holy-day observed by the Jew of Syria." Nor fly from the Memphian temples of Ists the linen-wearing heifer ; she has made many a woman" that which she was herself to Jove, Even the Courts, (who would have believed it ?) are favourable to Love ; and oft in the noisy Forum has the flame been found. Where the erection" of Appius,'° adjoining the temple of Venus, buUt of marble,' beats the air with its shooting stream ;" in

'" Granddaughter* of Belus.'] — Ver. 73. This was the Portico of the Dana'ides, in the temple of Apollo. It is referred to in the Second Elegy of the Second Book of the Amores.

" Bemailed by Venus.'] — Ver. 75. He alludes to the temple of Venus, at Rome, which, according to Juvenal, was notorious as the scene of in- trigues and disgraceful irregularities. It was a custom of the Komans, horrowed from the Assyrians, to lament Adonis in the temple of Venus. See the Tenth Book of the Metamorphoses. This worship of the Assyrians is mentioned by the Prophet Ezekiel, chap. viii. ver. 13, 'women weeping for Thammuz.'

" The Jew of Syria."] — Ver. 76. He alludes to the rites performed in the Synagogues of the Jews of Rome, on the Sabbath, to which numbers of females were attracted, probably by the music. There were great num- bers of Jews at Rome in the reign of Augustus, who were allowed to fol- low their own worship, according to the law of Moses. The jBounan females visiting the Synagogues, assignations and gross irregularities be- came the consequence, Tiberius withdrew this privilege from the Jews, and ordered the priests' vestments and ornaments to be burnt. This line is thus rendered in Dryden's version .

' Nor shun the Jewish walk, where the foul drove. On Sabbaths rest from everything but love.' This wretched paraphrase is excused by the following very illiberal note, ' If this version seems to bear a little hard on the ancient Jews, it does not at all wrong the modem '

" Many a woman.] — Ver. 78. lo, or Isis, was debauched by Jupiter. Martial and Juvenal speak of the ii'regularities practised on these occasions,

'* Where the erection.] — Ver. 81, He refers to the Forum of Caesar and the temple of Venus, which was built by Julius Caesar after the battle of Pharsalia.

"• CfAppius.']—NtT. 82. He alludes to the aqueduct which had been constructed by the Censor Appius. This passed into the City, through the Latin gate, and discharged itself near the spot where the temple of Venus was built.

" Shooting stream.] — ^Ver. 82: He alludes to the violence with whick the water was discharged by the pipes of the aqueduct into the reservoir.

B. I. 83—111.] OB, THE ART OT LOVE. 3S3

that spot full oft IS the pleader seized hy Love ; and he that has defended others, the-same does not defend himself. Oft in that spot are their words found wanting to the eloquent man ; and new cares arise, and his own cause has to he pleaded. From her temple, which is adjoining," Venus laughs at him. He who so lately was a patron, now wishes to hecome a cUent.

But especially at the curving Theatres do you hunt foz.prey : these places are even yet more fruitful for your desires. There you wDl find what you may love, what you may trifle with, both what you may once touch, and what you may wish to keep. As the numberless ants come and go in lengthened train, when they are carrying their wonted food in the mouth that bears the grains ; or as the bees, when they have found both their own pastures and the balmy meads, hover around the flowers and the tops of the thyme ; so rush the best-dressed women to the thronged spectacles ; a multitude that oft has kept my judgment in suspense. They come to see, they come that they themselves may be seen ; to modest chastity these spots are detrimental.

Romulus, 'twas thou didst first institute the exciting games; at the time when the ravished Sabine fair" came to the aia of the solitary men. Then, neither did curtains^' hang oyer the mar- ble theatre,*" nor was the stage"' blushing with liquid saffron. There, the branches were simply arranged which the woody Palatium bore ; the scene was void of art. On the steps made ' of turf sit the people; the branches promiscuously overshadow- ing their shaggy locks. They look about them, and they mark with their eyes, each for himself, the damsel which to choose ; and in their silent minds they devise fuU many a plan. And

'•' Which a adjoining.'] — Ver. 87. The temple of Venus was near the Forum.

18 Ravi»hed Saiinefair.J—Yer. 102. See the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 199.

" Neither did curtaini.]—'VeT. 103. The ' vela,' here referred to, may mean either the ' siparia,' or curtains of the theatres, or the awnings which were hung over them. See the Note on the ' siparia' of the theatres, referred to in the Third Book of the Metamorphoses, 1. Ill, The ' vela- ria,' or ' awnings,' were stretched over the whole space of the theatres, to protect the spectators from the sun and rain.

™ Marble theatre-l—Wei. 103. The Theatres of Pompey and Scaurus were of marble.

" Nor was the stage.']— Ver. 104. The ' pulpita' was that part of the stage wh^re the actors stood who spoke. It was elevated above the or. fihestra, where the Chprus, and da^cpr? and musicians were placed.

384 ABS AMATOEXA ; [b. I. Ill— Hi

while, as the Etrurian piper sends forth his harsh notes, the actor with his foot thrice beats the levelled ground ; in the midst of the applause, (in those days applause was void of guile,) the King gives to his people the signd. to be awaited for the spoil. At once, they start up, and, disclosing their intentions with a shotit, lay their greedy hands upon the maidens.'" As the doves, a startled throng, fly from the eagles, and as the young Iamb flies from the vrolves when seen ; in such manner do they dread the men indiscriminately rushing on ; the com- plexion remains in none, which existed there before. For their fear is the same ; the symptoms of their fear not the same. Some tear' thBir hair; some sit without conscious- ness ; one is silent in her grief ; another vainly calls upon her mother ; this one laments ; this one is astounded ; this one tarries ; that one takes Xfi flight. The ravished fair ones are carried off, a matrimonial spoil ; and shame itself may have been becoming to many a one. If one struggled excessively, and repelled her companion ; borne off, the man himself lifted her into his eager bosom. And thus he spoke : " Why spoil your channing eyes with tears ? What to your mother your father was, the same will I be to you." Romulus, 'twas thou alone didst understand how to give rewards to thy sol- diers. Give such a reward to me, and I wiil be a soldier. In good truth, from that transaction, the festive Theatres, even to this day, continue to be treacherous to the handsome.

And let not the contest of tlie noble steeds escape you ; tlie roomy Circus of the people has mauy advants^es. There is noTieed there of fingers, with which to talk over your se- crets ; nor must a hint be taken by you through nods. Be seated next to your mistress, there being no one to prevent it ; press your side to her side as close as ever you can ; and conveniently enough, because the partition^ compels you to sit close, even if she be unwilling ; and because, by the custom o£ the place, the fair one must be touched by you. Here let the occasion be sought by you for some fnendly_chat, and let the usual subjects'* lead to the first words. Take care, and enquire.

" Upim the maidens.'] — Ver. IIB. Some writers 'say that only thirty n-omen were carried off. Valerius Antius made the number 427, and Plutarch mentions a statement thai it was 600

'•^ 3%e partition.'] — ^Ver. 141. See the Amores, Book iii. El. ii. I. 19.

'-* Let the iwml subjects.] — Ver. 144. 'I'ublica verba' means thf coroplinents oi the day,' and the ' topics suited to the occa-sion.'

B. I. 145—167.] OE, THE AUX 01' LOVU. .185

with an air of anxiety, whose horses those are, "001111112; ami without delay, whoever it is to whom she wishes well, to him do you also wish well. But when the thronged procession sliali walk with the holy statues of ivory, "* do you applaud your mistress Venus with zealous hand. And, as often happens, if perchance a little dust should fall on the bosom of the fair, it miist be brushed oif with your fingers -^ and if there should be no dust, still brush off that none ; let any excuse be a prelude to your atJIgtioas. If her mantle, hanging too low, shall be trailiag'on the earth, gather it up, «nd carefully raise it from the dirty ground.^ At once, as the reward of your attention, the fair permitting it, her ancles will chance to be seen by your eyes. Look, too, behind, who shall be sitting behind you, that he may not press her tender back with his knee against it."* Trifles attract trifling minds. It has proved to the advantage of many a one, to make a cushion with his ready hand.'-'^ It has been of use, too, to waft a breeze with the graceful fan, and to place the hollow footstool beneath her delicate feet. Both the Circus, and the sand spread for its sad duties™ in the bustling Forum, will afford these overtures to a dawning passion. On that sand, oft has the son of Yettua. fought ; and he who has come to be a spectator of wounds, himself receives a wound.^" While he is talking, and is touching her hand, and is

'» Statues of ivory.'] — Ver. 149. I'or an account of this procession, see the Amores, Book iii. El. ii. 1. 43.

■^ Your fingers.']— y ax. 150. See I. 42, of the same Elegy.

" Dvrty grmaid.'] — Ver. 154. See I. 26, of the same Elegy.

»' Knee against it.] — Ver. 158. See 1. 24, of the same Elegy.

2' yVith his ready Afl»id.]— Ver. 160. As the seats of the Circus wer,; hard, the women often made use of a cushion to sit upon. Those whu were not so fortunate as to get a front seat, and so rest their feet in the railings opposite (see the Second Elegy of the Third Book of the Amores. 1. 64, and the Note), used a footstool, ' scamnum,' (which is mentioned nere in the 162nd line,) on which they rested their feet.

» Its sad duties.] — Ver. 164. Juvenal tells us that gladiatorial spec- tacles were sometimes exhibited in the Forum.

^1 Himself receives a wmmd.]—\ei. 166. The word 'habet,' here used, is' borrowed from the usage at the gladiatorial games. When ■ gladiator was wounded, the people called aloud ' habet,' or ' hoc habet ;' and the one who was vanquished lowered his arras, in token of submission. If the people chose that he should he saved, they pressed dowu their thumbs ; but they turned them up, if they desired tliat he sliould bekiUe I

386 tHS AMATOaiA ; [b. u ItiT— 181

iwking for the racing list;'* and, having deposited tlic stake," i enquiring which has conquered, wounded.Tie sighs, and feci the~%iag=dart. and, himself, becomes a portion of the spec tacle so riewedM t'

Besides ; when, of late,'^ Coesar, on the representation of i i-ivai fight, introduced" the Persian and Athenian ships ; ii tiiith, from both seas came youths, from both came the fair and in the City was the whole of the great world. Who, in tha throng, did not find an object for him to love ? How many alas ! did a foreign flame torment ? See ! Caesar prepares' to add what was wanting to the world subdued ; now, re mote East, our own shalt thou be ! Parthian, thou shal give satisfaction ; entombed Crassi, rejoice;^' ye standards, too tliat disgracefully submitted to barbarian hands. You avenger is at hand, and proves himself a general in his earlies

'- /iskinff for the racing list.']— Ver. 167. The 'libellus,' here men tioneil, was the list of the horses, with their names and colours, and thos of the drivers. It served the same purpose as the race-cards on ou courses.

" Having deposited the staJce."] — Ver. 1G8. When a bet was made the parties betting gave to each other a pledge, ' pignus,' in the shape c some trinket, such as a ring. When the bet was completed, they touche hands,

When of hte.J — Ver. 171. He speaks of a 'Naumachia,' or mimi sea-fight, which had been lately exhibited at Rome by Augustas, in com rnemoration of the battle of Actium. As Antony had collected his force from the East and all parts of Greece, his ships are alluded to as the Persia; and Cecropian, or Athenian ships. The term, ' Naumachia,' was appliei both to the representation of a sea-fight, and to the place where it was giver They were sometimes exhibited in the Circus or Amphitheatre, the wate being introduced under-ground, but more generally in spots constructei for the purpose. The first was shown by Julius Ca;sar, who caused a lak to be dug for the purpose in a part of the Campus Martins, which Sueto nius calls ' the lesser Codeta.' This was filled np by Augustus, who dug lake near the Tiber for the same purpose ; to which, probably, referenc is here made.

^ Introduced.'] — Ver. 172. ' Induxit.' By the use of this word, i would seem that Augustus Caesar introduced the ships, probably, from th river Tiber into the lake.

'^ See.' Ciesar prepares."] — ^Ver. 177. Augustus sent his grandson, Caiui the son of his daughter Julia and Agrippa, to head an expedition agaius Phraiites, the king of the Parthians, the conquerors of Crass'is ; fron this expedition he did not live to return, but perished in haltle.

^ Crassi, rejoice.] — Ver. 180. Sec the Fasti, lidok y. \- CijlS-**, ^'iH the Note to the passage Also Book vi. 1. Ilia

B. 1. 181— 209.1 on, THE AHT OF LOTE. 387

arms ; and, while a boy, is conducting a war not fitleii to ne waged by a boy. Cease, in your fears, to coant the birth-days of the Gods:'* valour is the lot of the Caesars, in advance of their years. The divine genius rises more rapidly than its years, and brooks not the evils of slow delay. The Tirynthian hero was a baby, and he crushed two serpents in his hands ; even in his cradle he was already worthy of Jove. Bacchus, who even now art a boy, how mighty wast mou then, when conquered India dreaded thy thyrsi ! With the auspices and the courage of thy sire, thou. Youth, shalt wield arms ; and with the courage and the auspices of thy sire shalt thou con- quer. Such first lessons are thy due, under a name so great j now the first of the youths,'" at a future day to be the first of the men. Since thou hast brothers," avenge thy brethren slain ; and since thou hast a sire,'" vindicate the rights of thy sire. He, the father of thy country and thine own, hath put thcc in arms ; the enemy is tearing realms away from thy reluctant sire. Thou wilt wield the weapons of duty, the foe arrows accursed ; before thy standard, Justice and Duty will take their post. By the badness of their cause, the Parthians are conquered ; in arms, too, may they be overcome ; may my hero add to Latium the wealth of the East. Both thou, father Mars, and thou, father Ceesar, grant your divine favour as he sets out ; for the one of you is now a Deity, thou, the other, wilt no be.

Ijo I I utter a prophecy ; thou wilt conquer, and I slml! offer FHe lines which I have vowed ; and with a loud voice wilt thou have to be celebrated by me. Thou wilt there be taking thy stand, and in my words thou wilt be animating thy troops. that my words may not prove unworthy of thy spirit ! I will celebrate both the backs of the Parthians as tht'ij fly, and the valour of the Romans, and the darts- which

•■" of Vie Gods-I—Ver. 183. In a spirit of adulation, he deifies Caius Cajsar, and his brother Lucius.

^ First of the youths.']— Yer. 194. The ' princeps juvennm ' had the honour of riding first, in the review of the Equestrian ranks by the Em- peror. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 90. Caius did not live to fulfil this prophecy, as he was slain tlirnugh the perfidy of the Parthian genera).

^^ fiinee thou hust l/rotherx.} — Wr. 195. lie alludes, proliahly, to Lucius Cwsar. the other grandson of Angiislua, and Marcus Agri]i]ia, lliit liiiHl^aiui of Julia, the dfughter of Augustus.

»i l/asi II tire.'] -Ver.'lSU. lie iiitd («» iiui'pled by Aigustus.

, V c q

388 AKS AMATOKIA ; [«. i. 209— 2J»

the foeman hurls from his flying steed. What, Parthian, dost thou leave to the conquered, who dost fly that thou mayst overcome ? Parthian, even now has thy mode q/" warfare an unhappy omen. And will that -day then come, on which thou, the most graceful of all objects, glittering with gold, shalt go, drawn by the four snow-white steeds ? Before thee shall walk the chiefs, their necks laden with chains ; that they may no longer, as formerly, be secure in flight. The joyous youths, and the mingled fair, shall be looking on ; and that day shall gladden the minds of all. And when some one of the fair shall enquire the names of the Monarchs, what places, what mountains, or what rivers are borne" in the procession ; answer to it all ; and not only if she shall make any inquiry ; even what you know not, relate, as though known perfectly well."'*

This is the Euphrates,^ with his forehead encircled with reeds ; the one whose'" azure hair is streaming down, will Lu the Tigris. Make these to be the Armenians ; this is Persia, sprung from Danae ;" that was a city in the vales of Acha;- menes. This one or that will be the leaders ; and there will be names for you to call them by ; correctly, if you can ; if not, still by such as suggest themselves. Si Banquets, too, with Jhe-tables arranged, afford an introduc- tioirf meire^s sometlung there besides wine for you to look for. Fuiroft does biushing Cupid, with his delicate arras, press the soothed horns of Bacchus there present. And when the wine has besprinkled the soaking wings of Cupid, there he re- mains and stands overpowered"^*!! "'3ie spot of his capture. He, indeed, quickly flaps his moistened wings ; but still it ia fatal'"' for the breast to BFsprtnkled by Love. Wine composes

  • i What rivers are lome.'\ — Ver. 220. Sec the twentieth line of the

Second Elegy, Book iv. of tie Tristia.

"* Perfeciiy well."] — ^Ver. 222. See a similar passage in the Tristia Book iv. El. ii. 1. 24.

■*- Tlie Eup/trates.j — Ver. 223. The rivers were generally pcrsonilieil by the ancients as being crowned with reeds.

^' 77ie one wficse.] — Ver. 224. Tne young man is supposed to he ad- dressing the damsel in these words.

♦■ fhmi Danae.} — Ver. 225. He means, that Persia was so called from Fcrses, the son of Andromeda, by Perseus, the son of Danae. It is mun generidly thought to have been so called from a word signifying ' u home.' Achxmeneg was one of the ancient kings of Persia.

« 5««« is /a<a/.]— Ver. 236. ' Solet,' ' ii wont,' is cerwinly a yr» luBDW leadinE here to 'nocet.'

«. I. as:— 2C4.] Oft, TiTu Kwr ov zoTti. nsQ

<lie feeJiriKs, and r.iakcR tlipm ready to he. inflamed ; ijiit. Hjr», Biid is drfi.ichcfl "svith plenteous ■wine. Then come smiles , then the poor man resume's his confidence • then grief and cares and the wrinkles of the forehead depart. Then candour,, most uncommon in our age, reveals the feelings, the God ex- peUing all guile. On such occasions, full oft have the fair captivated the hearts of the youths ; and Venus amid wine, has proved flames in flame. Here do not you trust too much to the deceiving lamp;'"' both night and wine are unsuited to a judg- ment upon. beanly»- In daylight, and under a clear sky, did Paris view the Goddesses, when he said to Venus : "Thou, Venus, dost excel them both." By night, blemishes are con- cealed, and pardon is granted to every imperfection ; and that hour renders ev*ry woman beauteous. Consult the daylight about jewels, about wool steeped in purple ; consult^he^dai/- %/i^about the figure and the proportion.

Why enumerate the resorts of fair ones suited for your search ? The sands would yield to my number. Why mention Baise," and the shores covered with sails, and tlie waters which send forth the smoke from the warm sulphur ? Many a one carrying thence a wound in his breast, has ex- claimed ; " This water was not so wholesome as it was said to be." See, too, the temple in the grove of suburban Diana, and the realms acquired. with the sword by hostile hand. Because she is a virgin, because she hates the darts of Cupid, .she has given many a wound to the public, and will give man j still.

Thus far, Thalia borne upon unequal wheels,'"' teaches wheio

<" Deceiving lamp.} — Ver. 245. Tliis is as much as to remind him oi the adage that woinen and linen look best by candle-Ught.

■■'■ Why mention BaiaA — 'Ver. 255. Baiae wasatownon Ihesea-sliore, near Naples, famo"" • v its hot baths. It was delightfully situate, ami here Pompey, Caesar, and many of the wealthy Romans, had country seats, Seneca and Propertius refer to it as famous for its deliaucheries, and it was much frequented by persosis of loose character. It was the custom at Baise, in the summer-time, for both sexes to cruise about the shore in boats of various colours, both in the day-time and at night, willi sumptuous feasts and bands of music on board.

« Hoatik hand.']— y^er. 260. See tne Fasti, Book iii. 1. 203. He means that the Aricisn grove was much rssorted to by those engaged in conrtshiii esd intrigues.

••» Borne upon unequal wheeU.^—ytr. 264. He alludes to Thalia, the Muse who inspires him, preferring the unequal or Ilexamtter and Pcnta Gjeter measure of Kli-eriac vfrse.

390 AT?S ASf AlOniA ; [8. 1. L"H--20!I

111 cliouKp an object for you to lt>ve, wliere_ to .la^^mr iieta,

Now, 1 attempt to tmcli you, by wiiat arts sIik must be captured

who has plea'^ed you, a~wffri£' of especial skill. Ye men,

whoever you are, and in every spot, give attention eager to

be informed ; and give, all people, a favourable ear to the

'Realisation of my promises. Fii-Ht. nf all, Ipt. a rnnfiflpn^a

_p"tflr ynil "^'t^, tJitrall-^omen m ay be won ; you will win

^them ; do you only lay your toils. " tSooner would the birds be

silent in spring, the grasshoppers in summer, sooner would

the MsenaUan dog turn its back upon the hare, than the fair,

attentively courted, would resist the youth. She, however,

will wish you to belie ve, so far as you, can. tSa t she is m.

l uctant.

As stealthy courtship is pleasing to the man, so, too, is it to the fairr-^^^^feTBtSn^but unsuccessfully conceals his passion ; with more concealment does she desire. Were it agreed among the males not to be the first to entreat any female, the conquered fair would soon act the part of the suppliant. In the balmy meads, the female lows after the bull ; the femali is always neighing after the horny-hoofed horse. Paafiifln_iu_ u& is more enduring, aajji ffnt so vjolept; among nien tkeflame Ikis .reasonable bounds. Why mention" Byblis, who burned with a forbidden passion for her brother, and who resolutely atoned with the halter for her crimes ? Myrrha loved her fiither, but not as a daughter ought ; and she now lies liiil, overwhelmed by the bark°" that grew over her. With her tears too, which she distils from the odoriferous tree, are we perfumed ; and the drops still retain the name of their mistress. By chance, in the shady vales of the woody Ida, there was a white liuU, the glory of the herd, marked with a little black in the middle between his horns ; there was but one spot j the rest was of the complexion of milk. The heifers of Gnossua and of Cydon*' sighed to mate with him. P.asiphaejjeligiited to begpme the paramour, of the bull ; in her jealousy she hated the beauteous cows. I sing of facts well known : Crete, which contains its hundred cities, untruthful as it is,*- cannot

  • Bij Ike bark."] — Ver. 286. See the Metamorphoses, Book x.

■" Of CVrfon.]— Ver. 293. This was a city of Crete.

•- Untruthful *s it is.] — Ver. 298. Tlie Cretans were universally noteil in aneieii^ times for their disregaid for truth. St. Paul, in hisKpistIg Ij Titus, ch. i, ver 1'^, iia}'!>, quoting from the Cretan poet £pimeiiideii

«.». 293— 336.5 dS, TllE AET Ol? LOVE. 3!)!

jfaiiisay them. She hci'self is said to have cut Jowr. fresh !e<ive» aud the tcnderest grass with hand imuscd to such employ, nient. She goes as the companion of the herds; so going, no regard for her husband restrains her; and by a bull" is Minos conquered. "Of what use, Pasipliae, is it to put on those costly garments? This love of thine understands nothing about wealth. What hast thou to do with a mirror, when ac- companying the herds of the mountain ? Why, foolish one, art thou so often arranging thy smoothed locks? Still, do thou believe that mirror, that denies that thou art a heifer. How much oouldst thou wish for 'Eoms'to spring up upon thy forehead ! If Minos still pleases thee, let no paramour be sought ; but if thou wouldst rather deceive thy husband, de- ceive him through a being that is human."

Her chamber abandoned, the queen is borne over the groves and the forests, just as a Bacchanal impelled by the Aoniau God. Alas! how oft with jealous look does she eye a cow, and say, "Why is she thus pleaSiiig to my love ? See how she skips before him on the tender grass ! I make no doubt that the fool thinks that it is becoming to her." Thus she spoke, and at once ordered her to be withdrawn from the vast herd, and, in her innocence, to be dragged beneath the bend- ing yoke ; or else she forced her to fall before the altars, and rites feigned for the purpose ; and, with joyous hand, she held the entrails of her rival. How often did she propitiate the Deities with her slain rivals, and say, as she held the en- trails, " iVbio go and charm my /owe .'" And sometimes she begged that she might become Europa, sometimes lo ; be- cause the one was a cow, the other borne upon a buU. Still, deceived by a cow made of maple-wood, the leader of the herd impregnated her; and by the offspring was the sire" betrayed.

