From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
Moulage (French: casting/moulding) is the art of applying mock injuries for the purpose of training Emergency Response Teams and other medical and military personnel. Moulage may be as simple as applying pre-made rubber or latex "wounds" to a healthy "patient's" limbs, chest, head, etc., or as complex as using complicated makeup and theatre techniques to provide elements of realism (such as blood, vomitus, open fractures, etc.) to the training simulation. The practice dates to at least the Renaissance, when wax figures were used for this purpose.
History of Medical Moulage
The history of wax models is ancient. Wax anatomical models were first made by Gaetano Giulio Zumbo (1656–1701) who first worked in Naples, then Florence, and finally Paris, where he was granted monopoly right by Louis XIV. Later, Jules Baretta (1834–1923) made more than 2000 splendid wax models in Hospital Saint-Louis, Paris, where more than 4000 wax models were collected. While wax models were being made, he made pleasant conversations with the patients, sang songs or at times played the piano. Moulages were made for the education of dermatologists around the world, but were eventually replaced by color slides.
In the 19th century moulage was taken of medical patients for educational purposes. The prepared model was painted to mimic the original disease.
- In France, the most famous artists were Gaetano Giulio Zummo (1656-1701), Giovanni Manzolini (1700-1755), Ercole Lelli (1702-1766), Anna Morandi (1716-1774), Felice Fontana (1730-1805), Clemente Susini (1754-1814), Francesco Calenzuoli (1796-1829), Luigi Calamai (1800-1851), Giovanni Lusini (1809-1889) and Egisto Tortori (1829-1893) in Italy; Antoine Benoist (1629- 1717), Guillaume Desnoues (ca. 1650-ca. 1735), Marie- Catherine Biheron (1719-1796), Guillaume Curtius (1737- 1794), Andre-Pierre Pinson (1746-?), and Jean-Baptiste Laumonier (1749-1818) in France.
Famous anatomical wax models
- Human anatomy
- Theatrical blood
- La Specola
- Mütter Museum
- Medical illustration
- Julius von Schlosser’s seminal “History of Portraiture in Wax” (1910–11)