Arnaldus de Villa Nova  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Arnaldus de Villa Nova (also called Arnaldus de Villanueva, Arnaldus Villanovanus, Arnaud de Ville-Neuve or Arnau de Vilanova), ( 1235 Valencia–1311 Genoa), alchemist, astrologer and physician, appears to have been of Catalan origin, and to have studied chemistry, medicine, physics, and also Arabic philosophy. After having lived at the court of Aragon, he went to Paris, where he gained a considerable reputation; but he incurred the enmity of the ecclesiastics and was forced to flee, finally finding an asylum in Sicily. About 1313 he was summoned to Avignon by Pope Clement V, who was ill, but he died on the voyage.

He is credited with translating a number of medical texts from Arabic, including works by Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Qusta ibn Luqa (Costa ben Luca), and Galen.<ref>D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 5.</ref> Many alchemical writings, including Thesaurus Thesaurorum or Rosarius Philosophorum, Novum Lumen, and Flos Florum, are also ascribed to him, but they are of very doubtful authenticity. Collected editions of them were published at Lyon in 1504 and 1532 (with a biography by Symphorianus Campegius), at Basel in 1585, at Frankfurt in 1603, and at Lyon in 1686. He is also the reputed author of various medical works, including Breviarium Practicae. Among his achievements was the discovery of carbon monoxide and pure alcohol.




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