If" the Cretan dame** had withheld from love for Thyestes (alas ! how hard it is for a woman possibly to be pleasing to one man only!) Phoebus would not have interrupted his career

" One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, ' The Cretans are alway liars, eril bea-sts, slow bellies.' This witness is true."

^ By a bull.'] — Ver. 302. See this story explained in the Translation of the Metamorphoses, p. 70.

    • The sire.'] — Ver. 326. This was the Minotaur. -See the Metamor-

phoses, Bookviii ■

" J/ lie Cretan dame.} — Ver. 327. This was jErope, the wife ol Atreiis, who slew the children of his brother Thyestes, and set then; i>i; Wble before tlieir father ~'

f!n2 , Aftg AMAtORIA ; t«- ■• 330— 4M

111 the midst, and, his chariot- turned back, retreated, with Lin returning steeds, to themorn. The daughter, ■whospoiled'"NlBuii of his purple locks, presses beneath her thigh and groin the raving dogs. The son of Atreus, who escaped from Mars by land, and Neptune on the waves, -was the mournful victim of his wife. By whom have not been lamented the flames" of the EphjTean C'reusa ? Medea, the parent, too, stained with the blood of her children ? Phoenix, the son of Amyntor," wept with his blinded eyes ; you, startled steeds, tore Hippolytus in pieces. Why, Phineus, dost thou tear out the eyes of thy guilt- less sons ?*' That punishment will revert to thy own head.

All these things have been caused by the passion of females. It is more viole nt than . ours., and has more frenzy imt. Come then, and doubTnot that you can conquer all the fair : out of m many, tJie?ewiitlJe hardly one to deny_yDU— What they yield, and what they refuse, still are the y glad_to be asked To"i\ Kven if you are deceived, your repiilseis without danger. But why should you be deceived, since new pleasures are de- lightful, and sirece what is strange attracts the feelings more than what is one's own ?" The crop*' of com is always more fertile in the fields of other people ; and the herds of our neighbours have their udders more distended.

But first, be it your care to make acquaintance with the handmaid of thafair one to be courted ; she can fender, your access easy."* Take care that she is deep in the secrets of her

"• Who«pmled.'\ — Ver. 331. He falls into his usual mistake of con- founding Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, with the daughter of Phorcys.

'"' The flames.'] — Ver. 335. See the Metamorphoses, Book vii. 1. .391, and the Epistle of Medea to Jason.

" Tlie son of Amyntor.'\ — ^Ver. 337. Phoenix, the son of Amyntor, according to Homer, became blind in his latter years. See the Note to the 307th line of the Eighth Book of the Metamorphoses.

" Of thy guiltkaa sona.'] — ^Ver. 339. Phineus was a king of Arcadia, or, .according to some, of Thrace or Paphlagonia. His wife, Cleopatra, being dead or divorced, he married a Scythian, named Harpalice, at whose suggestion he put out the eyes of his sons by Cleopatra. He was perse- cuted by the Harpies, as a punishment.

'" Wliat IS one's own.] — Ver. 348. ' Suis' seems preferable here to suos.'

"' The erop.2 — Ver. 349. These lines are referred to by Juvenal in the Pourteenth Satire, 1. 143.

"^ Your access easy.'] — Ver. 352. See his address to Nape, in the Aniores. Booii i. El. ii. Cypassis seems to have been a choice speciniori jf this class See the Araores, Book ii. El. viii.

fi. t. 35a-S86;;l 0«, TfiS ATif np tovtt. oOS

mistress, and not too little entrusted with lior sirrct .fro'ios. Ifer do you bribe with promises, her -with entreaties . you ■will obtain what you ask with little trouble, if she sDall be willing. Let her choose the time (physicians, even, watch their time) when the feehngs of her mistress are pliant, and easy to be influenced. Then will her feehngs be easily in- fluenced, when, in the best humour in the world, she shall be smiling, just as the com on the rich soU. While hearts are joyous, and not closed b y sadness, thenjiTe^ they assailable ; then with soothing arts does Venus steal on apace?" '"StThF"' time when Troy was in sorrow, she was defended by arms ; when joyous, she admitted the horse pregnant with its soldiers. Then, too, must she be assailed, when she shall be fretting on being offiended by a rival ; then effect it by your means that she go not unrevenged. Let her handmaid, as she combs her hair in the morning, urge heTTnrT-aini^1;o the sail let her add the resources of the oar. And, sighing to herself, let her say, in gentle murmurs : " In my idea, you yourself can- not pay him in return."^ Then let herjtalkabout you ; then let her add persuasive expressionsf and let her swear that you are perishing with fr^tic passion. But speed on, let not the sails fall, and the breezes lull : Uke brittle ice, anger dis- appears in lapse of time.

You inquire if _it_ is of use" to win the handmaid her- self? In such attempts there is a great risk. This one be- comes tnore zealous after an intrigue ; that one more tardy ; the one procures you as a gift for her mistress, the other for her own self. The result is doubtful ; although slie .should favour your advances, still it is my advice, to refrain from so doing. I shall not go over headlong tracks, and over sharp crags ; and, under my guidance, no youth shall be deceived. Even if she pleases you, while she gives and receives the letters, by her person, and not only by her zealousness alone ; take eare and gain her mistress first ; let the other follow as her companion ; ybuf courfsHip~must not be commenced with a

'■ Pay him in reft*m/[ — Ver. 370. This seems to meanT-'-I^du-jiot think you can malce sufficieiirretnm for his ardent affection,' referring to the lover. Some of the Commentators thinlc that it signifies a hint from the servant, that as her mistress's hushand has offended her hy his infi. delities, she ought to repay him in his own coin.

" Is of use.'] — Ver. 375. This abominable notion seems to have been toted upon by the Poet himself. See the Aniores, E;)ok ii. El. viii.

394 AS9 ilitATOTiTi ; [g. ,. 3g(J_ilJ,

wjrvaifl-niKijI. Tliis uiie thing I advise you ([if yoti only put sume trust iii my still, and if thu Ijoisterous wind does not bear my words over the seas) : either do not attempt,, or else do you persist ; the informer is removed, when once she herself has sSred in the criminality. The bird does not easily escape when its wings are bird-limed ; the boai: does not readily get away from the loose nets : the wounded fish can be held by the hook it has seized. Once tried, press her hard, and do not retreat, but as the conqueror. Then, guilty of a fault that is common to you both, she will not betray you ; and the sayings and doings of her mistress wiU be well known to you. But let this be well conccEded ; if your informwit shall be well concealed, your mistress will ever be under your eye.

He is mistaken who supposes that time is the object of thos? only who till the fields, and is to be observed by mariners alone. Neither must the corn be always trusted to the treacherous soil ; nor the hoUow ships at all times to the green waves ; nor is it safe to be ever angling for the charming fair. The same thiiig"may often Ije better done when an opgortuiiity offers. Whether it is her birthday*" that comes, or wEetheF'the Calends,'" which Venus deUghts to have as the successor of the month of Mars ; or whether the Circus shall be adorned, not with statues, as it was before, but shall be containing i\\f wealth of kings"' exposed to view ; delay your project ; then the storm is boisterous, then the Pleiades prevail;"" then, the tender Kid is sinking in the ocean wave. Then, 'tis well to desist ; then, if one trusts the deep, with difficulty he grasps the shipwrecked fragments of his dismantled bark. You may make a beginning on the day on which tear-

55 Her birthday.'] — Ver. 405. See the Amores, Book i. El. viii. 1. 91.

"" Whether the Calendt.] — Ver. 405. The Matronalia were celebrated »n the first day of the Calends of March. It was usual on that day, for flusbands to make presents to their wives, and lovers to the objects of Hieir affection. The Calends of March preceded April, which month was sucred to Venus. See the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 170.

" T/ie wealth of king:"] — Ver. 408. It was the custom to bring the l|)oUs of the enemy, or the most curious portions of it, to Rome, where it was exposed to view in the Circus and the Theatres. Ovid tells liis readers that they must not think that the ladies can give them any of their leisum on such occasions, as, being so much engaged with the sights, tliey -^ill have lio time for love-making.

'" Pleiades jirei'uil.'] — Ver. 409. This u said figurativelv.

B. 1. 41J— iSl.] OK, tlti5 AET oy Loy%. 3d^>

I'ul A Ilia'" was &i*iiicd with the blood of the liiitiaii wounds; on the day, too, wlicii the festival recurs, observed each seventh day by the Syrian of Palestine, a day not suited for the transaction of business.

Great must be your dread of the birthday of your mistress, and unlucky be that day on which any present must be made. Though you should cleverly avoid her, still she ■« ill spoil yon ; a woman finds contrivances, by means of wliic'i to plundor the riches of the eager lover. The loosely-clad pedlar'^ wiU be coming to your mistress, so fond of buying, and while you are by, will be exposing his wares. She will ask you to exa- mine them, only that you may appear to be knowing ; then she will give you a kiss, and then entreat you to purchase. She will swear that she wiU be content with this for many a year ; she will say that now she has need of it, now it may be bought n bargain. If you shall make the excuse that you have not tlie money at home to give ; a promissory note" will be asked for ; it would then profit you not to have learned to write. Besides, too ; when she asks for a present, as though for the birth-day cake,^^ and is born for her own pleasure as often as she pleases. And further ; when, full of tears, she laments

«» Teayful MHa.^—Vei 413. The 16th of July, the day on which (he Romans were defeated by the Gauls at the Allia, was deemed unhicky, and no business was transacted on it.

'" ^ day not suited for.] — Ver. 415. The Jews are here alluded to. and he refers to their Sabbath. How some Commentators can have dreamed that the feast of the Saturnalia is referred to, it is hard to say.

Great must be.'] — Ver. 417. The meaning is, 'Be careful not to make your first advances on the birthday of your mistress, as that is tlie time for making presents, and you will certainly be out of pocket.' See tlic Amores, Book i. El. vlii. 1. 94, and tli^ Note.

'- The loosely -clad pedlar.] — Ver. 421. • Institor' was properly a per- son who sold wares, and kept a ' taberna' or ' shop' on account of another. Sometimes free persons, but more frequently slaves, were ' institores.'

" A promissory note.] — Ver. 428. ' Syngraphus,' or ' syngrapha,' was a ' bill ' ' bond,' or ' promissory note,' which was most probably tlie kind of writing that the pedlar would here require. It may possibly mean a cheque upon his bankers, the ' argentarii ' of Rome.

'•* Not to have fearaerf.]— Ver. 428. The reading here seem.s to l)e

' non didicisse juvat.' ' It is not to your advantage that you have learned

^to write).' The other reading, ' ne didicisse juvet,' may be rendered,

' (perhaps) it may be no advantage that you have learned (to write).' .

• Hirlh (lay c-aie.'] — \'er. 42U. See- the Amores, Houk i. Kl. viii. 1. 'J-t

3!>f) - Ans /litATOnlAs [n. i 431—462,

lipr pretelKlirdl Iofs, nntl ■the jeweU" is fcigiinl to lisivr fnllcii from ITPrpiFiPFMeaT. They ask for mHny a sum to be lent Ihciii ; so Icntj they have no iuclinatiou to return them. You lose tht whole ; and no thanks are there for your loss. Had I t«n months, with tongues as many, they would not suffice for me tc reeount the abominable contrivances of courtesans.

Let the wax that is poured upon the polished tablets first try the ford ; let the wax first go as the messengef of your feelings. Let it carry your compliments ; and whoever you are, add expressions that feign you to be in love, and entreaties not a few. Achilles, moved with his entreaties, granted Hector to Priam ; an angered Divinity is moved by the voice of en- treaty. Take care to make promises : for what harm is there in promising? rich in-promiscs. Hope, if she is only once cherished, holds out for a long time ; she is, indeed, adeceitfulGoddess, but still a convenient ono. -Shnuld you giy^e her" an ything, you may for that reason be abandoned by her : she wiirioear on the gift Bygone, and will have lost nothing in return. Bui_that.wJlieh you have not^ojven, you may always seem as though about to give ; tlius has the sterile field full oft deceived its owner. So the gambler, in order that he may not lose, does not cease to lose ; and tiio alluring dice ever recall the anxious hand. This is the task, t£is the labour ; to -gain _hcr„ without j?»ea. the first pre- seriT. What. she has once given, she will always give, that she may not have granted to no purposcr Xet the letter go tlitn, and let it be couched in tend£x. expressions ; and let it ascer tain her feelings, and be the first to feel its way. A letter l)orne upon an apple deceived Cydippe ; and by her own words the fair was unconsciously caught.

Youths of Rome, learn, I recu.rnmeiid yoa, the Iibe rri_arta ; and not only that you may defend the fremlBTing accused. Both the public, and the grave judge, and the silent Senate, as well as

™ The jewel."] — Ver. 432. For an account ot the earrings of the an- cients, see the Notes to the Metamorphoses, Book x. 1. 116.

"' Should ytm give her."] — Ver. 447. The meaning of this and the fol- h>wing line is very obscure ; so much so, that Burmann is h doubt on tlie siirijeet. It, however, seems to be, that it is not discreet, on lirst acquaint, ance, to give presents, a? the damsel may then have a reason for peremptorily giving you up ; she carries off your gift, and gives no favour in return.

"" Upon mi. apple.'] — Ver. 457 See the twentieth and twri.ty-Ilrit Kpiitles in the present volume.

B. I. 4fi2— 496.J OB, TUE AET OP LOVE. '^"' 897

the fair, conquered b y your eloqueu ce, shall extend tlipir hands." But 1pt yniir pnwpr Hg f;r»Tlf^pa1pri : and do not be eloquent at the first. Let your letters avoid difficult words. Who, but one bereft of sense, would declaim before a charming mis- tress ? Full oft has a letter pvoved a powerful cause for hatred. Let your language be intelligible, and your words the usual onesT but -pleasiogr-so that you- may^SEeinrto be-speaking m person. Should she not accept your letter, and send it back unread, hope that she will read it, and persist in your design. In time the stubborn oxen come beneath the ploughs : in time the steeds aiv taught to submit to the flowing reins : by con- tinued use the ring of iron** is consumed : by being in the ground continually, the crooked plough is worn out. What is there harder than stone ? What more yielding than water ? Yet hard stones are hoUowed out by yielding water. Only persist, and in time you will overcome Penelope herself. You see that Pergamus was taken after a long time ; still, it was taken.

If she reads it, and will not write in answer, do not attemptto compel her. Do you only make her to be continually readin^^ your flattering lines. What she has been pleased to read, she will be pleased to answer when read. All these things will come in their turn, and by degrees. Perhaps even, at first, a discouraging letter will come to you ; and one that entreats you not to wish to molest her. What she entreats you to do, she dreads ; what she does not entreatj^ou foyo, namehi^Jojperaist, shewishes you to~elo. Press on ; and soon youwill be. thigaincr of yQur_(Je.sires. In tEe~ineantlmeJ if she shall be carried lying along upon her couch, do you, as though quite by acci- dent, approach the litter of your mistress ; and that no one may give a mischievous ear to your words, cunningly conceal them so far as you can in doubtful signs. If, with saunter- ing foot, the spacious Portico is paced by her ; here, too, do you bestow your leisure in her attendance. And sometimes du you take care to go before ; sometimes follow behind; and some- times be in a hurry, and sometimes walk leisurely. And be not ashamed to pass from the throng under some of the columns,

J* Extend tlieir handi'i — Ver. 462. This figure is taken from the gla- diatorial games, where the conquered extended their bands in token of iubmissiou.

  • Rhig of iron.'] — ^Ver. 473. The rings worn by the lower classes were

jf iron.

" l/ndar some of t/te cohmns.l — Ver. 495. Tbc learned Ileinsiiis a!)

898 AUS AMATORIA ; [b. 1 49ft— 511

or to walk with her, side by side. And let her not be seated long without you in the curving Theatre ; in her shoulders she will bring something for you to be spectator of. Her y«u may gaze upon, her you may admire ; much may you say by your brows, much by your gestures. Clap too, when the actor is dancing'^ in the part of some damsel ; and whatever lover is represented, him applaud. Rise when she rises ; sit as long as she is seated; emploj_jmr time at.. the caprice of your mistress. ~ '

•■^^ut let it not please you to curl your hair with theirons :* and rub not your legs..with the rough pumice.** BidtEose do this,*' in whose Phrygian notes the Cybeleian Mother is cele- brated by their yells. A negkct oL,l»fiaul^Ji!£COine8_ men. Theseus bore oif the daughter of Minos, thout/h his temples . were bedecked by no crisping-pin. Phaedra loved Hippolytus,'"' and he was not finely trimmed. Adonis, habituated to thewoods, was the care of a Goddess. But let, neatness please you ; 'let your body be bronzed on theTlaln.-j/'ilfar.s; let your robe be -well-fitting, and without a spot. Let your tongue, too, not be clammy;" your teeth free from yellowness; and let not

solutely thinks that ' columnas ' here means ' mile-stones ' ! It is pretty clear that Ovid alludes to the columns of the Portico ; and he seems to say, that the attentive lover, when he sees the damsel. at some distance before him, is not to hesiti^te to escape the crowd by going into the open space outside of the columns, and then running on, for the purpose of over- taking her. See the Tristia, Book iii. El. iii, where he maizes mention o( the columns in the Portico of the Danaides.

^ Actor is dancina.'] — Ver. 501. See the Tristia, Book ii.J. 497.

"^ With the irons.'] — Ver. 505. See the Amores, Book i. El. xiv, 1. 25, and the Note. The effeminate among the Romans were very fond of having their hair in cUrls.

" With the rough pumice.'] — Ver. 506. Pliny the Elder mentions pumice stone as ' a substance used by women in washing their bodies, and now by men as well.' Persius, in his Fourth Satire, inveighs against thir. effeminate practice.

^ Bid those do this.] — Ver. 507'. He alludes to the Galli, the eunud" priests of Cybelc.

'■'* Hipp6lt/tm.'\—'VeT. 51X. Phaedra, in her Epistle, alludes to his neg- lect of dress, as one of the merits of Hippolytus.

  • ' Plain of Mars.] — Ver, 51.S. Tlie Roman youth practised wrestling,

and other athletic exorcises, on the Campus Martiu.s Being often stripped naked, or nearly so, the oil, combined with the heat, would tend to brunzr. He skin.

  • Aol lie plammy.'X — Ver- 510. Probably this is tl(p ifieaninu of ' |ii(.

n. I. 510-541.] OB, THE AHT OF LOTS. 399

vo\ir foot ^^fallop about, losing itsnlf in the shoe down a< heel. Let not the cutting shockingly disfigure your hair bolt upright ; let your locks, let your beard be trimmed by a skilful hand. Let your nails, too, not be jagged, and let them be without dirt ; and let no hairs project from the cavities of your nostrils. And let not the breath of your ill-smeUing mouth be offensive ; and let not the husband and the father of the flock offend the nostrils. The rest, allow the luxurious fair to do ; and any man that perchance disgracefully seeks to attract another.

Lo ! Bacchus calls his own Poet : he, too, aids those who love; and "tg-Encouiages-tlie flame with which he burns him- self. The Gnossian fair was wandeflng distractedly on the un- kiiowii sands, where little Dia is beaten by the ocean waves. And, just as she was on awaking from her sleep,'" clothed in a loose tunic, with bare feet, and having her yellow iiair loose, she was exclaiming to the deaf waves that Theseus was cruel, while the piteous shower of tears was moistening her tender cheeks. She exclaimed, and at the same moment sh-; wept ; but both became her, nor was she rendered unsightly by her tears. And now again beating her most beauteous bosom with her hands, she cried — " That perfidious man has gone ; what will become of me?" "What will become of me?" she said ; when cymbals resounded over all the shore, and tam- bourines were beaten with frantic hand. She dropped down with alarm, and stoppedshortinherclosingwords; anrf no blood was there in her lifeless body. See ! the Mimallofiian females,^'

gna ne rigeat,' although Nisard's French translation has it, ' let your tongue have no roughness.' Dryden's translation is, of co\irse, of no assistance; as It carefully avoids all the diiBcult passages.

™ The father of the 'Jiiick.']— Wet. h'il. He alludes to the rank smell to the arm-pits, which the Romans called by the name ' hircus,' ' a goat,' from a supposed simiiarity to the sftfong smell of that animal.

^ AvnMngfrom her sleep.'\ — Ver. 529. See the Epistle of Ariadne to Theseus.

" Mimallonian females.'] — Ver. 541. It is a matter of doubt why the Bacchanalian women were called Mimallonides. According to some, they are so called frorti Mimas, a mountain of Asia Minor, where the rites of Bacchus were celebrated. Suidas says that they are so calUd, from fn/iriais, ' imitation,' because they imitated the actions of men. Bochart thinks that the word is of Ilenrew origin, and that they receive tlieir name from ' memclleran.' ' garruloiis nr' noisy'; or else frjpi ■ maraal,' {( ' wine- press.*

400 ABS AMATOBtA ; [b. i. MI— 671.

vith their locks flowing on their backs; see! the nimble Satyrs, the throng preceding the God ; see ! Silenus, the drunken old man, on his bending ass, sits there with diffi- culty, and holds fasTBy thu maiiu that he' presses. While he follows the Bacchanals, the Bacchanak both fly and return : while the unskilful rider is goading on his ani- mal mth his stick, slipping from the long-eared ass, he tumbles upon his head. The Satyrs cry aloud, " Come, rise up ; rise, father !" Now, the God, froin his chariot, the top of wnich he had wreathed with grapes, loosened the golden reins for the tigers yoked to it. Both her complexion, and Theseus, and her voice forsook the fair one ; and thrice she attempted flight, and thrice was she detained by fear. She shuddered, just as the barren ears of corn, which the wind shakes ; just as the slender reed quivers in the swampy marsh.

To her the Divinity said, " Lo ! I come to thee a more con- stant lover ; damsel of Gnossus, lay aside thy fear, the wife of Bacchus shalt thou be. Receive heaven as my gift : a'~c6n- spicuous Constellatibn in the heavens, full oft, Cretan Diadem,"" shalt thou direct the veering bark.** Thus he said ; and he leapt from the chariot, that she might net be in dread of the tigers; the sand yielded to his foot placed upon it. And folding her In his bosom he bore her off; for to struggle she was unable : how easy 'tis for a God to be able to do anything. Some sing " HymensBUs," some cry " Bvie, Evoe !" " Thus are the God and his bride united in holy wedlock.

Therefore, when the gifts of Bacchus placed before yojj fall to your lot, and the fair one shall be a sharer in the convivial couch ; pray both to father Nyctelius, and his nocturnal rites, that they mil bid the^wine not to take effect on your head. Here, in secret discourse, you may say to her many a free word, which she may understand is addressed to her ; and you may trace out short compliments with a little wine, so

'- Drttnken, old man.l — Ver. 543. See the adventure of Silenus, in the beginning of Book xi. of the Metamorphoses ; and in the Fasti, Buolc iii. 1. 742. He seems to have been always getting into trouble.

" Cretan Diadem.'] — Ver. 558. Sec the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 516.

" Fvie, Evoe.'i — Ver. 563. In tlie combat with the Giants, Jupiter ii said, when one of them was slain by Bacchus, to have exclaimed iu vii, 'Well done, son;' whence the exclamation ' Eviel' was said to have ori- ginated. See the MetamorDhoses, Book iv. 1. 11 and 15, and the ^ote.

  • . i. 672—590.1 01!, THE Ar.i of i,otr. 461

thRt she may read on the (able that she is voir ffiToritrj and look on her eyes with cyeB that confesB your flame ; the silent features often have both ■words and expression. Take care to be the next to seize the cup that has been touched by her lips ; and drink from the side'" that the fair drinks from. Arid -whatever food she shall have touched ■with her fingers,'" do you reach for it ; and ■while you are reaching, her hand may be touched by you. Let it also be your object to please the husband of_the fair ; once made a friend, he will be niore serviceaTjIe for your designs. If you are drinking by lot,"^ granir him the first turn : let the chaplet, taken from your o-wn head, be presented to him. Whether he is belo^w you, or ■whether your neighbour, let him help himself to every thing first ; and do not hesitate to speak only after he has spoken. Secure and much frequented is tlie path, for deceiving t hrough thenamejtLfcieBdBhip. Secure and much fre- quented though that path be ; siill it is to be condemned. Foi- this cause 'tis that the agent attends even too much™ to his agency, and thinks that more things ought to be looked aftci 6y hitn than those entrusted to him.

