Arab–Israeli conflict  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between a number of Arab countries and Israel. The roots of the modern Arab–Israeli conflict are bound in the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Palestinians, and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands. The sectarian conflict between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century, peaking into a full-scale civil war in 1947 and transforming into the First Arab–Israeli War in May 1948 following the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel.

Large-scale hostilities mostly ended with the cease-fire agreements after the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, resulting in Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and abolishment of the military governance system in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in favor of Israeli Civil Administration and consequent unilateral annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.

The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large scale regional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, peaking during the 1982 Lebanon War. The interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, within the context of the Israeli-Palestinian peace process. The same year Israel and Jordan reached a peace accord. A cease-fire has been largely maintained between Israel and Baathist Syria, as well as more recently with Lebanon (since 2006). However, developments on the course of the Syrian Civil War effectively reshuffled the situation near Israeli northern border bringing Syrian Arab Republic, Hezbollah and Syrian Opposition in odds with each other and complex relations with Israel.

The conflict between Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza, which resulted in the 2014 cease-fire, is usually also included as part of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and hence the Arab–Israeli conflict. Its 2006-2012 phase is however also attributed to Iranian proxy war with Israel in the region, which however has cut ties with Sunni Hamas movement due to the Syrian Civil War.

Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, interim peace accords with Palestine and the generally existing cease-fire, the Arab world and Israel generally remain at odds with each other over many issues.


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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Arab–Israeli conflict" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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