A sure rule for drinking shall be given you by me : Id

^ On the table."] — Ver. 572. See the Epistle of Paris to Helen ; ami the Amores, Book L El. iv. 1. 20, and Book ii. El. v. 1. 17, and the Notes.

^ Frnm the side.}— Ver. 576. See the Amores, Book i. El. iv. 1. 32.

f Touched with her fingers.} — Ver. 577. The ancients are supposed not to have used at meals any implement such as a knife or fork, but merely to have used the fingers only, except in eating soups or other liquids, or jellies, when they employed spoons, which vrere denoted by the names 'cochlear' and'ligula.' At meals the Greeks wiped their fingers on pieces of bread ; the Romans washed them with water, and dried them on napkins handed round by the slaves.

'» Are drinJcing by lot."] — Ver. .tSl. The ' modimperator,' or ' mast»i of the banquet,' was often chosen by lot by the guests, and it was his province to prescribe how much each person should drink. Lots were also thrown, by means of the dice, to show in what order each person was to drink. This passage will show the falsity of his plea in the Second Book of the Tristia, addressed to Augustus, where he says that it was not ^is intention to address the married women of Rome, but only those who did not wear the ' vitta; ' and the ' instita,' the badges <•' chastity.

"' Agent attends even too much.] — Ver. 587. His meaning seems to be, that in the same way as the agent does more than attend to the injunctions of his principal, and puts himself in a position to profit by his office, so u the inamorato, through the confidence of the hnsl)and reposed in him, to malie a profit that has never been anticipated-'

402 Atta AMATOlttA [« t. ^50— C5»6.

both your niiiul and your feet ever observe tliuir duty. Es- pecially avoid qiialrels stimulated by wiue, and haiida too ready for savage" warfare. Eurytion' met his death from foolishly quafHng the wine set before him. Banquets and wine are rather suited for pleasant mirth. If you have a voice, sing ; if pliant arms, dance ; and by whatever talent you can amuse, amuse. As real drunkenness offends, so Jeigned,„i»eirJrty will prove of service. Let your deceiving tongue stutter with lisping accents ; so that whatever you shall do or say with more freedom than usual, it may be supposed that excess of , wine is the cause. And express all good wishes for your mistress ; all good wishes for him who shares her couch ; but in your silent thoughts pray for curses ou her husband. But when, the tables removed, the guests shall be going, (the very crowd will afford you access and room) mix in the throng : and quietly stealing iip^ to her as she walks, twitghJier side with your fingers ; and touch her foot with your foot.

Now is the time come for some conversation : fly afar hence, coy bashfulness, let Chance and "Venus befriend the daring. Let your eloquence not be subject to any laws of mine ; only make a begmning, of your own accord you will prove fluent. You must act the lover, and wounds must be feigned in your words. Hence let canfldence be-sought by you, by means of any contrivances whatever. And 'tts-Tio -hard-in!ItleF~to be believed ; each woman seems" to herself worthy to be loved. Though sHf be ugly in the extreme, to no one are her own looks displeasing. Yet often, he that pretends to love, begins in reality : full_pft he, becomes that which in the be ginn ing he feigned- to be. For this cause, the rather, C ye fair, be pro- pitious to those who pretend. Thatpassion will become real, which so lately was feigned.

Now be it your part stealthily to captivate her affection by attentions; just as the shelving bank is encroached on by the flowing stream. Be not tireil of praising either her face or her hair ; her taper fingers too, and her small foot. The praise of their beauty pleases even the chaste ; their charms are the care and the pleasure of eve-n maidens. For, why, even now, are

' Eurytion.'] — Ver. 59.'5. At the nuptials of Piritlioui and Hippoda- iKia. See the Metamorphoses, Book xii. 1. 221), where lie is called Eurytus.

' Stealing Mjo] — Ver. 605. This piece of impudence: he professes ta practise in the Amores, Knuk i. El i" I. 3ti.

a. t. 62^—6^4.] OR, *HE ART OF tOVB. 403

luno and Pallas asliamed at not having gained the decision in the Phrygian groves ? The hird of Juno' exposes her feathers, when praised ; if you look at them in silence, she conceals her treasures. Amid the contests of the rapid course, their trimmed manes, and their patted necks, delight the steeds.

Promise, too, withuut hesitation : promises attract the fair : make any Gods_yj}u pleaseto be witnesses of what you pro- mise, jupit^r, from on high, smiles at the perjuries of lovers, and commands the j^olian South winds to sweep them away as worthless. Jupiter was accustomed to swear falsely to Juno by the Styx : now is he himself indulgent to his own pre- cedent. 'Tis expedient that there should be_fiads ;* and as it is expedient, let us believe them to exist. Let frankincense and wine be presented on their ancient altars. No repose, free from care and similar to sleep, possesses them ; live in inno- cence, for a Divinity is evei- present. Restore the pledge ; let piety observe her duties ; be there no fraud; keep your hands free from bloodshed.

Deceive, if you are wise, ^the_fair-alaue_withJj»p««ity ; for this one pi^cejf _decfiit-<JBiy-- is -good-fiath'to bethsTF^rded. Deceive the deceivers^ in a great measure they are all a guilty race ; let them fall into the toils which they have spread. Egypt is said to have been without showers that refresh the fields : and to have been parched during nine years. When Thrasius went to Bnsiris,* and showed that Jupiter could be propitiated by shedding the blood of strangers; to him Busiris said, " Thou shalt become the first sacrifice to Jove, and, a stranger, thou shalt produce rain for Egypt." Phalaris, too, burnt in the bull the limbs of the cruel Perillus ; the unhappy inventor was the first to make proof of his work.

3 Bird of Jvno.'} — Ver. 627. This fact, in natural history, was probaWy known only to Ovid, or the peacocks of the present day may be less vain than the Roman ones. See the Metamorphoses, Book i. 1. 723.

< That there s/tould ie Gods.']— "Ver. 637. This was the avowed opi- nion of some of the philosophers and atheists of antiquity. We learn from TertoUian that Diogenes, being asked if the Gods exist, answered that he did not know anything about it, but that they ought to exist. The doc- trine of the Epicureans was, that the Gods lived a happy and easy life, were not susceptible of anger, and did not trouble themselves about men.

  • Went to Budris.'] — Ver. 649. See the Tristia, Book iii. El. xi. 1. 39,

where the story of Phalaris is also referred to. Thrasius was the brothei of Hyguialinn, and was instlvpunislied by Busiris for his cruel siii;'4estiii»

D U U'

40'l Alls AlsrATortlA ; [it. I. 65A— 8!)1

K^rli of Ihfm «»s just ; and, indeed, no law is (here more riglitrous, than that the rontrivers of death should perish by their own contrivances. Therefore, since pcrjiries ■withjustice impose upon the perjured, lei -roman-grieve, deceived through a precedent her own. ~"

TegjTB, too, are of utility : by tears you -witl move adamant. Make her, if you can, to see your moistened cheeks. If tears shall fail you, for indeed they do not always come in time, touch your eyes with your wet hand. What discreet person would not mingle kisses with'tender words ? Though she should not grant them ; still take them ungranted. Perhaps she will struggle at first, and will say, " Y.ou naughty man!" still, in lier struggling, she will wish to be-overcome. Only, let them not, rudely snatched, hurt her tender lips, and take care that she may not be able to complain that they have proved a cause of pain. He who_has gained kisses, if he cannot gain the rest as well, will deserve to lose even that which has been granted him. Howmuch is there wanting-f or unlimited enjoyment after a kiss ! Oh shocking ! 'twere downright clownishness^onrf not modesty. Call it violence, if you like ; such violence is pleasing to the fair; they often wish, throughiJompulsion, to grant what tliev_are.d£liglited_<o^aw<. Wliatever laiFoire-haji-ieen de- spoiled by the sudden violence of passion, she is delighted at it ; and the chief is as good as a godsend. But she, who, when she might have been carried by storm, has escaped untouched, thoughjnJietiieaturBs, she shouldpretend gladness, will really \ie_sofij7 Phoebe suffered' violence; to her sister was violence offered ; and pleasing was either ravisher to the ravished. The damsel of Scyros being united to the Hsemonian hero, is a well-known story indeed, but not unworthy to be rekted.

Now, the Goddess, worthy to conquer the other two at the foot of mount Ida, had given her reward of the approval of her beauty. Now, from a distant region, had a daughter- jn-law come to Priam : and within Ilian walls there was a Grecian wife. AH swore in the words of the affronted hus- band ; for the grief of one was the common cause. A dis- graceful thing, had he not yielded in this to the entreaties of his mother, Achilles had concealed his manhood by the long garments. What art th6u doirur. descendant of iEacns ? The

  • Phoebe svffered.'\ — Ver. 679. See the story c' the rape uf I'ha?li« 

and Eliiir-i, )jy Castor and Pollux, in the Fasti, Cook \. 1. fi9y.

» I. 691--728.1 OB, THE A.UT OV LOTE. 405

wool is no task of thine. Do thou seek glory by otlier art«  of Pallas. What hast thou to do with work-baskets V Thy hand is fitted for holding the shield. Why hold the allotted flax in thy right hand, by which Hector shall fall ? Spurn those spindles enwrapped in the laborious warp ; the lance from Pelion is to be brandished by that hand. By chance in the same chamber there was a royal maiden ; in her own undoing she found that he was a male. By force, indeed, was she overcome, so we must beUeve : but still, by force was she willing to be overcome. Many a time did she say, " Stay," when now Achilles was hastening to depart ; for, the distaff laid aside, he had assumed valiant arms. Where now is this violence ? Why, with gentle voice, Deidamia, dost thou de- tain the perpetrator of thy disgrace ? As, forsooth, there is shame in first beginning at any time, so 'tis pleasing to the fair to submit^when +h&ather takes the initiative.

Alas ! ton grpat. ja tVip ccm&den ce of any youth -in— Ms own good looks, if he awaits for her to be the first to ask him. Let the man make the first approaches; let the man use words of entreaty ; she will kindly receive his soft entreaties. . To gain y our wmA, ^ agk ; she'only wishgsjo be^asked. TeU. her the cause and the origin oFyour desiresT JupiFer came as a sup- pliant to the Heroines of olden times ;* no fair one found fault with great Jove. But if you perceive pufTed-up vanity to be the result of your prayers, desist from your design, and withhold your advances. Many desire that which flies from them, and hate that which is close at hand. By pressing on less eagerly, remove all weariness of yourself. Nor must your hope of enjoyment be always confessed by you as you entreat ; let Ls^e-BiakeJiis— entraaee— eoeeealedr^Mieath the n ame of friendship. Byithisintroduction, I have seen the prlidisETSiiF3eceived ; he wEo~was the friend, became the lover .^ A fair complexion is unbecoming in a sailor; he ought to be swarthy, from the spray of the sea and the rays of the sun. It is unbecoming, too, to the husbandman, who, with his crooked plough and his heavy harrows, is al- ways turning up the ground in the open air. And if your body

' Work-liaiila.l — Ver. 693. Sec the Note to the seventy-tlurd Una of till.- Ninth Epistle.

' llerohiei of olderi. iimea.2 — Vei. 713. Such as Daiiae, Einopa ^PDiele, AlcirifiiS, -O, Calisto, Antiope, Maia, Klectrfi, aii(| others.

406 AHS AlfATOBIA; !b. I. 728— .7o?

in fair, yju, oy whom ths glory of the chaplet of Pallas" it ■ought, you will be unsightly.

Let every one that is in love be pale ; that is thp proper complexion for one in love. That is becoming ; from your fea- tures, let the fair think that you are not in good health. Pale with love for Lyrice,'" did Orion wander in the woods; pale for the Naiad, in her indifference, was Daphnis." Thin- ness, too, shows the feelings ; and think it no disgrace to put a hood over your shining looks. Let sleepless nights atten- uate the bodies of the youths ; care, too, and the grief that proceeds from violent love. That you may gain your desires, be wretched, that he who sees you may be able to say, " You are in love."

Shall I complain, or only remind you how all right and wrong is confused? Friendship is but a name, constancy ati empty title. Alas ! alas I it is not safe to praise the object that you love to your friend. When he has credited your praises, he supplants you. But the descendant of Actor did not defile the couch of Achilles ; so far as Pirithoiis was con- cerned, Phsedra was chaste. Pylades '* loved Hermione, with the affection with which Phcebus loved Pallas ; and he was such, daughter of Tyndarus, as thy twin brother Castor was towards thee. If any one expects the same, let him expect that the tamarisks will bear apples, and let him look for lioney in the middle of the stream. Nothing pleases but what is base ; his own gratification is the object of each. This, too, becomes pleasant from the sorrow of another. Oh disgraceful conduct ! iio enemy is to be dreaded-byjie lovei'. Shun those whom you think tri^tvyorthy ; then you &i!. Shuli" your kinsman, and your brothCT, and your dear friend ; this class will cause you real alarm.

I was here about to conclude ; but there are various din- positions in the fair ; treat these thousand dispositions in o thousand different ways. The same soil does not produce

" Chaplet of PaBas."] — Ver. 727. A crown of olive was presented ta the victors in the athletic exercises at the Olympic games.

'" Love for Lyrice.] — \er. 731. If Lyrice here is a lemale naire, it ii not known nho she was.

" Daphnis'.'] — Ver. 732. He was a Sicilian, the son of Mercury, and file inventor of Bucolic poetry.

" Pylades.'] — Ver- 74 i. .Hern}iqne was tjte wife of Orestes, the fxvsa/i •)f Pylades.

». f. 7ST— y ?2.", OR, THE ART OF I,OTB. 407

everything ; one suits the vino, another the oUve ; in this, corn springs up vigorously. There are as many characters in these various dispositions, as there are forms in the world ; the man that is wise, will adapt himself to these innumerable characters. And as at one moment Proteus will make him- self flow in running water ; and now will be a lion, now a tree, now a shaggy goat. These fish are taken with a dart,'^ those with hooks ; these the encircling nets draw up, the rope being -extended. And let no one method be adopted by you for all years. The aged hmJwill eipy from a greater distance your contrivances. Should you seem learned to the ignorant, or forward to the bashful, she will at once distrust herself, vow apprehensive. Thence it happens, that she who has dreaded to trust herself to the well-bred man, often falls into the embrace of some worthless inferior.

A part remains of the task which I have undertaken, a part is completed ; here let the anchor, thrown out, hold fast my bark.

'^ With a dart.l — Ver. 763. It appears b; this, that it was the custom to take fish by striking them witl a javelin. Salmuu ore sometimes canglii in a similar manner at the present day.


SiNu, "loPoean;"' and " lo Psean" twice sing; the prej that was sought has fallen into our toils. Let the joyous lovej present my lines with the yerdant palm; to Hesiod the Ascraean and to Homer the Mseonian old man shall I be preferred. Such did the stranger son of Priam set his whitening sails from the armed Amyclse,^ together with the ravished wife. Such was he who bore thee, Hippodamia, in his victorious chariot, carried by the wheels ofi the stranger. Why hasten then, young man 1 Thy_ship is sailing in the midst of the waves ; and far distant is the harbour for which I make. It is not enough, me your Poet, for the fair to be gained by you. Through my skill has she been acquired; through my skill must retained. 'Tis no less merit to keep what is acquired, than to gain it. In the former there is some chance ; ill the la,tterjadll be a work of'artT" ~

Now, if ever. Boy Cupid and Cytherea, be propitious to me: now, Erato ;' for thou hast a name from Love. Great attempts do I contemplate ; to tell by what means Love can be arrested, the Boy that wanders over the world so wide. He is both in- constant, and he has two vikings with which to fly. "Tis an arduous task to impose laws on these.

Minos had obstructed all means of escape to the stranger. He discovered a bold path* with his wings. When Daedalus

' Situ/, 'lo Pean.] — Ver. 1, Tliis was tlie usual cry of the hunters, who thus addressed Apollo, the God of the chase, when the prey had been captured in the toils. See the Metamorplinses, Book iv. 1. 513.

2 AmycliB.'] — Ver. 5. A town of Laconia. See the Metamorphoses, Book X. 1. 219, and the Note.

' Erato.'] — Ver. 16. He addresses himself to this Muse, as her name was derived from the Greek toiu<;, 'love.' It has been suggested that he liad another reason for iiddressing her, as she w.-is tliought to take pleasure ill warfare, a stale wliicli soineljnics, hy way of variety, exists hctween lovers.

■* .1 bull path.'] — Ver. 22. 'I'liis iloiy is aK.iiii rilalii) jii l))f (ilghtji fllfok of tlip ,\[etuiii(ir|;)l|ii5|;a.

». II. 24—58.] AB3 AMATOBJA ; OR, THE ABT OT lOVE. 409

had enclosed the man half-bull, and the bull half-man, that was. conceived in the criminality of his mother ; he said, "Most just Minos, let there be a terminRtion of my exile; and let my paternal land receive my ashes. And since, harassed by the cruel Destinies, I cannot live in my counti-y, let me be enabled to die. If the merits of an old man are but small, grant a return to this boy ; if thou art unvrilling to favour the boy, then favour the old man." This he said : but both this and many more things he might have said ; the other did not permit a retui'n to the hero. Soon as he saw tliis, he said, " Now, now, Daedalus, thou hast a subject, upon which thou mayst prove ingenious. Lo ! Minos pos- sesses the land, and he possesses the ocean ; neither earth nor water is open for our escape ; there remains a path through the neavens ; through the heavens will we attempt to go. Jupiter on high, gi-ant pardon to my design. I do not aim to reach the starry abodes ; there is no way but this one, by which 1 may escape the tyrant. Should a road through Styx be granted ; then we will swim through the Stygian waves ; let the laws of nature be changed by me." Misfortunes often sharpen the genius ; who could have ever believed, that f mortal could attempt the paths of the air 1

He arranges swift feathers in order, like oars,' and connect, the light ■vrork with fastenings of thread ; the lower part, too is bound together with wax, melted by the lire ; and now the work of the new contrivance is finished. The smiling boy handles both the wax and the feathers, not knowing that these instruments are prepared for his own shoulders. To him his father says : " With these ships must we reach our native land ; by these means must we escape from Mmos. The air Minos could not, all else he has, shut against us. Cleave the air, which still thou mayst, with these my inven- tions. But neither the virgin of Tegeisa, nor the sword- bearing Orion,' the companion of Bootes, will have to be be- held by thee. Follow me with the wings given to thee : I will go before on the way. Be it thy care to follow ; me thy

' Like oars.'] — Vcr. 15. lie aptly compares the anaiigemeiit of the main feathers of a wiug to a row of oars.

  • Orion.] — Ver. 56. So iii the Metamorphoses, Book v. '.. 20ri, Iw

uys to ht^soii Icarus, ' Fly between both: and I bid thee ueMwi \\> |t)<>^ (t Bod^inor HeU*, ror tb« <ir(vwii sword qf Ofioii.'

410 AB3 AMATORIA ; [b. n. 58—90

leader, tliou wilt, be safe. But if we shall go tliroiig'.i the air ot the heavens, the sun close to us, the wax wiU not be able to endure the heat. If we shall wave our wings below, tlio «ea near to us, the fluttering feathers will be wet with the ocean spray. Fly between them both; dread, too, the winds, Biy son ; and whichever way the breezes s^all blow, set thy prospering sails."

While he thus advises ; he fits his work on to the boy, and shows how it is to be moved; just as their mother teaches the helpless birds. Then he places upon his shoulders the wings made for himself ; and with timidity he poises his body along this new track. And now about to fly, he gives kisses to his little son ; and the cheeks of the father do not withhold their tears. There is a hill, less than a mountain, more lofty than the level plain ; hence are their two bodies entrusted to their mournful flight. Decdalus both moves his own wings himself, and looks back on those of his son ; and he ever keeps on his own course. And now this unusual path delights him, and, fear laid aside. Icarus flies more courageously with emboldened skill. A person sees them, while he is angling ' for fish with his quivering rod, and his right hand desists from the work he has commenced. Now Samos and Naxos had beep left be- hind, on the left hand, and Paros, and Delos beloved by the Clarian God.' Lebynthos was to the right, and Calymne' shaded with its woods, and Astypalaea,'" surrounded with its fishy shallows ; when the boy, too venturesome in his incon- siderate daring, took a higher flight, and forsook his guide.

•The fastenings give way ; and the wax melts, the Divinity being so near ; and his arms, when moved, no longer catch the light breeze. Alarmed, he looks down upon tJie sea from the lofty heavens ; darkness, arising from trembling appre- hension, comes over his eyes. The wax has now melted ; he waves his bare arms, and he trembles, and has no means

■• Is angling.'\ — Ver. 77. There is a similar passage in the Metamor- plioses, 1. 216.

« The Clarian Gorf.]— Ver. 80. See the Fasti, Boolt i. 1. 20, and the Note. ' ;

' And Calymne.] — ^Ver. 81. These jj.aceS' are mentioned in the cor- responding passage in the Metamorphoses, Book viii. 1. 222.

'" Aatypal(ca.'\ — Vet. 82. This was an isle in the group of '-he Spo radea, between Crete and the Cyclades. It contained but one cit^. ar-ii w«s long and narrow, and of rugged ^ppq^ranca. •

«. n, flO— 119.] OE, THE .\RT 01' LOIT!. 411

whereby to b* supported. Downward he falls ; and aa he falls, he cries, " Father ! father ! I Km undone !" As he spoke, the azure waves closed his mouth. But the unhappy father, a father now no longer, cried aloud, " Icarus, where art thou? Or under what fart of the sky dost thou fly?" " Icarus," again he cried aloud ; his feathers he beheld in the waves. The dry land covers his hones ; the sea retains his name.

Minos could not restrain the wings of a mortal ; I myself am attejoipting to arrest a wing^ed Divinity. " Tf any one has recourse to the Hsemonian arts, and gives that which he has torn from the forehead of the young horse," he is mistaken. The herbs of Medea will not cause love to endure; nor yet the Marsian spells'" mingled with the magic notes. The Phasian damsel would liave retained the son of j9ilson, Circe Ulysses, if love could only have been preserved through incantations. Phil- tres, too, causing paleness," are of no use when administered to the fair; Philtres injure the intellect, and have a maddening effect. Afar be all criminal attempts; to oe loved, be worthy to •• be loved ; a property which comehness, or beauty alone, will not 1 confer upfli) ygu. Though you should be Nireus,'* bepraiscd bv ai.'cient Homer, and the charming Hylas," carried off by the cr[- minality of the Naiads ; that you may retain your mistress, and not have to wonder that you are deserted, add the endowments of the mind to the advantages of the person. Beauty is a fleet- ing advantage ; and the more it increases in years, the less it becomes, and, itself, is consumed by length of time.

Neither the violets nor the opening lOies bloom for ever ; and, the roses lost, the thorny bush is prickly left behind. And, handsome man, soon shall come to you the hoary locks ; • soon shall come the wrinkles, to furrow your body over. Now form a disposition which may be lasting, and add it to your

" The young Aowc] — Ver. 100. See the Amores. Book i. El. viii '. 8, and the Note.

'- The Marsian sfelU^ — Ver. 102. The ' naenia ' was a mournful dirge* or chaunt uttered by the sorcerer in his incantations. On the Marsi^^lsee the Sixth Book of the Fasti, 1. 142, and the Note to the passage.

"* CaustTiff piletMis.'] — Ver. 10.5. Philtres were noxious potions, made nf venomous or stimulating ingredients, prescribed as a means of gaijiing the affections of the person to whom they were administered,

'■• A'jVeJM.] — Ver. )09. See the Pontic tpistles, Book iv. Ep, ^iii. L 1 (i, and the Note to the nassage. ' , '

i» Charming l/yto*.]— V*r. HO. See the Trjstis, Book ij. 1, 406

4I-2 AM AMATOBIA ; [b. II. 119— 150.

buaiity ; that alone endures to the closing pile. And be it no lijjllt care to cultivate the mind with the JiberaLarts, and to iearn thoroughly the two languages, the Latin and the Greek. Ulysses was not handsome, but he was fluent ; and yet with love he racked the ocean Goddesses. *° Ah ! how oft did Calypso grieve at his hastening to depart, and declare that the waves were not favorable to his oars ! Again and again did she en- quire into the catastrophe of Troy. Often in another manner was he wont to repeat the same thing. On the shore they were standing ; even there did the beauteous Calypso enquire about the blood-stained death of the Odrysian chief.

With a little stick, for by (thunce he was holding a stick, he depicted on the firm shore the subject on which she was en- quiring. " This is Troy," said he ; and the walls he drew on the shore ; " This must be Simois for thee, and suppose these to be my tents. There was a plain," and here he drew the plain, " which we moistened with the blood of Dolon," while, as a spy, he was longing for the Haemonian horses." There wye the tents of the Sithonian Rhesus ; in this direction was I borne back again by the captured steeds." And many other things was he depicting, when the waves suddenly carried off both Pergamus and the tents of Rhesus together with their chief. Then the Goddess said, " Dost thou behold how famous names these waves have swept away, which thou dost trust will be favorable to thee about to depart ?"

Come then, with hessitation, feel confidence in beauty so deceiving, whoever you are ; or else possess something of more value than comeliness. A beseeming courtesy especially enlists the feelings ; rudeness and harsh language promote hatred. We dislike the hawk, because it is always living in warfare ; the wolves too, that are wont to rush upon the startled flocks. But the swallow, because it is gentle, ia exempt from the snare» of men; andtheChaonian bird" has the turrets for it to inhabit.

'5 Oceaa Goddesses.'] — Ver. 124. Calypso was really the only sea Goddess that was enamoured of Ulysses. Circe was not a sea Goddess.

" Blood of Dolon.l — Ver. 135. See the Metamorphoses, Book xiii. line 244.

'* Hjmionmn fiorses.] — ^Ver. 1.3(i. The steeds of Achilles.

" The Chaaniau bird.] — Ver. liO. Chaonia was a district of Epims, mid to liave been so called from Chaon, a Trojan. Dudona was in Epinu, ami in its forests were said to be doves that liad the gift of prophocy. Sc( tlie Triti|sli(tj(tu f(f tfie MetiHiiorphQscs pp. 4G7-8.

s. ti. 101— iss.i on, Tttft Anr of totn. 41,1

Afar lie all strife and couteiilions of (lie abusive toiigiit ; •*\t,h Bwoet words :nust gentle love be clierished. With strife let botli wives persecute their husbands, jukI hiusbands their wives) and, each in their turn, let them ever be thinking that they must resort to law.™ This is the part of wives ; strife is the dowry of the wife. L^themifiteeafi. ever hear the accents that she loiigs for. At the bidding of no law have you come to live-together ; in your case 'tis love that performs the duties of the la w. Bring soft caresses, and words that delight the ear, that she may ever be joyous at your approach.

I do not come as the instructor of the wealthy in Love ; he who makes presents has no nee3~oFmy experience. He who ■^ays, wheneveFhe pleases, "Accept this," has a genius of his own. To Mm do I jieWx.he_has_greater^ attractions than have any discoveries of mme^ I am the instr uctor of the poor, "because, as a poor man, I have been in love. When I could not give presents, I gave verses.-' Let the poor man love with caution^let the poor man stand in fear of bad language, and let him put up with many a thing, not to be endured by the rich. I remember that once, when in a rage, I disarranged the hair of my mistress; of how many a day did that anger deprive me ! I do not think I did, and I did not see that I had, torn her tunic, but she said so, and at my cost it was replaceil. But you who are wise, avoid the errors of your instructor ; and stand in awe of the punishment of my transgressions.

Let battles be with the Parthians, but be ther e pea ce with your refined mistress ; mirth too, and whatever besides contains a reason for love. If she is not sufficiently kind or affable to you her lover ; have patience, and bear it ; after a time she will be softened. By giving way the supple branch is bent from the tree ; if you make trial of your strength, you break it. By giving way the waves are swam across ; but you cannot overcome the stream if yon swim against the flood which the tide carrier down. 'Tis yielding that subdues the tigers and the Numidian lions. By degrees only does the \)ull submit to the rustic plough. What was there more coy

2" Resort to few.] — ^Ver. 151. He means to say 'let man and wife lie always thinking about resorting to law to procure a divorce.'

'■^' I gave rwse*.]— "Ver. 106. He intends a pun here. 'Verba flare' is ' to deceive,' but literallj' it means ' to give words.' See the Aiimren, Book i. Kl. viii. 1. 57.

ill Alts AMATOhtA , [b. 11. Isb— Sl)j»

than Atiilanla of Nonacris?" Yet, iiiitamcil as she was, kIic yielded to the deserving qualities of a man. I'hey say tJiat many a time, beneath the trees, Milanion wept at his mishnpR, and the unkind conduct of the fair one. Full oft on his neck, as ordered, did he bear the treacherous toils ; full oft with his cruel spear did he transfix the savage boars. Wounded, toa, he experienced the stretched bow of Hyleeus ;"' but yet there •vas another bow still more felt than this.

I do not bid you, in arms, to climb the woods of Msenalus, and I do not bid you to carry the tpUs upon your neck. Nor yet do I bid you to expose your breast to the discharged arrows. The requirements of my skill will be but light to the careful man. Yie^d to her when opposing : by yielding, . y^u will come off victorious. Only take care to perform the part which

she shall bid you Wkat she blames, do you blame j^hatever

she approves, do you approve ; what she says, do you say ; what she denies, do you deiiy; Does: she smile, do you smile ; if she weeps, do you remember to weep. Let her prescribe the law for the regulation of your features. If she plays, and throws the ivory cubes* with her hand, do you throw unsuc- cessfully, do you make bad moves"" to the throws; or if you are throwing'" the dice, let not the penalty attend upon her losing ;

"- Atalanta of Nonacria.'] — Ver. 185. See the Amores, Book iii. El. ii, I. 29, ar.d the Note.

-^ Bmi) of Hyl<eiis.'\ — Ver. 191. Hylseus and Rhaecua were Centaurs, who were pierced by Atalanta witli her arrows, for tnakhig an attempt on her chastity. He alludes to the bow of Cupid in the next line.

^* The irory cubes."] — Ver. 203. He alludes to throws of the ' tali ' and 'tesserie,' which were ditfercnt kinds of dice. See the Note to 1. 471 of the Second Book of the Tristia. In this line he seems to mean the ' tes- serie," which were similar to our dice, while the ' tali,' which he next mentions, had only four flat surfaces, being made in imitation of the knuckle-bones of animals, and having two aides uneven and rounded. The dice were thrown on a table, made for the purpose, with an elevated rim. Some throws, like our doublets, are supposed to have counted for more than the number turned up. The most fortunate throw was called ' Venus,' or ' Venereus jactus' ; it is thought to have consisted of a combination, making fourteen, the dice presenting different numbers. Games with dice were only sanctioned by law as a pastime during meals.

^ Make bad motea.'\ — Ver. 204. ' Dare jacta ' means ' to move the throws,' in allusion to the game of ' duodecim scripta,' or ' twelve points,' which was played with counters moved according to the throws of the dice, probably in a manner not unlike our game of backgammon. The board was marked with twelve lines, on which the pieces moved.

» Qt \fi/m are //iJ-oii'/nn.]— Ver. 20r) By the use of the word ' aeu,

». tt. 206— 21?.] oft, TH-te A.ST 0# LOV*. 4lJ

tnkc cure that losing throws often befall yourself. If youf piece is nioviug at the game that imitates" the tactics of war, take care that your man falls before his enemy of glass. Do you yourself hold the screen^' stretched out by its ribs; do you make room in the crowd the way that she is going. And do not delay to place the footstool before the tasteful couch;-' and take off or put on the sandals for her delicate feet. Often, too, must the hand of your mistress, when cold, be made warm in your bosom, though you yourself should shiver ill consequence. And think it no disgrace (although it should be a disgrace to you, still it will give pleasure), to hold th*" looking-glass^ with the hand of a free-born man.

He who, by killing the monsters of his wearied step-mother,

or,' we must suppose that he has, under the word ' numeri,' alluded to the game with the ' tesserae,' or six-sided dice.

" The game that imitates.'] — Ver. 207- He here alludes to the ' ludus latrunculorum,' literally ' the game of theft,' which is supposed to have been somewhat similar to our chess. He refers to its name in the words, ' latrocinii sub imagine.' The game was supposed to imitate the furtive stratagems of warfare : hence the men, which were usually styled ' calculi,' were also called by the name of ' latrones,' ' latrunculi,' ' milites,' ' bella- tores,' ' thieves,' ' little thieves,' ' soldiers,' ' warriors.' As we see by the next line, they were usually made of glass, though sometimes more costly materials were employed. The skill of this game consisted either in tak- ing the pieces of the adversary, or rendering them unable to move. The first was done when the adversary's piece was bro\ight by the other be- tween two of his own. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1. '177. The second took place when the pieces were ' ligati,' or ' ad incitas redact!,' brought npon the last line and unable to move. White and red are supposed to have been the colour of the men. This game was much played by the Roman ladies and nobles.

-' Hold the screen."] — Ver. 209. The ancients used ' umbracula,' or screens against the weather (resembling our umbrellas), which the Greeks called OKu'iSia. They were used generally for the same purposes as our parasols, a protection against the heat of the sun. They seem not to have been in general carried by the ladies themselves, but by female slavB.s, who held them over their mistresses. See the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 209. These screens, or umbrellas, were much used by the Roman ladies in (he amphitheatre, to protect them from sua and rain, when the ' velarium,' or awning, was not extended.

•' Tasteful couch.] — Ver. 211. This was probably the ' triclinium ' on which they reposed at meals. The shoes were taken off before reclining on it. Female slaves did this office for the ladies, and males for the men,

■"" Lookfmg-glass.] — Ver. 216. These were generally held by fem«l«  slaves, when used liy their mistresses. See the Metamorphoaes, BlvI( iv, U JJ9 an; the Noti

4115 AHS AMiTniiiA J , [n. It. 2H— Mi

ninied thoSe llfedVens which Before he ha J sujip«r(od, is Im>- !ieved, amid the Ionian girla, to have held the work-baskel,'" and to have wrought the rough wool. The Tirynthian hero was obedifiat_to_tiie commands of his mistress. Go then, and hesitate to endure what he submitted to. When bidden to come to the Forum, take care always to be there before the appointed time ; and do not go away until a late hour. Does she appoint to meet you at any place ; put off everything else : run quickly, and let not the crowd stop your purposed route. Is she returning home at night, after having been at a feast ; then, too, if she calls, come to her as though a servant."* If you are in the country andrshesays, " Come," (love hates the tardy) if a vehicle *' is not at hand, go your journey on foot. Let neither bad weather nor the parching Dog-star detain yon, nor the road made white with the snow that lies there.

Love is a kind of warfare ; cowards, avaunt ! These are not the standards {oTre~3eiended by timid men. In this ten- der warfare, night, and wintry storms, and long journies, and cruel pain, and every kind of toil, have their part. Many a time will you have to endure the rain pouring from the clouds of lieaven ; cold and on the bare ground full oft will you he. Cynthius is said to have fed the cows of Admetus of, Pherae, and to have lived in an humble cottage. What was becoming to Phoebus, to whom is it not becoming 1 Aw£yj?ith_^/i-Con- ceit,jEli2ever_youare, who have a^re for a lasting passion. Tf access is demedTyoubyli safe and smooth path ; and if hei' door shall be fastened by the bar put up ; then, do you shp straight down through the open, roof :'° let the high win-

" Held the worh-hasJcet.'] — Ver. 219. Hercules, who killed the ser- pents sent by Juno, is reproached for doing this, by Deianira in lier Epistle.

'^ At though a servant.'] — Ver. 228. He is to be ready, if his mistress goes to a party, to act the part of the slave, who was called ' adversitor,' whose duty it was to escort his master home in the evening, if it was oark, vrith a lighted torch.

^ A vehicle.'] — Ver. 230. 'Rota,' a wheel, is, by Synecdoche, used to signify ' a vehicle.'

" Cynthim.l—'Ver. 2t0. See thr Note to line 51, of the Epistle from CEnone to Paris.

^ Through the open ronf.'\ — Ver. 245. He gives a somewhat hazardous piece of advice here ; as he instructs him to obtain admission by climbing up th" wall, and getting in at tV skylight, whicli extended over 1||4

«. ti. 21G— 2G3.] OK, The art or LOVJ!. 'Il7

dow,*' too, present a «ecret passage. She will be pkasPd when she knowsJhatghQ.Uas proved the cause of risk to_you. This wiHTje to your mistress a pledge of your unvarying love. Full oft, Leander, couldst thou have done without thy mistress ; that she might know thy passion, thou didst swim across.

And be not ashamed to mak3 her handmaids, as each one is superior in rank, nor yet her male servants, entirely your ovrn. Salute them each by name, there will be nothing thrown away : press their humble hands, proud lover, with your own. More- over, (the expense is but trifling) give to the servant who asks, some little present from your means. Make a present, too, to the handmaid, on the day on which" the Gallic army, de- ceived by the garments of the matrons, received retribu- tion. Follow my advice, and make the lower classes your own ; in that number let there always be the porter, and him who lies before the door of her chamber. And I do not bid you present to your mistress any costly gift ; give her moderate ones, but, in your discrimination, well selected from

' atrium,' or ' court,' a room which occupied the middle of the house. The Roman houses liii'.l, iu general, but one story over the ground-floor.

  • T/ie hig?i Mijiutoio.] — Ver. 246. This passage may be illustratsd by

the Note to 1. 752 of Book xiv. of the Metamorphoses.

^ Day on wAicA.] — Ver. 2f 7. He alluded to a festival celebrated by the servants, on the Caprotine Kones, the seventh of July, when they sacrificed to ' Juno Caprctina.' Macrobius says that the servants sacri- ficed to Juno under a wild fig-tree (called ' caprificus'), in memory of the service done'by the female slaves, in exposing themselves to the lust ot the enemy, for the public welfare. The Gauls being driven from the city, the neighbouring nations chose the Dictator of the Fidenates for their chief, and, marching to Korae, demanded of the Senate, that if they would save their city, they should send out to them their wives and daughters. The 3enate, knowing their own weakness, were much perplexed, when a handmaid, named * Tutela,' or ' Philotis,' offered, vrith some others, to go out to the enemy in disguise. Being, accordingly, dressed like free women, they repaired in tears to the camp of the enemy. They soon induced their new acquaintapces to drink, on the pretence that they were bound to consider the day as a festival ; and when intoxicated, a signal was given from a fig-tree near, that the Romans should fall on them. The camp of the enemy was assailed, and most of them were slain. In return for their service, the female slaves were made free, and received marriage portions at the public expense. Another account, agreeing with the present psu- sage, says, that the Ganis were the enemy who made the demand, and thai Relaiia was the name of the female slave.

  • • The lower cfas»e».] — Ver. 259. Witness his i)«n appeals iu Hit

Aniores lo Nape, Cypaasis. Baao'is. and the pm tur

•118 Alts AttAtOftU; [ft. II. '2(i3— 'M

tho«c thai afe moderate. Wliile tUe couiilry is abundantly rich in produce, while the branches are bending beneath their load, let the boy bring your gifts from the country in his basket. You may say that they have been sent by you from your suburban retreat, although they may have been bpught even in the Sacred Street.^' Let him carry either grapes, oi what Amaryllis was so fond of ;*° but, at the present day, she is fond of chesnuts no longer. And, besides, both with a thrush and a pigeon,*' sent as a present, you may show how attentive you are to your mistress. By these means" are the expectations of death, and solitary old age, disgracefully made matter of purchase. Oh ! may they perish through whom ^ifts promote criminal objects !

Why should I recommend you to s^dte nde r Juiea as well? ^faai'poetry does iiot^ gaia.n]Luch4ioiioiu:^vVerses^re praised :

^ff^iiif" s*ly S'f 'sjfliatjxe.saught' ^f 1*^ is 0"b' i'ic]i,""a very •arbariair is pleasing. Truly is this the golden age; the greatest honours accrue through gold ; love is purchased vith gold. Though thou thyself. Homer, shouldst come, at- tended by the Muses : if thou shouldst bring nothing with thee, thou wouldst be turned out of doors.

And yet there are the learned fair, a very limited number ; another set are not learned, but they wish to be so. Both kinds may be praised in verse ; the , reader may set off the lines of whatever quality by a melodious voice. Indee.d, a poem, carefully composed in their honour , wil l b.e' to these

  • • In ihe'Sdcred Street.']— Vet. 266. Presents of game and trout very

often follow a similar devolution at tlve present day.

  • " Amart/llis was so fond of.] — Ver. 267. He alludes to a line of Virgil,

which, doubtless, was then well known to all persons of education. It occurs in the Eclogues: ' Castaneasque nuces, mea quas Amaryllis amabat.' 'Chesnuts, too, which my Amaryllis was so fond of.' In the next line, he hints that the damsels of liis day were too greedy to be satisfied with chesnuts only.

  • ' Thrush and a pigeon.] — Ver. 269. Probably live birds of the kind

are here alluded to ; Pliny tells us that they were trained to , imitate tlie human voice. Thrushes were much esteemed as a delicacy for tlie table. They were sold tied up in clusters, in the shape of a crown.

^^ By these means.] — Ver. 271. He alludes to those who contriied to slip into dead men's shoes, by making trifling presents of niceties. Ju- venal inveighs against this practice.

" Poetry does not.] — Ver. 274. See the remaiks of Dipsas in (bnly rich ] — Ver. 27C. See the Amorea, Book lii. El. ii.

6.(1.286^-310.] Ott, *l«! AKt ot Lort:. 410

or to those, as good, perhaps, as a little preseul. But take care that whatEver you are about; to do of your own accord and consider convenient, your mistress sliiill always Jlrst ask that of you. Has freedom been promised to any one of yout slaves ; still cause him to make a request for it of your mis- tress. If you forgive punishment and cruel fetters to your slave, let her be indebted to you for what you were about to do. Let the advantage be your own ; let the credit be given to your mistress. Suffer no loss yourself, and let lier act the part o f th e person in power.

But whosoever you are who have a care to retain the fair, cause her to believe that you are enchanted with her beauty. If she is in Tyrian costume, praise the dress of Tyrian hue ;■*" if she is in that of Cos,*° consider the Coan habit as becoming. Is she arrayed in gold, let her be more precious in your eyes than gold itself : if she wears a dress of felt, praise the fch dress that she wears. Does she stand before you in lier tunic, e.vclaim, "You are setting me on fire ;"" but entreat her, wiUi a voice of anxiety, to beware of the cold. Is the parting of her hair nicely arranged ; praise the ^parting of it ; has she curled her hair by aid of the fire : curled locks, do you prove the attraction. As she dances, admire her arms, her voice as she sings ; and use tlie words of one complaining because she has left off. Her very embraces'"' you may commend, on the points that please yourself; and with murmuring accents yon may signify your delight. Though slie be more fierce than thu grim Medusa ; to her lover she will become gentle and kind.

«'■ Tyrian //«e.]— Ver. 297. See the I'asli, Book ii. 1. 107, and ilic Note.

■"■■ Of Con ]— Ver. 298. See the Epistles of Sabinus, Ep. iii. 1. 45, and the Note.

•" A dress of felt.] — Ver. .300. 'Gausape,' 'gausapa,'or ' gausapuin," was a kind of thick woolly e'luth, which had a long nap on one side. It was used to cover tables and beds, and as a protection against wind and rain. It was worn both by males and females, and came into use among the Romans about the time of Augustus.

■"' You are setting me on fire.'] — Ver. 301. Burmami deservedly cen- .sures the explanation of ' moves incendia,' given by Crispinus, the Delphin Editor, ' Vous mourrez de cbaud,' ' You will die of heat,' applying the ob- Bervation to the lady, and not, figuratively, to the feeUngs of her lover.

■** lier very embraces.'] — Ver. 308. The common reading of this liw", is clearly corrupt ; probably the readin? is tie oue here adopted, ' K; jiui >lv\, jjaudia, vuce p'-nlia.'

42*1 Ans AMAtoSlA ; [b. n. 3ld— 34l,

Only, take yoll carp tliatyou be.npt' discovered to he a deccivrr in these expressions ; and by your looks do not contradict your words. If devices are concealed, they are of use ; when discovered, they cause shame, and deservedlyremove confidence for iXi future time. Often, at the approach of autumn (when the year is most beauteous, and the filled grape is growing red with its purple juice ,■ at the time when at one moment we are chilled with cold, at another we are melted with heat), through the vaiying temperature a languor takes possession of the body. She, indeed, may be in good health ; but if, through illness she keeps her bed, and, ailing, feels tlie bad eifects of the weather, then let your love and afiection be proved to the fair ; then sow, that hereafter with the sickle of abundance you may reap. Let no disgust at her malady, that renders her so cross, come upon you : by your hands too, let whatever she will permit, be done. And let her see you as yoq weep ; and be not tired of giving her kisses ; and with her parched lips let her dry up your tears. Make many a vow for her cure, but all before her : and as often as she will permit, be seeing pleasant visions to tell her of. Let the old woman come,*" too, to purify her couch and chamber ; and in her palsied hand let her carry before her the sulphur and the eggs. In all these things there will be traces of. a pleasing attention ; for many a one has this road proved a path to another man's will. But still, let not loathing on the part of the sick fair be the result of your officiousness ; let there b e certeznjimits shown in your careful attentiveness. Do not you forbid her food, nor administer the cups with the bitter draught ; let your rival mingle those.

But when you have gained the open sea, you must not use the breeze to which you set your sails from off the shore. While Love is wandering in his youth, let him gain strength by habit ; if you nurse him well, in time he will be strong. Him

'" Lei the old vmman come.2 — Ver. 329. In sickhess ii was the custom to purify tbe bed and chamber of the patient, with sulphur and eggs. It seems also to have been done when the patient was pining through unrC' quited love. Apulius mentions a purification by the priest of Isis, who uses eggs and sulphur while holding a torch and repeating a prayer. The nurse «f the patient seems here to be directed to perform the cerrmony. nws tne Fasti, Book ii. 1. 19, and Book iv. 1. 728. From a passage at >nvenal, we find that it was a common practice to purify wit li cgjs an'J ■niipbui, in the month of September.

■.11.341—376] OK. THE AET OF LOTE. 42i

that you fear as a bull, as a calf you ■were wont to pat ; tho tree under which you are now reclining, was once a twig. A river at its rise is small, but it acquires strength in its course ; and where it runs, it now receives many a stream. Make her become used to you ; there is nothing more powerful than hab'ilT" Wliiie you are courting her, avoid no amount of trctn- bleT Let her be always seeing you ; let her be always lending ear to you ; let both night and day show your countenance. When you have a greater confidence that you may be missed ; then, destined to be her care when absent, go away to a dis- tance. Give yourself some repose ; the land that has lain fallqWj^ves back in abundance what has been entrusted to it ; and the dry ground sucks up the water of the heavens. Demophoon, when present, inflamed Phyllis in a less degree ; when he had set sail, more violently did she burn. The crafty Ulysses, by his absence, tortured Penelope: far away, tearful Laodamia, was thy hero of Phylace.

But a short respite alone is safe ; in time, cares become modified, anTtheTtbaeat-lese decays and a new one makes its entrance. While Menelaiis was absent, Helen, that she might not lie alone, was received at night into the warm bosom of his guest. What meant, Menelaiis, this stupidity of thine ? Thou didst go away alone ; under the same roof were both the stranger and thy wife. And dost thou entrust, madman, the timid doves to the hawk ? Dost thou entrust the welJ- fiUed sheep-fold to the mountain wolf? Helen commits no sin ; this paramour of hers does no wrong ; he does what thou, what any one, would do. Thou dost persuade them to adul- tery, by giving both time and opportunity. What advice,^' but thiiae-«wn, has the fair made use of? What is she to do? Her husband is away, and a guest, no repulsive person, is present, and she is afraid to sleep alone in an empty couch. Let the son of Atreus think better of it : I acquit Helen of criminahty ; she made use of the opportunity given by an easy husband.

But neither is the tawny boar so fierce in the midst of his rage, when he hurls the furious dogs with the lightning shock of his tusks ; nor the Koness, when she is giving the breast to her sucking whelps ; nor the little viper, >hen in-

  • ' What aihice] — Vcr. .368. Thesp uVtcrniJts (it fmgiip'^^iit afr e\|iaiiiilcil

422 ABS AMATOBtA ; [a. 11.^.6 412.

iiired y/ the heedless foot ; as the woman, inho is furious (in detecting the rival of her nuptial couch, and bears on her fea- tures the proofs of her feelings. To the sword and to flamefl does she resort ; and, shame laid aside, onward she is impelled, Bs though struck by the horns of the Aonian God. The bar- barian fair one of Phasis avenged the fault of her husband, and the violated rights of a wife, by the death of her sons. See, liow another cruel parent ('tis the swallow that you behold) Has her breast stained with blood. 'Tis this breaks those at- tachments that are firmly united, this, those of long duration ; these faults must then be guarded against by cautious men. But still, my judgment does not condemn you to one fair / alone. The Gods forbid ! hardly can the married woman adhere I to this. Disport yoursUf ; but let your faultiness be concealed by a decent stealthiness. No glory must be soiiglit in one's own delinquency. And do you give no present of which the other may know ; nor be there any stated times for your in- triguing. And, lest the fair one should catch you in the retreat so well known to her, all must not be met in the same place of rendezvous. And, as often as you shall be writing, do you first examine the whole of the tablet ; many a woman reads more than what has been sent to her. A slighted passion brandishes the arms of retribution, and hurls back the wea- pon, and causes yourself to complain of that of which it com- plained so lately.

So long as the son of Atreus was content with one woman, she, too, was chaste ; (through the fault of her husband did she become culpable. She had heard how that Ghryses, bear- ing in his hand the laurel and the fillets, had not prevailed in belialf of his daughter. She had heard, too, ravished one of Lyrnesus, of thy sorrows ; and how the warfare had been ■protracted through disgraceful delays. Still, these things she iiad only heard of ; the daughter of Priam, herself, she had seen. Thou, the conqueror, wast the disgraced captive of thy own captive. Then did she receive the son of Thyestes, both into her chamber and her affections ; and the daughter of Tyn- darus avenged herself on a husband so deeply criminal.

Your actions, which you have studiously concealed, if per- chance any of Jthem are discovered, although they should be notorious, still do you always deny them. On such occasions, do you neither he subdued, nor more kind than usual. That

». n. 412—415.] OR, THE AKT OF lOTE. 423

benrs tlie marks of a mind that lias loo deeply offended. Still, spare not any endearments on your side ; peace m entirely, cen<rerf in caresses alone ; by these must the former intrigue be disavowed. There are some who would recom- mend you to use injurious herbs, such as savory ; in mv opinion they are so many poisons. Or else, they mingle pepper with the seed of the stinging nettle ;*^ and the yellow- camomile pounded in old wine. But the Goddess, whom the lofty Eryx receives beneath his shady hill, does not allow "us to be impelled in such manner to her delights. The white onion*^ which is sent from the Pelasgian city of Alcathoiis," and the salacious herbs which come out of the gardens, and eggs may be eaten ; the honey of Hymettus may be eaten, and the nuts wliich the pine-tree with its sharp leaves produces.

AVTiy, learned Erato, art thou thus diverging into the medical art ? The inner side of the turning-place must be grazed by my chariot. You, who just now were, by my recommendation, to conceal your delinquencies, change your course, and, by my advice, disclose your intrigues. Nor yet is any inconsistency of mine to be censured ; the curving ship does not always carry those on board with the same breezes. For sometimes we run with the Thracian Borea;s, sometimes with the East wind ; full oft does the canvass swell with the Zephyi-s, with the South wind full oft. See how, in the chariot, the driver, at one moment, gives the flowing rein, at another, skilfully checks the horses in full career. There are some, with whom an anxious obsequiousness is ruinous, and if there is no rival existing, then their passion waxes faint. The feeUngs often run riot amid prosperity ; and to bear good fortune with equanimity is no easy task. As the declining fire, its strength consuming by degrees, itself hes concealed, and the ashes be- come white over the surface of the fire ; but still, when sulphur is appUed, it finds the flames that were extinguished, and the light returns which existed before ; so, when the feelings, sluggish through repose, and free from care, become torpid, by sharp stimulants must love be aroused. Make her to be

'= Strngmg-nettle.] — Ver. 417. Pliny prescribes nettle-seed as a stimu- lating medicine, mixed with linseed, hyssop, and pepper.

5' Tf^Aite onion.] — Ver. 421. The onions of Megara are praised by Cato, the agricultural writer.

5' Akathoiis,'] — Ver. 421. See the Metamorphoses, Bcoli vii, 1. iiX

424 AES A.MATOEIA ; [b. II. Ui-^^lt

jealous on your account, and rekindle her deadened feelingH ; let her turn pale at the proof of your inconstancy.

Oh four times blest, and so oft, that it is not possible to limit it to numbers, is tliat man, on whose account the slighted fair is in grief! who, soon as the charge has reached her unwilling ears, faints away : and both her voice and colour leave the sorrowing fair. Would that I were he, whose locks she tears in her fury ; would that I were he, whose tender cheeks she tears with her nails ; whom she looks upon burst- ing into tears ; whom she beholds with scowling eyes ; without whom she cannot exist ; but still wishes that she could. If you enquire as to its duration : let the time be short for her to complain of her injuries, lest her anger may acquire strengtl in the slowly passing lapse of time.

And now let her fair neck be encircled in your arms ; ani as she weeps, she must be received in your bosom. Give her kisses as she weeps : bestow her caresses as she weeps. Peace will ensue : by this method alone is anger appeased. When she has been passionately raving, when she shall seem to be nn assured enemy ; then seek your treaty of peace in caresses ; she will then be pacified. For 'tis there that Concord dwells, all arms laid aside ; 'tis in that spot, believe me, that the Graces were born. The doves which fought the moment before, are now billing ; their cooing has the meaning of caresses, and of words.

At first *° there was a confused mass of things without Ar- rangement ; and the stars, the earth, and the ocean, were but of one appearance. Afterwards, the heavens were placed above the earth ; the land was surrounded by the sea, and the con- fused Chaos was divided into its elements. The woods received the beasts, the air the birds as its possession ; in the Rowing waters, you, fishes were concealed. At that time the human race wandered in the solitary woods : and it consisted of nothing but brute force, and a mind quite uninformed. The woods were their houses, grass their food, and leaves their beds ; and for a long time the one was unknown to the otlier. Voluptuous pleasure is said to have been the first tf soften their rude dispositions ; afterwards, the woman and the man settled in the same spot. What should they do ?

" A: Jirst.'\ — Ver. -If;". See the beginning of (lie First Boo)( of thf Mctainorpltnsei.

  • , II. 4J9— 507.1 OK, TUE ART OF LOVE. 425

They had been in.?triu;te(l by no preceptor : Venus completed this delightful task -vrithont any art. The bird has an object to love : the female fish finds in the midst of the waters an object with which to share her joys. The hind oUows het mate ; the serpent couples with the serpent ; the bitch, too, consorts with the dog. The delighted sheep unites with the

■ ram ; the heifer, also, is pleased with the bull ; the fiat-nosed she-goat, too, receives her unclean mate.** Mares are driven to frenzy, and follow the horses, separated by streams, over places far distant from each other in situation. Come, then, and give an efficacious remedy to the angered fair ; 'tis that alone that puts an end to violent grief. 'Tis that remedy which excels the potions of Machaon ;*' through that, when you have ofiiended, you will have to be reinstated.

While I was thus singing, Apollo, suddenly appearing, touched with his thumb the strings of his lyre inlaid with gold.

■ In his hands there was a laurel, placed on his holy locks there was a laurel : visible as a Poet he came.** " Thou instructor in wanton Love," says he, "come, lead thy pupils to my temples. There is there a sentence celebrated in fame over the universal world, which bids each one to know himself.*' He who shall be known to himself, vrill alone love with prudence, and will proportion every task to his strength. He to whom nature has given beauty, for that let him be admired ; he who has a fair complexion, let him often lie down with a shoulder exposed. He who charms with his discourse, let him break the quietude of silence ; he who sings with skill, let him sing ; he who drinks with elegance,™ let him drink. But in the middle of a

  • Unclean mate.} — Ver. 486. He alludes to the strong smell of the


" Machaon.'] — Ver. 491 . He was a famous physician, son of iEsculapius, and was Aaln in the Trojan war. See the Tristia, Book v. El. vi. 1. 11.

  • ' Me came.'] ^- Ver. 496. ' Adest ' seems a preferal k reading to


M To *»i«w Aimjjey.]— Ver. 500. rxQei SBAYTON, ' Know thyself,' was a saying of Chilo, the LacedDemonian, one of the wise men of Greece. This maxim was also inscribed in gold letters in the temple of Apollo at Delphi. ' Too much of nothing ' was a second maxim there inscribed j and a third was, ' Miseiy is the consequence of debt and discord,'

^ Drinh with elegance.'] — Ver. 506. It is hard to say what art in drinking is here alluded to; whether a graceful air in holding the cuj). or tllP a'>iJity of drinking "hicU >>i'>tnHit she\\ing uny s'igiis pf inebriety.

42G AHe AMATOniA ; [b, II. 507—537.

ronTersatioii, neither let those, who are eloquent declaim, and let not the insane poet be reciting his own compositiona."

Thus Phojbus recommended ; observe this recommendation of Phoebus. There is full confidence in the hallowed lips of this Divinity. I am now called to my more immediate sub- ject : whoever shall love ■ffith prudence, he will prove success- ful, and will obtain from my skill what he shall require. The furrows do not always return with iiiterest that which has been entrusted to them ; nor does the breeze always aid the veering barks. What pleases lovers, is but a little : 'tis much more that crosses them ; let them resolve to endure many things with their feelings. As many as are the hares on Athos ;" as the bees that feed on Hybla f as the berries which the azure- coloured tree of Pallas bears ; as the shells on the sea-shore ; so many are the pangs of love ; the shafts which we endure are reeking with plenteous gall.

She, whom perchance you shall see, wiU be„said— ttHtaw gone out of doors ; believe that she is gone out of doors, and that you make a mistake in your seeing. Is the door shu*^ against you on the appointed night ; endure even to lay youi body on the dirty ground. Perhaps, too, the lying maid will say with a haughty air, " Why is that fellow blocking up our door ?" SuppUantly entreat even the door-posts of the obdu- rate fair ; and place at the door the roses that have been taken from off your head.*' Come when she desires it ; when she shall shijn yoUj-you^ll go away. It is not becoming. for men of good breeding to cause weariness of their company. Why should your mistress be able to say of you, " There is no get- ting rid of this man V The senses" are not on the alert atal. hours. And deem it no disgrace to pnt up with the curses of the fair one, or her blows, nor yet to give kisses to her delicate feet

But why dwell upon trifles 1 Let my mind be occupied with greater subjects. Of great matters will I sing ; people, give all attention. I attempt an ariluo-is tasi'. ; but merit there

" On Athos. 1 — Ver. 517. See the Metamorplio%«, :3ook ii. 1. 217, nml the Note

" On %iii.]— Ver, 517. See the Tristia, Book v. El. xiii. 1. 22.

"' Off your head."] — Ver. 528. Iphis, in tin lonrteenth Book of th( Metamorphoses, 1. 732, raises his eyes to the door-pssss of Ws mistress, ' so often adorned hy him with wreaths.'

^ The iemei.\ —Ver. 532. . He seems to beheve, wiflt Nirjon d'En clai, in the existence of a sixth sense.

B. II. 53?— JuT ] OR, THT! A.ET Of LOTX. 42~

ir none, but what is seoiirecl by arduous mcsns. By my unaei- tRking are laborious attempts requ red. Endure a -rival with patience ; the victory will rebt witli yourself ; you will be the conqueror on the heights of mighty Jove."' Believe that not a mortal tells you this, but the Pelasgian oaks of Bodona : my skill has nothing superior to this to U'ach you. Docs she make a sign to him, do you put up with it ; does she write, don't you touch the tablets ; let her come from whatever place she likes ; and wherever she chooses, let her go. This do hus- bands allow to their lawful wives; even, too, when thou, gentle sleep,*^ dost come to thy duty. 1 confess, that in this art I myself am not yet perfect. What must I do ? I am myself un- equal to my own precepts. And is any one in my presence to be making signs to my mistress? And am I to endure it? And is not my anger to hurry me away to^xtYvxti-eme ? Her own husband "' (I remember it well) gave her a kiss ; I complained of kisses being given ; my love is brimful of fierceness. Not once alone has this failing proved an injury tome ; he js more skilful, by whose encouragement other men visit*^' Kis mistress. But 'tis stiU better^o know nothing of it. Allow stealthy in- tngues toTie concealed, lest the blush of confession should fly in future from her countenance when detected.

With greater reason then, ye youths, forbear to detect your mistresses. Let them be guilty ; and guilty, let them suppose that they have deceived you. When detected, the passion in- creases ; when the fortune of the two is the same, each per. sis<^ in the cause of the disgrace. There is a story told very well known in all the heavens, hoto Mars and Venus were caught by the contrivance of Mulciber. Father Mars, distractec by a frantic passion for Venus, from a terrible warrior, became a lover. Neither did Venus (for, indeed, no Goddess is there more kind) proved coy or stubborn to Gradivus. how many

'»"■ Of might;/ Jove -1 — Ver. 540. lie alludes to the triumphal procession to the Capitol.

"" Gentle sleep.']— Ver. 546. See the Amores, Book iii. El. i. 1. 51. lie means to say that hushands give a certain latitude to their wives, nho du not fail to improve upon it.

w Own hmiand.j — Viir, 551. See the Amores, Book i. El. iv. 1. .^8.

^ Other men visit.']— Ver. 't&i. 'Viri' seems to be a better reading than ' viro.'

" Mars and Venus.]— Ver- 50?- Sc: the Metamorphoses, Book in J. 173, .

428 AES AMATOEIA; [0.11.567—598.

« time ia she said, iu Vicr wantonness, to have laughed at the feet of her husband, and at his hands, hardened with the fire or his handicraft. In the presence of Mars, mocking him, she imitated her husband, and she was beauteous even while so doing; and many a grace was there combii.ed with her charms. But they were in the habit of skilfully conceahng their early intercourse ; and iheir frailty was replete with modest pro- , priety. Through the information of the Sun (who is there that can deceive the Sun ?), the actions of his wife became known to Vulcan. Thou Sun, what a bad example thou art setting! Ask a bribe of her ; and shouldst thou hold thy tongue, she has a favour which she may grant to thee.

Around and above the bed, Mulciber disposes the hidden toils ; the work, by its fineness, escapes their eyes. He pre- tends a journey to Lemnos ; the lovers come, according to the appointment ; entangled in the toils, they both lie naked. He calls the Gods together ; the captives afford a spectacle. People believe that Venus could hardly restrain her tears. They cannot conceal their foces ; they cannot, in fact, veil their modesty with their hands. Upon this, one says, laughing,™ " Transfer to me thy chains, most valiant Mavors, if they are a burden to thee." With difficulty, Neptune, at thy entreaty, does he release their captured bodies. Mars makes for Thrace,"- and she for Paplios.™ This, Vulcan, was done by thee ; what before they used to conceal, they now do more openly, since all modesty is gone. Yet often, foolish one, dost thou confess that thou didst act unwisely ; and they say that thou hast repented of thy wrath. This I have already forbidden : lo ! Dione forbids you to suffer that detection which she herself endured. And do you arrange no toils for your rival; and intercept no words written by the hand in secret. Let the men seek for those, (if, indeed, they think they ought to be sought for) whom the fire and water render" lawful h>isbands.

'" Says, lauffMng.\~-Ver. 585. See a similar passage in the Metamor- phoses, Book iv. 1. 187.

■1 For TArace.]—\tr. 588. He was much venerated by the warlike Tliracians.

"2 PapAo.?.]— Ver. 588. See the Metamorphoses, Book x. 1. 29S.

" Fire ami water render.']— \er. 598. Among the Romans, when the briile reached hir liLishand's hoiisi', he received her with fire and water «fli)fh it Vfaa t)ie mstpin for httr to t«iic:!i. Tltjs is, hy i(oipi>, snpj«jse4 t(

  • . M. ?9&— 626.] OB, tltll AEt Ot tOVE. 42j

Hehold ! again rlii I protest ; no Kpnrtivi? sillijecl is here treated of, but -what is permitted by the laws ; there is no matron concerned with my sallies." Who would dare to publish to the profane the rites of Ceres,"' and the great mysteries that were established in the Thracian Samos '! "lis a small merit to hold one's silence upon matters ; but, on the other hand, 'tis a grievous fault to speak of things on which we should be silent. justly does it happen, that the blabbing Tantalus is thirsting in the midst of the water, the apples on the tree being caught at by him in vain ! Cytherea especially bids her rites to be concealed. I recommend no talkative person to approach them.

If the mysteries of Venus are not enclosed in chests,'" and ly the hoUow cymbals do not resound with frantic blows ; al- though among ourselves they are celebrated by universal cus- tom, yet it is in such a manner that among us they demand concealment. Venus herself, as oft as she lays her garments aside, conceals her groin with the left hand," a little bent back. The cattle couple in public and promiscuously ; even when this is seen, fuU oft the fair one turns away her face. Chambers and doors are provided for our stealthy dalliance ; and our nakedness lies concealed by garments placed over it. And if we do not require darkness, still we do something of a retired shade, and something less exposed than open day. In those times, even, when tiles did not as yet keep out the sun and the shower, but the oak was affording both shelter and food ; in the groves and caves, and not in the open air, were shared the delights of love. So great was the regard for modesty, even in a savage race. But now-a-days we give praises to the exploits of the night ; and nothing beyond the power of

have been symbolical of purification ; or it was an expression of welcome, as the interdiction of fire and water was the formula for banishment.

■* My talUes.^i—Vei. 600. See Book i. 1. 31, and the Note. See also the Fasti, Book iv. 1. 866, and the Note,

'» The ritet of Cere».'\ — ^Vcr. 601. He alludes to ilie mysterious rites of Ceres, in the island of Samothrace.

'8 Not enclosed in cJteat».'\ — Ver. 609. Certain chesis were carried in the procession at the festival of Ceres, the contents of which, if there were any, was a mystery to the uninitiated. *

" The lift hand.]—\eT. 6U. This is the attitude of the Venus dc Medicis.

4uO Aii.V AM.vrottU ; Lfi. ti. 62G-C0*

talking of it, is purchased at a heavy price. Yon will, for sooth, be discussing all the damsels in every quarter, that you may say to every person, " She, too, h?i8 been mine," that none may be wanting for you to point at with your fingers ; «nrfas you toiich upon each, there will be a scandalous tale. Hut. \ am complaining of trifles ; some pretend things, which, if true, they woo'id deny, and not declare that there is not a woman from who^ they have not received the last favour. If they cannot meddle with their pM-sons, so far as. they can, they meddle with -their namesj and, their persmis untouched, their reputation bears the blame!"' " '

Go now, odious keeper, and shut the doors of the fair : and add to the solid door-posts a hundred bars. What safety i.s there, while the defller of character exists, and desires to be thought that he is that which it has not proved his lot to be 7 Even my i-eal amours I confess but with reserve, and my se- cret intrigues are concealed with sure fidelity. Especially forbear to censure the blemishes of the fair ; to many it has proved of advantage to conceal them. Her complexion was not made an objection against Andromeda by him, on whose two feet were the waving wings."^' To all others Andromache seemed of larger stature*" than was becoming ; Hector was the only one who called her of moderate size. What you endure with impatience, accustom yourself to ; and you will endure it with patience. Length of time makes many things endurable ; but a rising passion catches sight of everything. While the young branch is uniting within the green bark," whatever breeze shakes it ivhile now tender, it fall.s. Soon, har- dened in time, the same tree will stoutly resist the winds, and bear the adopted fruit.

Time itself removes all blemishes from the person ; and what was a fault, in lapse of time ceases so to he. The nos- trils that are unaccustomed to it, are not able to endure the hides of bulls ; the odour is not perceived by those that have be^n rendered used to it in length of time. We may palliate

" At a lieavy price.} — Ver. 026. Men spend their money on debuucl. ery, only tor tlie pleasure of talking of it.

"* Waving wiru/s.] — Ver. 644. He refers to Perseus admiring tlie «wartlij» Andromeda.

1" Of larger stature.'] — Ver. 045. She was remarkable for lier lieigkt,

" Uieea Uri.] — Ver. (i39. He ipeaka of fhp slip engrafted in tU*

11. II. 6S7— 035.] OB, TItE aut OF UiVfi. 431

faults by uames ; let. her .be called swarthy, whose blooJ h blacker than the pitch of Illyria. If she has a cast in the eyes, she is like Venus t if yellow haired, like Minerva. She that is only half alive through her leanness, let her be grace fill. Wliatever woman is small, say that she is active ; het that is gross, call plump ; and let each fault lie concealed m its proximity to seme good quaUty.

And don't you enquire what year she is now passing, nor under what Consulship*' she was born ; a privilege which the rigid Censor*" possesses. And this, especially, if she has passed the bloom of youth, and her best years** are fled, and she now pulls out the whitening hairs. This age, youths, or eveti one more advanced, has its advantages ; this soil will produce- its crops, this is worth the sowing. While strength and yeavN permit, endure labour ; soon will liending old age come witii silent foot. Either cleave the ocean with the oars, or the earth with the plough ; or turn your warhke hands to cruel arms ; or devote your strength and your attention to the fair. This, too, is a kind of warfare ;^ this, too, seeks its advantages. Be- sides, in these ^ there is a greater acquaintance with their sub- ject ; and there is long practice, which alone renders skilful. By attention to dress they repair the ravages of years ; and by carefulness they cause themselves not to .appear jiged.

Utque veUs, Venerem jungunt per mille figura.s.

Inveniat plures nulla tabella modos. Illis sentitur non irritata voluptas :

Quod juvet, ex aequo fcemina virque ferant. Odi concubitus, qui non utrumque resolvunt ;

Hoc est, cur pueri tangar amore minus. Odi quae prrebet, quia sit prjebere necesse ;

Siccaque de lana cogitat ipsa sua.

»2 Jfhat Conmbhip.] — Ver. 663. The age of persons was reckoned liy naming the Consulship in which they were born ; the period of wliich waa Known by reference to the ' Fasti Cousulares.' See the Introduction to the Fasti.

«< Riffid Censor.']— Xer. 664. It wa« the duty of the Censor to make enquiries into the age of all individuals.-

»* Beat years.} — Ver. 6GG. ^ven in those days, it was considered iin- gallant to make too scrutiniiing enquiries into the ^tars of ladies of.' * certain age.'

•^ Kind of warfare.}— Ver. 674. See the .\raores, Book i. El. ii. 1. 1.

'^ Mesidej it: these.]— \e[. G7a. In reference to females of a more kI. ■vancert ase.

432 Al!3 AM\T0ntA| [b. II dSf— flJ

Uiisc ditur (iffirio, mm estTuihi gratrt Viiluiilae,

OfEcium faciat nulla puella mi hi. Me voces audire juvat sua gaudia fassas :

Utque morer memet, austineamque roget. A.spiciam dominse victos amends ocelloa.

Langueat; et tangi se Tetet ilia diu.

Those advantages has nature given not to early youth, which ai'e wont to spring up soon after seven times five years have passed. Those who are in a hurry, let them drink of new wine ; for me let the cask, stored up in the times" of ancient Consuls, pour forth the wine of my ancestors. No plane-tree but a mature one is able to withstand Phoebus ; the shooting grass," too, hurts the tender feet. And could you, forsooth, have preferred Hermione'" to Helen? And was Gorge" more attractive than her mother ? Whoever you are that wish to enjoy matured passion, if you only persevere, you will obtain a fitting reward.

Conscius ecce duos accepit lectus amantes :

Ad thalami clausas, Musa, resiste fores. Sponte sua, sine te, celeberrima verba loquentur :

Nee manus in lecto liEva jacebit iners. Invenient digiti, quod agant in partibus illis,

In qulbus occulte spicula figit Amor. Fecit in Andromache prius hoc fortissimus Hector ;

Nee solum bellis utilis ille fuit. Fecit et in capta Lyrneside magnus Achilles,

Cum premeret moUem lassus ab hoste torum.

"^ Seem times five years.'] — Ver. 694. He probably means, in this passage, a lustrum of five years. Burmanii justly observes, that ' cito,' 'quickly,' or 'soon,' can hardly be the proper reading, as it seems to con- tradict the meaning of the context. He suggests ' nisi,' meaning 'but,' or ' only.' Sec the Fasti, Book iii. 1. 166, and the Note. Also the Tristia, Book iv. El. xvi. 1. 78.

    • Stared up in the time>.'\ — Ver. 696. He uses this metaphorical ex-

pression to signify that he admires females when of a ripe and mature aga See the Amores, Book ii. El. v. 1. 54, and the Note.

^ The shooting grass."] — ^Vcr. 698. In Nisard's translation, the words • prata novella ' are rendered ' 1' herbe nouvellement couple,' ' the grass newly cut.' This is not the meaning of the passage. lie intends to say that the grass just shooting up is api to at or prick the naked foot.

=" Hermione.] — ^Ver. 699. She was the daughter of Helen and Menelaiit

'■" Gor/fe.] — Ver. 700. She was the daughter of AJtnpp, and sister a) Meleamr. She inanied .V ri Jrseiiina

». U. 713—746,] OR, THB ART OF LOTE. 433

Illis, te tangi manibus, Brisei, sinebas,

Imbutae Phrygia quae nece semper erant. An fuit hoc ipsum, quod te lasciva juvaret

Ad tua victrices membra venire manus ? Crede mihi, non est Veneris properanda voluptan :

Sed sensim tsacdk prolicienda mora. Cum loca repereris, quse tangi foemina gaudct ;

Non obstet, tangas quo minus ilia, pudor. Adspides oculos tremulo fulgore micantes,

Ut sol a liquids, saepe refulget aqua. Accedent questus, accedet amabile murmur,

Et dulces gemitus, aptaque verba loco. Sed neque tu dominam velis majoribus usus

Desine ; nee cursus auteat ilia tuos. Ad metam properate simul ; turn plena voluptas,

Cum pariter victi foemina virque jacent. Ilic tibi servandus tenor est, cum libera dantur

Otia ; furtivum nee timor urget opus. Cum mora non tuta est, totis incumbere remis

Utile, et admisso subdere calcar equo.

There is an end now of my task ; grant me the palm, ye grateful youths, and present the myrtle garlands to my per- fumed locks. As great as was Podalirius"' among the Greeks in the art of healing, as the descendant of jEacus with his right hand, as Nestor with his eloquence ; as great as Calchas'^ was in soothsaying, as the son of Telamon was in arms, as Automedou'*was in guiding the chariot, so great a lover am I. Celebrate me as your bard, ye men, to me repeat my praises ; let my name be sung throughout all the earth. Arms have I given to you; to Achilles Vulcan gave arms. With the gifts presented to you, prove victorious, as he proved victorious. But whoever subdues the Amazon with my weapons, let hini inscribe upon his spoit'* — " Naso was my preceptor."

And lo ! the charming fair are asking me to give them my precepts. You then shall be the next care of my song.

92 i>o(fa&-!!«.]— Vcr. 735. The brother of Machaon. Sec the Tristia Book V. El. xiii. 1. 32. '

'•' tofcAos.] — Ver. 737. See the Metainorplioses, Hook x.i, 1. 19.

" jiutomeiicn.'] — Vor. 738. Tlie son of Uiores. He was the charioteet jf Achilles.

" Upmi hii tpoil.'] — Ver. 744. It was the custom to write inicnpiioni QP the s])oU. See the Notes to the Fasti, Book ii. 1. 663.


With arms against the Araazous I hav funiislicd the Greek*. Arms remain for me to present, Penthesilea,' to thee and to thy •quadrons. Go to the combat equally prepared ; and may those prove the victors, ■whom genial Dione* favours, and the Boy who flies over the whole world. It was not fair for the females unprotected to engage with the men in arms, and so it would have been disgraceful for you to conquer, ye men.

One of the multitude may say, " Why add venom to the serpent ? And why deliver the sheep-fold to the ravening wolf? Forbear to lay the culpability of the few upon the many ; and let each fair one be considered according to her own deserts. If the younger son of Atreus has Helen, and the elder son of Atreus' has the sister of Helen, to charge with criminality, if the son of fficlus, through the wickedness of Eriphyle, daughter of Tala'ion, alive, and with living steeds, descended to Styx ; there is Penelope con- stant, while her husband was wandering for twice five years, and for as many years engaged in war. Witness the hero from Phylace, and her who is said to have descended as the companion of her husband, and to have died before her destined years. The wife from Pagasse redeemed the son of Pheres* from death, and in place of' the funeral of her hus- band, the wife was carried out. " Receive me, Capaneus ; we will mingle our ashes ;" said the daughter of Iphis, and

1 PmMmfcfl.]— Ver. 2. See the 21st Epistle, 1. 118, and the Note.

- yJione.] — Ver. 3. See. the Fasti, liook ii. 1. 461, and the Note.

' San of Mreus.'] — Ver. 11. lieleu was unfaithful to Menclaiis, wliilt Clyiemnestra killed Agamemnon.

  • Son of CEclus.'] — Ver. 1.3. See the Metamorphosis, Book viii. 1. 317,

tnd the Note.

' FromPliylace.'] — Ver. 17. See the Epistle of Laodamia to Protesilaiii,

^ Sn of Plwres.] — Ver. 19. Sec the Pontic Kpi.stles, liook iii. El. i, I. Ifllj, and tlje Note.

And in placf of'.] — Ver. 20. See the lllth line of tlie same K'igy. and the Note. .\lso the Tristia. Book v, lil. xiv. 1. 38.

III. 22—51.] iMS AMATORtA. 435

ehe leapt on the midst of the pile. Virtue, herself, too, is a female, both in dress and name. 'Tis not to be wondered at, if she favours her own sex.

But still, 'tis not such dispositions as these that are re- quired by my art. Sails of less magnitude are befitting my skiflF." Nothing but wanton dalliance is taught by me ; in what manner a woman is to be loved, I purpose to teach. The woman repels neither the flames, nor the cruel bow ; those weapons, I see, make less havoc among the men. Many a time do the men prove false ; not often the charming fair ; and, if you make inquiry, they have but few charges of fraud against them. Jason, the deceiver, repudiated the Phasian, wEen now a mother ; and into the bosom of the son of M&on there came another bride.' Ariadne, left alone in an unknown spot, had fed the sea-birds, so far, Theseus, as thou wast concerned. Enquire why she is said to have gone on her nine journies,"' and hear how the woods lamented Phyllis, their foliage laid aside. And Elissa, she has the credit of affection ; and still, that guest of thine, Elissa, afforded both the sword and the cause for thy destruction. Shall I tell what it was that ruined thee ? TJhou didst not know how to love ; thou wast wanting in skill ; through skill, love flourishes for ever.

Even still would they have been ignorant, but Cytherea commanded me to instruct them, and stood, herself, before ray eyes. Then to me she said, " Why have the unfortunate fair deserved this 1 An unarmed multitude is handed over to the inen in arms. Two treatises" have rendered them skilful ; this side, as well, must be instructed by thy advice. He who before had uttered'* reproaches against the wife from Therapnse, soon sang her praises to a more fortunate lyre. If well I

' My skiff.l — Ver. 26. ' Cymba.' See the Amores, Book iii. El. vi. .. 4, and the Note.

' Another bride.'] — Ver. 34. Jason deserted Medea for Creusa.

'" Nine journies.']— '^er. .37. See the Epistle of PhyUs to Demoplioiin.

" Two treatises.] — Ver. 47. His former books on the Art of Love.

'2 Who before had uttered.]— Wer. 49. He alludes to the Poet Stesi- chorus, on whose lips a nightingale was said to have perched and sung, when he was a child. Pliny relates that he wrote a poem, inveighing bit- terly against Helen, in which he called her the firebrand of Troy, on which he was visited with blindness by her brothers, Castor and Pollui, and did not recover his sight till he had recanted in his Palinodia, which he composed in her praise, Suidas says, that Stesichorus composed thirty . iiix books Df Poems. Helen was boru »t Therapnie, a town of Lacouia.

1 Vi

436 AK3 AMAToniA; [« in. it~-73l

know thee, injufc not the fair whom thoiv dost adore ; their favour must be sought by thee so long as tliou shalt live."

Thus she eaid ; and from the myrtle (for she was standing with her locks wreathed with myrtle) she gave me a leaf and a few berries. Receiving them, I was sensible >of the divine influence as well ; the sky shone with greater brightness, and all care departed from my breast. While she inspires my genius ; hence receive the precepts, ye fair,- which propriety, and the laws, and yojir own privileges," allow you. Even now, be mindful of- dd^age, that one day will come ; then win no time be passed by you in idleness. Disport your- selves, wliile yet you may, and while even now you confess Sryour"true years ; after lie manner of the Bowing stream, do the years pass by. Neither shall the water which has past by, be ever recalled ; nor can the hour which has past, ewer re- turn. You must employ your youthful age ; with swift step age is gliding on ; and'that which follows, is »ot so pleasing as that which having passed was charming. Those brakes, which are withering, I have beheld as beds of violets ; from amid those brambles, has a beauteous chaplet been gathered for myself.

The time will be, when you, who are now shutting out n lover, will be lying, an old woman, chilled in the lonely night. No door" of yours wiR be broken open in the broils of the night ; nor will you find in the morning your threshold bestrewed with roses.'* How soon, ah me ! are our bodies pursed with wrinkles, and that colour which existed in the beauteous face, fades awa:y \ The grey hairs, too, which you might have sworn that you had had from childhood, will suddenly be sprinkled over all your head. Old age is thrown off by serpents, together with the light slough ; and the shed- ding of their horns makes the stags not to be old. Our

1^ Your own, privileges.'] — Ver. 58. * Sua' seems to mean the privileges sanctioned and conceded by the law, probably to those females who were in the number of the * professse.'

'■' No door.'] — Ver. 71. So Horace says, in his address to Lydia, Book i. Ode i. 25 ; ' Less frequently do the wanton youths shake your joined windows with many a blow, and no longer deprive thee of sleep, and th«  door adheres to its threshold.'

" lieitrewed with roses.] — Ver. 72. See line 528 in the last Book Lucretius speaks of the admirers of damsels aDoiutinj; tlieir doors with %<^ ointment maae of sweet niarjorura. ' .

B. Ul. 70—100.] oil, TUE Atlt CT hOVit. 43*

Rdvautages fly irrctrievaWy ; pluck the flowers t/iUlt ; if Uiey be not plucked, they will lamentably fade themselves to your sorrow. Besides, child-bearing makes the hours of youth m'jre short-lived ; -with continual crops the soil waxes old.

Endymion of Latmus, Moon, causes not thee to blush ; nor was Cephalus a prey for the rosy Goddess to be ashamed of. Though Adonis be allowed to Venus, whom she yet laments ; whence had she JEneas and Hermione'^ for her chil- dren ? FoUow, race of mortals, the example of the God- desses ; and refuse not your' endearments to the eager men. Even should they deceive you, what do you lose ? All remains the^same. Were a thousand to partake thereof, nothing is wasted thereby. Iron is worn away, stones are consumed by use ; your persons are proof against all apprehension of detriment. Who would forbid light to be taken from another light presented ? Or who, on the deep sea, would hoard up the expanse of waters ? " But 'tis not right," you say, " for any woman to grant favours to a man." Tell me, what are you losing Ijut' the water, which you may take up again ?" Nor are my words urging you to prostitution ; but they are for- . bidding you to fear evils that do not exist : your favours are exempt from loss to yourselves.

But while I am in harbour, let a gentle breeze impel me, destined to sail with the blasts of a stronger gale. I begin with dress :" from the well-dressed vine Bacchus has birth ; and in the well-dressed field the high corn springs up. Beauty is the gift of the Divinity ; how many a one prides herself on her beauty? Still, a great part" of you is wanting in such endowments. Care wilLconf«r charms ; charms neglected will perish, even though she be like the Idalian Goddess. It' the fair of olden times did not pay such attention to their persons ; neither had the ancients men so well-dressed. If

'5 Hermtone.'] — Ver. 86. According to Hesiod, Venus was the mother of three children by Mars, of whom Hermione was one.

" May take up agam,.'] — Ver. 96. This is not the proper translation of the passage ; but the real meaning cannot be presented with a due regard to decorum.

'^ / begin with dress."] — Ver. 101. He plays upon the different meanings of the word ' cultus' ; which means either ' dress,' or ' cultivation,' ac- cording as it is applied, to persons or land.

'* A great part.'] — Ver 104. This is a more ungallant rcmRrk Ihar we ihould have expected Ovid to Talie.

438 Alls AMATOEIAJ [B. 111. 109—140.

Andromache was clad in a coarse tunic, what wonder is it J She was the wife of a hardy soldier. And would his com- panion, forsooth, come bedecked to Ajax, him whose coyering was seven hides of oxen. Formerly a rustic sirapUcity existed : now gorgeous Rome possesses the wealth of the sub- dued earth. See the Capitol, what it now is and what it was, ; you would declare that they belonged to different Jupiters. The Senate-house, which is now right worthy of an assem- blage so august, when Tatius held the sway, was made of straw. The fields of the Palatine hill, which are now resplen- dent in honour of Phoebus"" and our rulers, what were they but pastures for the o.Yen that ploughed ?

Let old times deUght others : I congratulate myself that I am born thus late ; this is the age that is suited to my tastes. Not because the pliable gold is now dug out of the earth, and choice shells" come here from foreign shores ; nor yet because, the marble cut out, mountains diminish; nor yet because the azure waves are kept out by the moles.- But because civilization prevails; and because the rude manners that flourished- with cur ancient forefathers have not come down to our days.

But do not you as we!i load your ears with precious stones, which the tawny Indian seeks in the green waves. And do not go forth heavily loaded with clothes embroidered with gold : by the wealth through which you seek to attract us, you often drive us away. By neatness we are captivated ; let not your hair be without arrangement ; the hands appHed to it both give beauty and deny it. The method, too, of adorning is not a single one ; let each choose the one that is becoming it to her, and let her first consult her mirror. An oval face becomes a parting upon the unadorned head : Laodamia had her hair thus arranged. Round features^ require a little knot to be left for them on the top of the head, so that the ears

■2" 0/ Phabua.J—Ver. 119. He alludes to the temple of Apollo, on the Palatine Hill, where Augustus and Tiberius resided.

" And choice shells.^ — Ver. 124. He alludes to pearls which grow in the shell of the pearl oyster, and are found in the I'ersian Gulf and Hie Indian Ocean.

2" By tKe moles.'] — Ver. 126. He alludes to the stupendous moles whicli the Romans fabricated, as breakwaters, at their various bathing-places on the coast of Italy. See the Odes of Horace, Book iii. ode 1.

'^ Round features.']— y a. 139. See. the Pontic Epistles, Bcok iii Ep. iii. 1. 15, and the Note,

». til. 140— 166.-1 ofi, THE AEt 01' Lori?. 439

may be exposed. Let tlie liair of anotlier be tlirown ovet either shoulder. In such guise art thou, tuneful I'lirebus, thy lyre being assumed. Let another Lave her hair tied behind after the manner of well-girt Diana, as she is wont when she hunts the scared -aild beasts. It becomes another to have her floating locks to fiow loosely: another must be bound by fillets over her fastened tresses. Another it delights to be adorned with the figure of the tortoise ^' of the Cyllenian God : let another keep up her curls that resemble the waves.^^

But neither will you count the acorns on the oranching native oak, nor how many bees there are in Hybla, nor how many wild beasts on the Alps : nor am I able to comprehend in numbers so many modes ; each successive day brings a new fashion. Even neglected locks are becoming to many; often would you suppose that they are lying neglected since yesterday ; the very moment before they have been combed afresh. Let art imitate chance. 'Twas thus that, in the captured city, when Hercules beheld lole ; " Her," said he, " do I love." In such guise, deserted fair one of Gnossus, did Bacchus bear thee away in his chariot, while the Satyrs shouted Evoe ! how indulgent is nature to your beauty, whose blemishes can be atoned for in fashions so numerous I We men, to our misfortune, become bald ; and our hair, car- ried away by time, falls off, like Boreas shaking down the leaves.

The female stains her grey hair with the herbs from Germany ;'^° and by art a colour is sought superior to the genuine one. The female walks along, thickly covered with purchased hair ; and for money-' she makes that o/ others her

" Fiffure of the tortoise.']— Yet. 147. Salmasius thinks that tlie ' o-alerus,' or ' wig of false hair,' is alluded to in this passage. Others think that a coif or fillet of net-work is alluded to. lie probably means a mode of dressing the hair in the shape of a lyre, with horns on each side projecting outwards. Mercury, the inventor of the lyre, was born on Mount Cyllene, in Arcadia.

» The waves.] — Ver. 148. Juvenal mentions a mode of dressing the hair to a great height by rows of false curls.

26 Tlie herbs from Germany.'] — Ver. 1 03. lie alludes, probably, to herbs brought from Germany, which were burnt for the purpose of making a soap used in turning the hair of a blonde colour. See the .4movt:i, Book i. El. xiv. 1. 1, and the Note.

■-' for tnoney J — Ver. IDG: See 1. 40 of the above Slegy.

440 ARS amatoria; [n. m. 1(56— 189.

own. Not 1m hIic asliaiiierl to liiiv it ojiciily : wo i^ic it being •old before ibc eyes of Hercules-' and the Virgin throng.

What am I to say on clothing ? Gold flounces,"" I have no need of you ; nor you, the wool which dost blush twice dipt in Tynan purple. Since so many colours can be procured at a lower price, what folly it is to be carrying a fortune on one's person.'" Lo ! there is the colour of the sky, at the time when the sky is without clouds, and the warm South wind is not summoning the- showers of rain. Lo ! there is the colour like to thee, that art said" once to have borne away Phryxus and Helle from the treachery of Inc. That which resembles the waves, '^ has its name, too, from the waves ; I could ima- gine that the Nymphs are clad in vestments of this colour. Another resembles saffron ; in saffron-coloured garments is the dewy Goddess dressed, when she yokes her steeds that bear the light of day. Another resembles the Paphian myrtles ; another the purple amethysts, or the white roses, or the Thracian crane. Neither are there wanting, Amaryllis,"^ thy chesnuts, nor yet al- monds; and wax'* has given its own name to woollen textures.

As many as the flowers which the renewed earth pro- duces, when in warm spring the vine puts forth its buds, and sluggish winter retreats ; so many, or still more, shades of dye does the wool imbibe. Choose them by rule ; for every colour will not be suitable to every complexion. Black be-

'* The eyes of Hercules.] — Ver. 168. He means that the wig-makers' shops were in the neighbourhood of the Temple of Hercules Musagetes, in the Flaminian Circus. See the Sixth Book of the Fasti, 1. 801.

'" Gold flounces. '\ — Ver. 169. ' Segmenta' are probably broad flounces to the dresses inlaid with plates of gold, or gold threads embroidered on them.

® On one's person.'] — Ver. 127. Like our expression, 'To carry a for- tune on one's back.'

^' That art said] — Ver. 175. He refers to the colour of the Ram with the Golden Fleece, that bore Helle and Phryxus over the Hellespont.

^- Reiemhks the waves."] — Ver. 177. He evidently alluded to dresses which resemble the surface of the waves, and which we term ' watered' i and which the Romans called ' nndulatae,' from ' unda,' a ' wave.' Varro makes mention of ' undulatae togse.' Some Commentators, however, fancy that he alludes here to colour, meaning ' glaucus, ' or ' sea-green,' which Lucretius also calls ' thalassinus.'

»' Amaryllis.]— Vet. 183. See the last Book, ".. 267, and the Note.

•* And wax.] — Ver. 184. Plautus mentions the ' Carlnarii,' who dyei C&nneii^s of a waxen, or yellow- colour

r. 111. 189— 206.] OR, THE Ara" of i.ove. 411

romes those of fair complexion : black became tlic daughter of Brises. When she was carried oiT, then, too, was she clothed ir. a dark garment. White befits the swarthy; in white, daughter of Cepheus, thou wast charming ; by thee, thus clothed, was Seriphos'* trodden.

How nearly was I recommending you that there should be no shocking goat^° in the armpits, and that your legs should not be rough with harsh hair. But I am not instructing fair ones from the crags of Caucasus, and who are drinking, Mysian Caicus, of thy waves. Besides; need I to recommend that idleness should not blacken your teeth, and that your mouth ought to be washed each morning with water used /or the purpose. You know, too, how to find whiteness in an application of wax f she who is blushing with no real blood, is blushing by the aid of art. ' With skill do you fill up the bared edges of the eye-brows, and the little patch covers your cheeks in all their genuineness. "lis no harm, too, to mark the eyes'"' slightly with ashes; or with saffron, produced, beauteous Cydnus, near to thee. I have a httle treatise,'" but

  • " Seriphos.] — Ver. 192. See the Metamorphoses, Book v. ). 242. and

the Note.

'« Shocking joa?.]— Ver. 193. See the Note to 1. 522 of the First Book.

" Applicatiom of wax."] — Ver. 199. Wax is certainly used as a cos- metic, but ' creta' seems to be a preferable reading, as chalk in a powdered state was much used for adding to the fairness of the comple.\ion. Ovid would hardly recommend a cosmetic of so highly injurious a tendency as melted wax.

^ The eye-brows.'] — Ver. 201. We learn from Juvenal, that the colour of them was heightened by punctures with a needle being tilled with soot.

" And the ttttk patch.] — Ver. 202. 'Aluta' means ' skin made soft by means of alum.' It is difficult to discover what it means here, whether ' a patch ' made of a substance like gold-beater's skin, somewhat similar to those used in the days of the Spectator; or a liquid cosmetic, such as Pliny calls ' calliblepharum,' ' an aid to the eye-brows.' He seems to use the word ' sinceras ' in its primitive sense, ' without wax' ; which re commendation certainly would contradict the common reading, ' cera,' in tlie 199th line.

  • " To mark the eyes.'] — Ver. 203. To heighten the colour of the eye-

lashes, ashes (and probably charcoal) were used by the Roman women. Saffron also was used. A black paint, made of pulverizefl antimony, is us^d by the women in the East, at the present day, to paint their eye- brows black. It is called ' surme,' and was also used at ancient Komc. Cvdnus was a river of Cilicia.

>' A little treatise] — Ver. 205. He alludes to bis book, ' On the care of the Complexion,' of which a fragment rem»i«ui

442 AltR AlIAtORlA ; [b, ii. 20C— 230.

througb the care bestowed, a great wurk, in wiiirli I have mentioned the various recipes for your beauty. From that as well, do you seek aid for your diminished charms : my skill is not idle in behalf of your interests.

But let not your lover discover the boxes exposed upon the tal)le; art, by its concealment ora/y, gives aid to beauty. Whom would not the paint disgust, besmeared all over your face, when, through its own height, it flows and falls upon your heated bosom? Why is the smell of the cesypum'- so powerful, sent from Athens though it be, an extract drawn from the filthy fleece of the sheep 1 Nor would I recommend you iu his presence to apply the mixtnre of the marrow of the deer," nor before him to clean your teeth. These things will give you good looks, but they wiU be unbecoming to be seen ; there are many things, too, which, disgusting while being done, add charms when done. The statues which now bear the name of theiabiirions Myron," were once a sluggish weight and a solid mass. That the ring may be made, the gold is first beaten ; the clothes, that you are wearing, were once dirty wool. While it was being wrought, it was hard stone ; now, ns a beautiful statue," naked Venus is wringing the moisture from her dripping locks.

You, too, while you are dressing, let us suppose to be asleep ; after the finishing liand, you will be seen much more apropos. Why is the cause of the fairness of your complexion known to me ? Shut the door of your chamber, why expose the work half done ? It is proper for the men to be in ignorance of many a thing. The greatest part of things would cause

  • ^ Of the tesypum.'] — Ver. 213. The filthy cosmetic called ' cesypiim,'

was prepared from the wool of those parts of the body where the sheep perspired most ; it was much used for embellishing the complexion. Phny meniions the sheep of Athens as producing the best. It had a strong rani; smell. The red colour, which was used by the Roman ladies for giving a bloom to the skin, w^s prepared from a moss called * fucus' ; from wiiicii, in time, all kinds of paint received the name of ' fucns.'

■" Of the deer.'i — Ver. 215. Pliny speaks highly of the virtues of stag's marrow. It probably occupied much the same positi3u hi estima- tion, that beaf s grease does at the present day.

^* Myron.'\ — Ver. 219. There were two sculptors of this name: one a native of Lycia, the other of Eleutliera.

  • Beautiful siatue."} — Ver. 223. He alludes to that of Venus Anady-

oniene, or rising from the sea, which was made by Prasiteles, and vvrj often copied by the sculptors of Greece and Rume.

». 1 I. 230— 26tt.] OR, Tnfi AH* Ol? toVJ5. 443

disgust, if you were not to conceal what is within. Examine the gilded statues which hang in the decorated theatre ; how thin the tinsel that covers the wood. But it is not per- mitted the pubUc to approach them unless completed; neither ought your charms to be heightened unless the men are at a distance. But I would not forbid you to allow your hair to be combed in their presence, so that it may he flowing along your back. Only take care especially on such occa- sions not to be cross ; and do not many times undo your hair, pulled down, when fastened up. Let your coiffeuse be with a whole skin. I detest her who tears the face of her attend- ant with her nails, and who, seizing the hair-pin, pierces her arras.'" As she touches the head of her mistress, she curses it ; and at the same time, streaming with blood, she is crying over the odious locks.

The fair one that has bat little hair, let her set a watch on her threshold ; or let her always make her toilet in the temple" of the Good Goddess. I was unexpectedly announced as having paid a visit to a certain lady ; in her confusion, she put on her locks the wrong side before. May a cause of shame so disgraceful fall to the lot of my foes, and may that dis- honour happen to the Parthian dames. A mutilated animal is repulsive, the fields without grass are repulsive ; and no is a shrub without fohage, and a head without hair. You have not come to be instructed by me, Seraele, or Leda, thou, too, Sidonian fair, who wast borne across the sea upon the ficti- tious bull ; or Helen, whom, Menelaiis, not without reason, thou didst demand to be restored to thee, and whom, not without reason, thou Trojan ravisher, didst retain. A multitude comes to be instructed, both pretty and ugly damsels ; and the un- sightly are ever more in number than the good-looking. The beauteous care less for the resources and the precepts of art; they have their own endowments, charms that are power- ful without art. When the sea is calm, the sailor rests free

<^ Pierces her arms.'] — Ver. 240. See a similar passage in the Amorei. Book i. El. xiv. 1. 16.

" Toilet in the temple.] — Ver. 244. He tells those who have not fine heads of hair, to be as careful in admitting any men to see their toilet, an the devotees of Bona Dea were to Iceep away all males from her soleut- nities.

    • Sidonian fair.] — Ver. 252. Europa was a Phoenician by birth.

441 Alts AM.VTOKTA ; | K. ttl. 2fi0- 2/8

from tiilc ; wluui it becomes l)oistcrou«, he Hppcals to lus own resources.

Few, however, are the forms free from defect. Conceal your blemishes ; and, so far as you can, hide the imperfections of your person. If you are short, sit down ; that, while stand- ing, you may not appear to be sitting ; and i/" of a diminutivp size, throw yourself upon your couch. Here, too, that your measure may not be able to be taken as you lie, take care that your feet are concealed with the clothes"? thrown over them'. She who is too thin, let her wear clothes of thick texture ; and let her vestments hang loosely from her shoulders. Let her who is pale, tint her complexion with purple stripes ;'■'• do you that are more swarthy, have recourse to the aid of the Pharian fish." Let an ill-shaped foot be always concealed in a hoot of snow-white leather steeped in alum ; and do not un- loose their laced sandals from the spindly legs. For high shoulders, small pads are suitable ;'* and let the girth" encircle the bosom that is too prominent. She whose fingers are dumpy, and whose nails are rough, should mark with but little gesture whatever is said. She, whose breath is strong smelling, should never talk with an empty stomach ; and she should always 5tand at a distance from her lover's face.

" With the clothes.^—yer. 226. See the Amores, Book i. El. iv. 1. 4^, and the Note.

°° With purple stripes.'] — Ver. 269. Commentators are at a loss to know what ' thigere virgis' means ; some suggest, ' to wear garments with red ' vh-gae,' or ' stripes,' while others think that it means ' to tint the skin with fine lines of a purple colour.' It is thought by some that vermilion is here alluded to, while others suppose that the juice of the red flowers, or berries of the ' vaccininm,' is meant.

»' The Pkarian fish.'] — Ver. 270. The intestines and dung of the crocodile, ' the Pharian' or ' Egyptian flsh,' are here referred to. We learn from Pliny that these substances were used by the females at Rome as a cosmetic, to add to the fairness of the complexion, and to take away freckles from the skin.

  • - Small pads are suitable.] — Ver. 273. ' Analectides,' or ' Analectrides,'

(the correct reading is doubtful) were pads, or stuffings, of flock, used in cases of high shoulders or prominent shoulder-blades.

  • ' And let the girth.] — Ver. 274. He alludes to the ' strophium,'

which distantly resembled the stays of the present day, and was a girdle, or belt, worn by women round the breast and over the interior tunic or chemise. From an Epigram of Martial, it seems to have been usually niaile of leather. Becker thinks that there was a difference between tlio ' fascia ' and the ' strophium.'

^ Jt a ilistance.] — Ver. 27S. One of llie very -.visest of hi» »U[.;.ri">'ioni

B. III. 278—311.] OK, rJlT. AUT Or LOTE. 445

If your teeth !ire black, or large, or not growing straight, you will suffer very great inconvenience from laughing. Who nould have supposed it ? The fair take lessons even in laugh- ing; and even in that respect is gracefulness studied by them. Let your mouth be but moderately open ; let the dimples ou either side be but small ; and let the extremity of the lips cover the upper part of the teeth. And do not let your sides be shaking with prolonged laughter ; but let them utter sounds gentle and feminine, to I know not what degree. Some there are, who distort their face with an unsightly grin ; an- other, when she is joyous in her laughter, you would take to be crying. Another makes a harsh noise, and screams in a disagreable manner ; just as the unsightly she-ass brays by the rough miU-stone.

To what point does not art proceed ? Some study how to weep with grace, and cry at what time and in what manner they please. Nay, further ; when the letters are de- prived of their full sound, and the lisping tongue becomes contracted with an affected pronunciation ; then is grace sought in an imperfection ; to pronounce certain words badly, they learn to be less able to speak than they really are. To aU these points, since they are of consequence, give atten- tion. Learn how to walk with steps suited to a female. Even in the gait, there are certain points of gracefulness not to be disregarded ; this both attracts and repels men who are strange to you. This fair one moves her sides with skill, and with her flowing tunics catches the breeze, and haughtily moves her extended feet. Another walks just like the red- faced spouse of some Umbrian*^ husband, and, straddling, takes huge strides. But, as in many other things, let there be a medium here as well ; one movement is clownish ; another movement wdl be too mincing in its gait. But let the lower part of your shoulders, and the upper part of your arm be bare, to be beheld from your left hand upwards. This is especially becoming to you, ye of fan- complexion ; when I see this, I have always a longing to give a kiss to the shoulder, where it is exposed.

The Sirens were monsters of the deep, which with their tune-

" Umbrian.'] — Ver. 303. The Uinbrians w ere a people of tlie I/Iarsi. in the north of Italy. They were noted for llieir c- urage, and tlie rusti- city of their manners.

446 AEH lUTAlOEIA; [b. iii. 311— 329.

ful Toices detained the ships, even though in full career. Ou hraring them, the son of Sisyphus'" almost released his body from, the mast ; for the wax*' was melted in the ears of hig companions. The voice is an insinuating quality ; let the fair learn how to sing. In ^lace of beauty, her voice has proved the recommendation of many a woman. And sometimes Ic them repeat what they have heard in the marble theatres ; and sometimes the songs attuned to the measures of the Nile." Neither, in my way of thinking, ought a clever woman to be ignorant how to hold the plectrum*' in her right hand, the lyre in her left. Orpheus of Rhodope with his lyre moved rocks, and wild beasts, and the lakes qf Tartarus, and Cerberus the triple dog. At thy singing, most righteous avenger of thy mother,™ the attentive stones built up the walls. The fish, (the well-known story of the lyre of Arion,*') although he was dumb, is supposed to have been moved by his voice. Learn, too, to sweep the chords of the festive psaltery" with your two hands ; 'tis an instrument suited to amorous lays.

Let the songs of Callimachus"' be known to you, let those

"5 The son of Sisyphtis.] — Ver. 313. He here alludes to a scandalous story among the ancients, that Ulysses was the son of Anticlea, hy Sisyphus the robber, who had carried her off, and not by Laertes, her husband.

°' The wax.'] — Ver. 314. By the advice of Circe, Ulysses filled the ears of his companions with melted wax, that they might not hear tlie songs of the Sirens.

=* The measares of the Nile."] — ^Ver. 318. These airs were sung hy Egyptian girls, with voluptuous attitudes, and were much esteemed by th» dissolute Romans. These Egyptian singers were, no doubt, the forerun- ners of the ' Alme ' of Egypt at the present day. The Nautch girls auH Bayaderes of the East Indies are a kindred race.

^ Plectrum.] — Ver. 319. See the Metamorphoses, Bookii. 1.6U1 and the Note; also the Epistle of Brisei's, 1. 118, and the.Note.

  • Thy mother.'] — Ver.323. AmphionandZethuswerethesonsof Jupitci

and Antiope. Being carried off by her uncle Lycus, Antiope was en- trusted to his wife DIrce. Wlien her sons grew up, they fastened Dircc to wild oxen, hy which she was torn to pieces. Amphion was said to have built the walls of Thebes by the sound of his lyre.

«' ^Won.]— Ver. 326. See the Fasti, Book'ii. 1. 73. ,

" The festive paallery.'] — Ver. 327. Suidas tells us that ' naulium,' or nablium,' was a name of the psaltery. Josephus says that it had twelve itrings. Strabo remarks that the name was of foreign origin.

" Callimachus.] —Ver. 329, See the Araores, Book ii. El. iv. 1. 19 : •lid the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep. xvi. I. 3i8. anc' 'iv- Notes i tha passages.

». HI. 329—361.] OB, THE AET or LOVH. 447

of the poet of Cos," let tlie Teiau Muse too, of the dru)\keu old bard. Let Sappho, too, be well known ; for what is there more exciting than she ? Or than him, through whom"' the father is deceived by the tricks of the crafty Geta ? You may, too, have read the poems of the tender Propertius, or some- thing of GaUus, or thy works, TibuUus.*" The fleecy too, so bewailed, Phryxus, of thy sister, shining with its yellow hair, celebrated by Varro.'^" The exiled JEneas, as well, the first origin of lofty Rome,*' than which no work exists in Latium of greater fame.

Perhaps, too, my name will be mingled among these, and my •writings will not be consigned to the waters of Lethe. And people will one day say, " Read the elegant lines of our maister, in which he instructs the two sides.'" Or of his three books, which the title designates as ' The Amours," choose a portion to read with skilful lips, in a languishing way. Or let his Epistles be repeated by you with well-modu- lated voice ; this kind of composition, unknown to others, did he invent." Phoebus, mayst thou so will it ; so too, ye benignant Divinities of the Poets, Bacchus, graceful with tliy horns, and you, ye nine Goddesses !

Who can doubt that I should wish the.fair one to know how to dance, that, the wine placed on table, she may move her arms in cadence, when requested. Masters of posture," the repre-

, «' Poet of Cos.l — Ver. 330. Tlie poet Philetas. He flourished in the time of Philip and Alexander the Great. Anaereon was a Ijric poet of Teios, and a great admirer of the juice of the grape.

^' Or him, through whom.'] — Ver. 332. Some think that he means iMenander, from whom Terence borrowed many of his scenes ; he probably alludes to the Phonnio of Terence, where the old men, Gliremes anil Demipho, are deceived by Geta, the cunning slave. See the Tristia, Book ii. I. 359 and 69.

66 Prepertius.'] — Ver. 333. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 465, and the Note.

6' rjiMKM.]— Ver. 334. See the Amorcs, Book iii. El. ix.

6" Forro.]— Ver. 3.35. See the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep. xvi. 1. 21 ; and the Amores, Book i. El. xv. 1. 21, and the Notes to the passages.

"» Lafly Rome.'] — Ver. 338. He refers here to the MneM of Virgil.

<» Two sides.] — Ver. 342. Both the males and the females.

" Composition.] — Ver. 346. He takes to himself the credit of being the inventor of Epistolary' composition.

7* Masters of posture.] — Ver. 351. These persons, who were a'lSj called ' ludii,' or ' histriores,' required great suppleness of the sides, foi the purpose of aptly assuming expressive attitudes ; for which reason ha

448 Ana amatobia ; ( d. hi. 351— 37J

seutations on the stage, are much valued ; so much gruceful- ness docs that pliant art possess. I am ashamed to advise on trifling points, to understand how to throw a cast of dice, and, thy value, the cube when thrown. And now let her throw the three numbers ; now let her consider, at which number she can cleverly enter most conveniently, and which one she must call for.'^ And, with her skUl, let her play not amiss at the hostilities of the pieces ;'* when the single man perishes between his two enemies. How the warrior, too,'* wages the war when caught without his companion ; and how the enemy full oft retreats on the path on which he has begun. Let the smooth balls," too, be poured into the open net ; and not a ball must be moved but the one which you shall be lifting up. There is a kind of game,' distributed into as many lines on a small scale, as the fleeting year contains months. A little table receives three pebbles on each side, on which to bring one's own into a straight line, is to gain the victory.

Devise a thousand amusements. 'Tis shocking for the fair one not to know how to play ; many a time, while playing, is love commenced. But the least matter is how to use the throws to advantage ; 'tis a task of greater consequence to lay a restraint on one's manners. While we are not thinking, and are revealed by our very intentness, and, through the game,

calls them ' avtifices lateris.' See the First Book, 1. 112 ; and the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 497, and the Note.

'2 Which she must call for.] — Ver. 356. Probably at the game ot ' duodecim scripta,' or ' twelve points,' like our backgammon ; sets of three ' tesserae,' or dice, were used for throwing ; he recommends her to learn the game, and to know on what points to enter when taken up, and what throws to call for. See the last Book, 1. 203 ; and the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 473, and the Note.

'"■ The pieces.'] — Ver. 357. See the Note to 1. 207, in the last Book.

" The warrior, too.] — Ver. 359. He alludes to one of the principal pieces, whose fate depends upon another.

•' Let the smooth balls.] — Ver. 361. He seems to allude here to a game played by putting marbles (which seems to Va the meaning of ' pilio leves,' ' smooth balls,') into a net with the month open, and then taking Shem out one by one without moving any of the others.

"' Kind of game.] — Ver. 363. These two lines do not seem to be con- nected with the game mentioned in 1. 365, but rather to refer to that men. tioned in 1. 355.

■■' A Utile table receives. ']—'Ver.ii(-ii. This game is mentioned in the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 481. It seemsto resemble the simple game played by sclioolbcys on the slate, and Known among them as tit-tat-to.

». 111. 372—393.] OR, TUJ! AKT Or LOVE. •J49

Oj'-T feelings, laid bare, are exposed ; anger arises, a disi^aco- /al failing, and the greed for gain ; quarrels, too, and strife, and, thm, bitter regrets. Recriminations are uttered ; the air resounds -with the brawl, and every one for himself invokes the angry Divinities. There is no trusting" the tables, and, amid vovrs, new tables are called for ; fuU oft, too, have I seen cheeks wet with tears. May Jupiter avert from you indis- cretions so unbecoming, you, who have a care to be pleasing to any lover.

To the fair, has namre, in softer mood, assigned these amusements ; with materials more abundant do the men dis- port. They have both the flying ball,°" and the javelin, and the hoop, and arms, and the horse trained to go round the ling. No plain of Mars receives you, nor does the spring of the Virgin," so intensely cold ; nor does the Etrurian '^ river carry you along with its smooth stream. But you are allowed, and it is to your advantage, to go in the shade of Pompey's Portico, at the time when the head is heated by the steeds of the Con- stellation of the Virgin.*' Frequent the Palatium, consecrated to the laurel-bearing Phoebus ; 'twas he that overwhelmed in the deep the ships of Parsetonium.** The memorials, also, which the sister and the wife" of our Euler have erected; his son-in-law" too, his head encircled with naval honors. Frequent the altars

" No trusting-l — Ver. 377. On account of the continued run of bad luck.

«• Flying iaH.} —Ver. 380. See the Tristia, Book ii. 1. 48S-6, and the Note.

  • ' The Virgin.'] — Ver. 385. This was near the Campus Martius. See

the Fasti, Book i. 1. 464 ; and the Pontic Epistles, Book i. Ep. -nil. 1. 38, and the Note.

  • = Etrurian."]— Verl 386. The Tiber flowed through ancient Etruria.

s^ The Virgin.] — Ver. 388. He alludes to the heat while the sun is passing through the Constellation Virgo.

" Paristonium.] — Ver. 390. See the Amores, Book ii. El, xiii. 1. 7, and the Note. He alludes to the victory of Augustus over Antony «nd Cleopatra, at Actium ; on which the conqueror built the temple of Apollo jn the Palatine hill.

»* The sister and the wife.'] —Ver. 391. Livia, the wife, and Octavi*, the sister of Augustus, are referred to.

" His son-in-law.]— V a. 392. The allusion is to M. Agrippi, thu husband of Julia, the daughter of Augustus; after the defeat of tho .vounger Pompey, Augustus presentet" him mth a naval crown. A PortitM ' /uilt by Augustus was galled l)v his name.

a *

450 ins AMATOBIA ; [b. ni. 393—419

of the Meinphian heifer," that smoke with frankincense j frequent the three Theatres,** in conspicuous positions. Let the sand, stained with the -warm blood, have you for spectators; the goal, also, to be passed with the glowing wheels.""

That which lies hid is unknown ; for what is not known there is no desire. All advantag'e is lost, when a pretty face is without one to see it. Were you to excel even ThamyraS™ and Amoebeus in your singing, there would be no great regard for your lyre, while unknown. If Apelles of Cos"' had never painted Venus, she would have lain concealed beneath the ocean waves. What but fame alone is sought by the hal- lowed Poets ? The sum of all my labours has that crowning object. In former days, Poets were" the care of rulers and of kings ; and the choirs of old received great rewards. Hallowed was the dignity, and venerable the name of the Poets ; and upon them great riches were often bestowed. Ennius, born in the mountains of Calabria, was deemed worthy, great Scipio, to be placed near to thee."' At the present day,' the ivy lies abandoned, without any honor ; and the laborious anxiety that toils for the learned Muses, receives the appellation of idleness.

But be it our study to lie on the watch for fame ; who would have known of Homer, if the Iliad, a never-dying work, had lain concealed ? Who would have known of Danae, if she had been for ever shut up, and if, till an old woman, she had continued concealed in her tower ? The throng, ye beauteous fair, is advantageous to you ; turn your wandering steps full oft beyond your thresholds. The she-wolf goes on her way to the

" Memphian heifer."] — Ver. 393. See the Amores, Book i. El. viii. 1. 74.

  • ' Frequent the three Theatres.'] — Ver. 394. He probably alludes to

the theatres of Pompey, Balbua, and Marcellus, as they are mentioned by Suetonius as the ' triiia theatra.'

=» Glowing wheals.] — Ver. 396. See the Amores, Book iii. El. ii.

™ Thamyras.] — ^Ver. 399. He was a Thraeian poet, who challenged the Muses to sing, and, according to Homer, was punished with madness. Diodoros SiciUus says that he lost his voice,-while the Roman poets state that he lost his sight. Amcebeus was a famous lute-player of Athens.

" Of Cos.]— Ver. 401. See the Pontic Epistles, Book iv. Ep. i. I. 29.

    • Poets were.] — Ver. 405. Euripides was the guest of Archelaus

king of Macedonia, Anacreon of Polycrates king of Samos, and Pindar and Bacchilides of Hiero king of Sicily.

" Placed near to thee.] — Ver. 410. According to some accounts, the tabes of Ennius were deposited in the tomb of the Scipios, by the older of Ms friend Scipio A&icanus.

■. ni. 419—447 OE, THE AST or LOTTi;. 45 j

many sheep, that she may carry off but one ; and the bird of Jove pounces down upon the many birds. Let the handsomtr woman, too, present herself to be seen by the pubhc ; out of so many, perhaps there will be one for her to attract. In all places, let her ever be desirous to please ; and, with aU atten- tion, let her have a care for her charms. Chance is power- ful everywhere ; let your hook be always hanging ready. lu waters where you least think it, there will be a fish. Many a time do the hounds wander in vain over the woody mountains ; and sometimes the stag falls in the toils, with no one to pursue him. What was there for Andromeda, when bound, less to hope for, than that her tears could possibly charm any one 1 Many alime,_at the^iuneral of a husband, is another husband found. To go with the tresses dishevelled, and not to withhold your lamentations, is becoming.

But avoid those men who make dress and good looks their study ; and who arrange their locks, each in its own position. What they say to you, , they have repeated to a thousand damsels. Their love is roving, and remains firm in no one spot. What is the woman to do, when the man, him- self, is stiU more effeminate, and himself perchance may have still more male admirers?

You win hardly believe me, but still, do beheve me ; Troy would have been still remaining, if it had followed the advice of Its own Priam.** There are some men who range about, under a fictitious appearance of love, and, by means of such introduc- tions, seek disgraceful lucre. And do not let the locks deceive you, shining much with the liquid nard ;"' nor yet the narrow belt,"' pressed upon the folds of their dress. Nor let the robe of finest texture beguile you ; nor yet if there shall be many and many a ring"' on their fingers., Perhaps the best

Its own Priam.'] — Ver. 440. Priam and Antenor advised that Helen should be restored to Menelaiis.

"^ Liquid nard.'] — Ver. 443; There were two kinds of nard, the ' fo- liated,' and the ' spike ' nard. It was much esteemed as a perfume by the Romans.

' "« Narrow bell.'] — Ver. 444. He probably means a girdle that fitted tightly, and caused the ' toga ' to set in many creases. See the Notes to the Fasti, Book v. I. 675.

i" And many a rini/.]—Ver. 44G. Uter et alter.' Literally, ' ont and another.'


452 ARS AMA-TOBIA ; [b. HI. 447—474.

dressed of the number of these may be some thief," and way be attracted by a desire for your clothes. " Give me back my property !" full oft do the plundered fair ones cry ; " Givi me back my property !" the whole Forum resounding with their cries. Thou, Venus,™ unmoved, and you, ye Goddesses,' near the Appian way, from your temples blazing with plenteous gold, behold these disputes. There are even certain names notorious by a reputation that admits of no doubt; those females who have been deceived by many, share the crimi- nality of their favorites. Learn, then, from the complaints of others, to have apprehensions for yourselves ; and do not let your door be open to the knavish man.

Refrain, Cecropian fair, from believing Theseus,' when he swears ; the Gods whom he will make his witnesses, he has made so before. And no trust is there left for thee, Demo- phoon, heir to the criminaUty of Theseus, since Phyllis has been deceived. If they are lavish of their promises, in just as many words do you promise them ; if they give, do you, too, give the promised favours. That woman could extinguish the watchful flames of Vesta, and could bear off the sacred things, daughter of Inachus,' from thy temples, and could administer to her husband the aconite, mixed with the pounded hemlock, if on receiving a present she could deny a favour.

My feelings are prompting me to go too close ; check the rein, my Muse : and be not hurled headlong by the wheels in their full career. Should lines, written on the tablets made of fir, try the soundings ; let a maid suited for the duty take in tie billets that are sent. Examine them ; and collect from the words themselves, whether he only pretends what you are reading, or whether he entreats anxiously, and with sincerity. And after a short delay, write an answer ; delay ever stimu- lates those in love, if it lasts only for a short time.

" Same tlaef.'\ — Ver. 447. Among its other refinements, Borne seera» to have had its swell mob.

" Thou, Venus.2 — Ver. 451. This temple is referred to in the First Book, 1. 81 — 87. Its vicinity was much frequented by courtesans.

' You, ye Goddesses.'] — ^Ver. 452. He probably alludes to the Nymphi whose statues were near the Appian aqueduct, mentioned in the 81«t line of the First Book. The Delphin Editor absolutely thinks that the ' pro- fessie,' or courtesans, are themselves alluded to as the ' Appiades Ueae.'

^ Theteus-I — ^Ver. 457. Who deserted Ariodne.

' Of Inaclms.'] — 'Vtr.iM. Isis. or lo. See the ^tetamorphosfs, Bli. i.

■ Ut. IJf)— 505.^, OR, THE AUT OP T.OTK. \:,S

But. neither do yini make vourself too cheap to the youth who entreats, nor yet reiiise, with disdainful lips, -what he is press- ing for. Cause him both to fear and to hope at the same moment ; and oft as you refuse him, let hopes more assured, and diminished apprehensions arise.

Write your words, ye fair, in a legible hand, but of common parlance, and such as are usual ; the recognized forms of lan- guage are most pleasing.— Ah ! how oft has the wavering lover been inflamed by a letter, and how oft has uncouth language proved detrimental to a graceful form ! But since, although you are without the honors of the fillet of chastity, it is siilf your care to deceive your husbands ;* let the skille4 hand of a maid, or of a boy, carry the tablets, and don't entrust your pledges to some unknown youth. I myself have seen the fair pale with terror on that account, enduring, in their misery, ■ervitude to all future time. Perfidious, indeed, is he whfi -etains such pledges : but still in them he has power equal to the lightnings of .Sltna.

In my opinion deceit is allowable, for the purpose of repel- ling deceit ; and the laws permit us to take up arms against the armed. One hand should be accustomed to write in numeroiis styles. Perdition to those, through whom this advice must "hi given by me ! Nor is it safe to write, except when the wax is (piite smoothed over ; so that the same tablet may not contain two hands." Let your lover be always styled a female when vou write ; in your billets let that be "she," which really is "he."

Fiut I wish to turn my attention from trifles to things of more consequence, and with swelhng canvass to expand my filling sails. It conduces to good looks to restrain habits of anger. Fair peace becomes human beings, savage fury wild beasts. AVith fury the features swell ; with blood the veins grow black ; the eyes flash more wildly than the Gorgonian tires. " Pipe, hence avaunt,* thou art not of so much worth to me,"

  • To Aecexee your husbands'] — Ver. 484. It is not improbable that

' viros ' here means merely ' keepers,' and not ' husbands,' especially as he illudes to their being without *^9 privilege of the ' vitta,' which the matrons wore.

^ Two hands.'] — Ver. 49w rie means, that the writing of the lovor must be quite erased before she pens her answer on the same tablets.

' IJmce, avaunt.] — Ver. 505. See the Fasti, Book vi. 1. C9G.

454 AHS AMATont.V ; [b. Hi. 505— ."iS?

Knirl ralla?-, wlirii slip saw lirr fp.atnree in' stresin. Ydu, too, if you were to look at your mirror in the midst of your anger, hardly could any one distinctly recognize her owu countenance. And, in no less degree, let not a repulsive haughtiness sit upon your features ; by alluring eyes love must be enticed. Believe me, ye fair who know it by ex- perience, I hate immoderate conceit. Full oft do the features in silence contain the germs of hatred. Look at him who looks ou you ; smUe sweetly in return to hira who smiles. Does he nod at you ; do you, too, return the sign well understood. When the Boy Cupid has made these preludes, laying aside his foils," he takes his sharp arrows from his quiver.

I hate the melancholy damsels too. Let Ajax be charmed witli Tecmessa ;' us, a joyous throng, the cheerful woman cap- tivates. Never should 1 have asked thee, Andromache, nor thee, Tecmessa, that one of you would be my mistress. I seem hardly ably to believe it, though by your fruitfulness I am obliged to believe it, that you could have granted your favours to your husbands. And could, forsooth, that most melancholy woman say to Ajax, "My Ufa!" and words which are wont to please the men ?

What forbids me to apply illustrations from great matters to small ones, and not to be standing in awe of the name of a general ? To this person the skilful general has entrusted !i liundred to be ruled with the twig of vine ;' to this one so many cavalry; to that one he has given the standard to defend. l>o you, too, consider, to what use each of us is suited, and class each one in his assigned position. Let the rich man give his presents ; let him that professes the law, defend ; the elo- quent man may often plead the cause of his client. We who compose verse, verses alone let us contribute. This throng, before all others, is susceptible ' of love. Far and wide do 've herald the praises of the beauty that pleases us. Ne- mesis " has fame ; Cynthia, too, has fame. The West and the

  • Laying aside his foila.1 — Ver. 515. The ' rudis ' was a stick, which

soldiers and persons exercising used in mimic combat, probably hlie our foil or singlestick.

' With Tecmessa."] — Ver. 517. She was talten captive by Ajax, and probably had good reason to be sorrowful.

' The twig of vine.'] — Ver. 527. He alludes to the Centurions, who had the power of inflicting corporal punishment, from which eircutnstauc* their badge of office was a vine saphng.

" Nemesis,] — Ver. 536. Nemesis was the mistreai of Tlbullus. Sm

•. til 537—574.] Oft, THE KUt QT T.OTR. 4!').':

lands nt" the East know of Lycoris : and many a one is t'li- quiring ■who my Corinna is. Besides, all deceit is wanting in the hallowed Poets, and even our art contributes to forming oui manners. No ambition influences us, no love of gain ; des- pising the Courts, the couch and the shade are the objects of our commendation. But we are easily attracted, and are con- sumed by a lasting heat ; and we know how to love with a constancy most enduring. Indeed, we have our feelings- softened by the gentle art ; and our manners are in conformity with our pursuits.

Be kind, ye fair, ta_the Aonian bards. In them there is inspiration, and the Pierian idaids show favour unto them. In us a Divinity exists : and we have intercourse with the heavens. From the realms of the skies does that inspiration proceed. 'Tis a crime to look for a present from the learned Poets. Ah wretched me ! of this crime no fair one stands in dread. Still, do act the dissemblers, and at the very first sight, do not be ravenous. On seeing your nets, a new lover will stop short. But neither can the rider manage with the same reins the horse which has but lately felt the bridle, and that which is well-trained ; nor yet must the same path be trod by you in order to captivate the feelings that are steadied by years, and inexperienced youth.

The latter is raw, and now for the first time known in the camp of Love, who, a tender prey, has reached your chamber; with you alone is he acquainted ; to you alone would he ever prove constant. Shun a rival ; so long as you alone shall possess him, you will be the conqueror. Both sovereignties and love do not last long with one to share in them. The other, the veteran soldier, wiU love you gradually, and with moderation ; and he will put up with much that will not be endured by the novice. He will neitlier break down your door-posts, nor burn them with raging flames ; nor will he fly at the tender cheek of his mistress with his nails. He will neither tear his own clothes, nor yet the clothes of the fair ; nor will her torn locks be a cause for grieving. These things befit boys, who are heated with youthful years and with passion : the other, with tranquil feelings, vrill put up with cruel wounds. With slowly consuming fires wiU he smoulder, just like a damp torch ; or

tlie Amores, Book iii. El. ix. Cyntliia was the mistress of Propertiua^ and Lycoris of Gullus.

4/»fi A-RS AMA.TOKIA •, [n. in. 57-1— C05,

like tee wood that has been cut down upon the mouutaiii ridge. This passion is more sure ; the former is short-lived and more bounteous. With speedy hand do you pluck the fhiit that passes away.

Let all points be surrendered ; the gates -we have opened to the enemy, and let confidence be placed in this perfidious betrayal. That which is easily conceded, but badly supports a lasting passion. A repulse must now and then be mingled with your joyous dalliance. Let him lie down before your doors : " Cruel door !" let him exclaim ; and let him do many a thing in humble, many in threatening mood. The sweet we can- not endure ; with bitter potions we may be refreshed. FuU oft does the bark perish, overwhelmed by favouring gales. This it is that does not permit wives to be loved ; husbands have access to them, whenever they please. Shut your door,'" and let your porter say to you with surly lips, " You cannot come in ;" desire will seize you, as well, thus shut out.

Now lay aside the blunted swords ; let the battle be fought with sharpened ones. And I doubt not but that I myself shall be aimed at with weapons of my own furrdshing. While the lover that has been captured only of late is falling into your toUs, let him hope that he alone has admission, to your chamber. But soon let him be aware of a rival, and a division of the privileges of your favours. Remove these contrivances ; and his passion will grow effete. Then does the high-mettlec! courser run well, the starting-place being opened, when lie has both competitors to pass by, and those for him to foUow. Harshness rekindles the flame, even if gone out. Myself to wit, I confess it, I do not love unless 1 am iU-used.

StiU, the cause for grief should not be too manifest : and in his anxiety he ought to suspect that there is more than what he actually knows. The harsh supervision, too, of some feigned servant should excite him, and the irksome watchfulness of a husband too severe. The pleasure that is enjoyed in safety, is the least valued of all. Though you are more at hberty than ecen Thais," still feign apprehensions. Whereas you could

'° Shut your door."] — Ver. 587. He addresses the husband, whom hfi Bupposes to be wearied with satiety.

" Than even TJmis.1 — Ver. 604. Thais seems to have been a common name with the courtesans of ancient times. Terence, in his Eunuchus, intro- duce! one of that name, who is pretty mcch of the free and unrestrained (htractet here depicted.

B. 111. G05~63).] OB, THE AKT OF LOTE. 45?

dv it far better by the door, admit liim through <he wluJu-w j and on your countenance show the signs of fear. Let the cun- ning maid rush in, and exclaim, "We are undone!" and then do you hide the youth in his fright in any spot. Still, an enjoy- ment without anxiety must be interspersed with his alarms ; lest he should not think your favours to be worth so much trouble.

But I was about to omit by what methods the cunning hus- band may be eluded, and how the watchful keeper. Let the wife stand in awe of her husband ; let the safe keeping of a wife be allowed. That is proper ; that the laws, and justice, and decency ordain. But for you as well to be watched, whom the Lictor's rod'^ has but just set at liberty, who can endure it 'I Come to my sacred rites, that you may learn how to deceive. Even if as many eyes shall be watching you, as Argus had, if there is only a fixed determination, you will de- ceive themfill. And shall a keeper, forsooth, hinder you from being able to write, when an opportunity is given you for taking the bath ? When a female confidant can carry the note you have penned, which her broad girth" can conceal in her warm t)osom ? When she can conceal the paper fastened to her calf, and carry the tender note beneath her sandalled foot.

Should the keeper be proof against these eontrivancen : in place of paper, let your confidant afibrd her shoidders ; and upon her own person let her carry your words. Letters, too, written in new milk, ai'e safe and escape the eye ; touch them with powdered coals, and you will read them. The writing, too, which is made with the stalk of wetted flax, will deceive, and the clean surface will bear the secret marks. The care of

" Lictor's rod."] — Ver. 615. This conferred freedom on the slave wlio was touched with it. See the Fasti, Book vi. 1. 676, and the Note. He means, that free-born women are worthy to become wives j but ' libertine,' or ' freed-women,' are only fit to become ' professse,' or ' courtesans,' wlicii they may sin with impunity, so far as the laws are concerned.

13 Broad girth.'] — Ver. 622. This seems to be the kind of belt men tioned in line 274.

'* Stalk qf wetted flax^ — Ver. 629. According to the common reading, this will mean that the letter is to be written on blank paper, with a stalk of wetted flax ; which writing will afterwards appear, when a black sub- stance is thrown upon it. Heinsius insists that the passage is corrupt, and suggests that ' alumine nitri ' is the correct reading ; in which case it would mean that alum water is to be used instead of ink. Vcssius tells us that alum water, mixed with the juice of the plant ' tithyraaluin,' vfas Med for the purposes of secret correspondence.

i.'iS AUS AMATOEI-i ; [». rii. 631— 652

■walcbing a (';vjr one, fell to Acrisius ; still, tliroii.;^li liis "wu faiilt, did she, make him a grandsire. What c,in a keeper do, wheu there are so many Theatres in the City ? When, eagerly she is a spectator of the harnessed steeds ? When she is sitting in attendance upon the sistra of the Pharian heifer, and at the place where her male friends are forbidden to go ? WhUe, too, the Good Goddess'" expels the gaze of males from her temples, except any that, perchance, she bids to come : while, as the keeper watches outside the clothes of the fair, the baths may in safety conceal the lovers who are hiding there ; while, so often as is requisite, some pretended, she-friend may be sick, and, iU as she is, may give place for her in her couch. While the false key, too, tells '° by its name what we are to do, and it is not the door alone that gives the access you require.

The watchfulness of the keeper is eluded by plenty of wine ; even though" the grapes be gathered on the hills of Spain. There are drugs, too, which create deep sleep ; and let them close the eyes overpowered by Lethsean night. And not amiss does the confidant occupy the troublesome fellow with dalliance to create delay, and in his company spins out the time.

What need is there to be teaching stratagems and trifling precepts, when the keeper may be purchased by the smallest present? Beheve me, presents influence both men and Gods: on gifts being presented, Jupiter himself is appeased. What is the wise man to do, when even the fool is gratified with a preaetlt ? The husband himself, on receiving a present, will be silent. But once only throughout the long year must the keeper be bought ; full oft wiU he hold out the hand which he has once extended.

I complained, I recollect, that new-made friends are to be dreaded ; that complaint does not extend to men alone. If you are too trusting, other women wiU interrupt your pleasures ; and this hare of yours will be destined to be hunted down by other

'5 Good Gorfaew.]— Ver. 637. The debauched Clodius was detected as bein^ present at these rites, in a female dress.

"^ Tlu false key, too, teUs.'] — Ver. 643. He plays upon the double meaning of the words, ' adultera clavia,' which properly signifies ' a falsi key.'

" £ven though.'] — ^Ver. 640. ' Even though you should have to go lu the expense of providing the rich wines of Spain for the purpose.' "

fi. III. 6C2— doo.] OT?, 'mr. AUT OF i.ote. -Iflg

pei'Kous. Vivvn slu','" who fio oWigltigly leiuls her couch and her room, believe me, has not once ohIij been in my company. And do not let too pretty a maid ■wait upon you ; many a time has she filled" her mistress's place for me. Whither, in my folly, am I led on ? Why with bared breast do I strive against the foe, and why, myself, am I betrayed through information that is my own? The bird does not instruct the fowler in which direction he may be taken : the hind does not teach the hos- tile hounds how to run. StiU, let interest see to itself; my precepts, with fidelity will I give. To the Lemnian dames,'-" for my own destruction, will I present the sword.

Give reason (and 'tis easy to do so) for us to believe our- selves to be loved. BeUef arises readily in those who are anx- ious for the fulfilment o/' their desires. Let the fair one eye the youth in a kindly manner ; let her heave sighs from lier very heart, and let her enquire, why i^ is he comes so late ? Let tears be added, too, and feigned apprehensions about a rival, and with her fingers let her tear her face. Soon will he be thoroughly persuaded, and he will pity you of his own accord ; and will say to himself, " This woman is consumed by af- fection for me." Especially, if he shall be well drest, and shall please himself at the looking-glass, he will believe that the Goddesses might be touched with love for him. But, who- ever you are, let an injury disturb you only in a moderate de- gree ; and don't, on hearing of a rival, go out of your mind, '^nd don't at once believe it ; how injurious it is at once to believe things, Procris will be no shght proof to you.

There is near the empurpled hills of blooming Hymettus a -sacred spring, and the ground is soft with the verdant turf. The wood, of no great height, there forms a grove ; the straw- berry tree overshadows the grass; rosemary, and laurels, and swarthy myrtles give their perfume. Neither the box- trees with their thick foliage and the slender tamarisks, nor yet the tiny trefoil and the garden pine, are wanting there. Moved by the gentle Zephyrs and the balmy air, the leaves of these many kinds, and the tops of the grass quiver. Pleasant was this

" Eoen she."] — ^Ver. 663. He alludes to the accommodating lady men- tioned in line 641.

" Has she filled.'] — Ver. 666. See his address to Cypassis, in the Amores, Book ii. El. viii.

-" Lemnian dames'] — Ver C72. See the ii>troductioii to the Gpiitlt from Hypsipyle t'j Jason.

-I (jo ARS AMATOEIA ; [h. III. Mi— 726,

ictreaf lo <";ephalus ," his Bervants and Lis hoiuiHR left behud, tlie youth, when weary, often sat down in this spot. And here he was in the habit of repeating, "Come, gentle Aura [breeze], to be received in my bosom, that thou mayst moderate my heat."

Some person, maliciously officious, with retentive lips carried Jie words he had heard to the timid ears of his wife. Procris, when she heard the name of Aura [breeze], as though of a rival, fainted away, and with this sudden apprehension she was mute. She turned pale, just as the late leaves become wan, which the coming winter has nipped, the clusters now gathered from the vine ; and as the quinces ^ which in their ripeness are i)ending their boughs ; and as the cornels not yet quite fit for food for man. When her senses had returned, she tore her thin garments from off her body with her naUs, and wounded iier guiltless cheeks. And no delay was there ; raving, with dishevelled locks, she flew amid the tracks, like a Bacchanal aroused by the thyrsus. When she had come near the spot, she left her attendants in the valley ; and with silent foot- steps, in her boldness, she herself stealthily entered the grove. What, Procris, were thy feelings, when thus, in thy frenzy, thou didst lie concealed ? What the impulse of thy disquieted breast? Each moment, forsooth, wast thou expecting that she would come, whoever Aura might be, and that their cri- minality would be witnessed with thine eyes.

Now dost thou repent of having come, for indeed thou wouldst not wish to detect him ; and now thou art glad ; fluctuating af- fection is tormenting thy breast. There is the spot, and the name, and the informant to bid thee give credence ; and the fact that the lover always apprehends that to exist which he dreads. When she beheld the grass beaten down, the impress of his body, her trembling bosom was throbbing with her palpi- tating heart. And now midday had made the unsubstantial shadows small, and at an equal distance were the evening and the morn. Behold ! Cephalus, the ofispring of the Cyl- leuian God,"* returns from the woods, and sprinkles his glow-

=' Cephabu.1 — ^Ver. 695. This story is also related in the Seventh Book of the Metamorphoses.

" The jB»»ee».] — Ver. 705. These are called ' cydonia,' from Cydon, k city of Crete.

" Cyltenian God.] — Ver. 725. Cephalus was said to he the son of Mercury; but, according to one account, w liich is fo'lowed by Ovid m il:o Metamorphoses, Deioncus was his father.

11. III. 7Vf6— 7f)7.] Oil, THE AET or LOTI. 461

uig face with water of the fountain. In thy anxiety, FrocriB, art thou lying concealed. Along the grass he lies as wont, and says, " Ye gentle Zephyrs, and thou Aura [breeze], come hither." When the welcome mistake of the name was thu» revealed to the sorrowing fair, both her senses and the real colour of her face returned.

She arose ; and the wife, about to rush into the embrace of her husband, by the moving of her body, shook the leaves that were in her way. He, thinking that a wild beast had made the noise, with alacrity snatched up his bow ; his arrows were in his right hand. What, wretched man, art thou about 1 "lis no wild beast ; keep still thy weapons. Ah wretched me ! by thy dart has the fair been pierced. " Ah me !" she cries aloud, "a loving heart hast thou pierced. That spot has ever retained the wounds inflicted by Cephalus. Before my tune I die, but injured by no rival ; this, Earth, will make thee light when 1 am entombed. Now is my breath departing in the breeze that 1 had thus suspected ; I sink, alas ! close my eyes with those dear hands."

In his sorrowing bosom he supports the dying body of his spouse, and with his tears he bathes her cruel wounds. Her breath departs ; and gradually fleeting from her senseless bretist, her breath" is received into the mouth of her wretched husband.

But let us return to our path ; I must deal with my sub- ject uudisg-uised, that my wearied bark may reach its port. You may be waiting, in fact, for me to escort you to the ban- quet, and may be requesting my advice in this respect as well. Come late, and enter when the lights are brought in; delaj is a friend to passion ; a very great stimulant is delay. Even shoidd you be ugly, to the tipsy you will appear charming : and night itself vidll afibrd a concealment for your imper- fections. Take up your food with your fingers ;" the method of eating is something ; and do not besmear all your face Mdth your dirty hand. And do not flrst^ take food at

    • Her breath.] — ^Ver. 746. See the corresponding passage in the Me-

tamorphoses, Book vli. 1. 861. It was the custom for the nearest rela- tive to catch the breath of the djing person in the mouth.

"* With your fmgem^ — ^Ver. 755. Perhaps he means in rooderats quantities at a time, and not in whole handfiils. See the Note to the First Book. I. 577.

  • ' And do nat first.] — Ver. 757. He seems to i-^a two precepts herei

462 AES AMATOnii ; [B. in. 757—788.

home ; but cease to eat a little sooner than you could wisL, and could have eaten. Had the son of Priam seen Helen greedily devouring, he would have detested her ; and he would have said, " That prize of mine is an oaf."

It is more proper and is more becoming for the fair to drink to excess. Thou dost not, Bacchus, consort amiss with the son of Venus. This too, only so far as the head will bear it, and the senses and the feet will be able to perform their duty;'" and do not see each object that is single, as double. A woman spraw- ling along, one? drenched in plenteous wine, is a disgusting object ; she is worthy to endure the embraces of any kind of fellows. And it is no safe thing when the tables are removed to fall asleep; in sleep many a shocking thing is wont to happen. I feel ashamed to instruct you any further, but genial Dione says, "That which shames you is especially my ov/n province." Let each particular then be known unto you :

• modos a corpore certos

Sumite ; non omnes una flgura decet. Quae facie prsesignis eris, resupina jaceto :

Spectentur tergo, quis sua terga placent. Milanion humeris Atalantes crura ferebat :

Si bona sunt, hoc sunt accipienda modo. Parva vehatur equo : quod erat longissima, nunquam

Thebais Hectoreo nupta resedit eqiio. Strata premat genibus, paulum cervice reflex^,

Foemina, per iongum conspicienda latus. Cui femur est juvenile, carent cui pectora mend&,

Stet vir, in obliquo fusa sit ipsa toro. Nee tibi turpe puta crinem, ut Phylleia mater,

Solvere : et efiiisis coUa reflecte comis. Tu quoque, cui rugis uterum Lucina notavit,

Ut celer aversis utere Parthus equis,,' MiRe modi Veneris. Simplex mininiique laboris,

Cum jacet in dextrum semisupina Utus.

first, they are not to eat so much' at home as to take away all appetit«  at the banquet, as that would savour oi affectation, and be an act of rude- ness to the host. On the other hand, he warns them not to stuff as long as they are able, but rather to leave off with an appetite. The passage, however, is hopelessly corrupt, and is capable of other interpretations.

•" Perform their rfa/j'.l— Ver. 764. ' Constent,' literally. ' Will stand together.'

U: III 7e«— 8 2,] 3H, rms aet op lote. 463

Sed ueque Phoebei tripodes, uec coruiger Ammou,

Vera magis vobis, quam niea Musa, canent. Si qua fides arti, quam longo fecimus usu,

Credite : praestabunt carmina nostra fidetn. Sentiat ex imis Venerem resoluta medullia

Foemina : et ex aequo res juvet ilia duos. Nee blandse voces, jucundaque murmura cessent ;

Nee taceant mediis improba verba jocis. Tu quoque, cui Veneris sensum natura negavit,

Dulcia mendaci gaudia finge sono. InfeUx, cui torpet bebes locus ille, pueUa es ;

Quo pariter debent foemina virque frui. Tantum, cum finges, ne sis manifesta caveto :

Effice per motum luminaque ipsa fidem. Quod juvet : et voces et anhelitus arguat oris.

Ah pudet ! arcanas pars habet ista notas. Gaudia post Veneris quae poscet munus amautom.

Ipsa suas nolet pondus habere pieces.

And admit not the light in your chamber with the windoTi wide open ; many blemishes of your person more becomingly lie concealed.

My pastime draws to a close ; 'tis time to descend from the swans, that have borne my yoke upon their necks. A«  once the youths did, so now the fair, as my audience, may inscribe, " Naso was our preceptor," upon their spoils.

  • The (uiajw.]— Ver. 899. He also alludes to them in the Melamor

phosei, 88 drawing the car of Venus, though that ofli»" ""w more gen* rally auigoad by the Poets to doves.

See also

  • Ars Amatoria

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Ars Amatoria" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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