An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation  

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"By ‘utility’ is meant the property of something whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness...[or] to prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness to the party whose interest is considered." --An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1781) Jeremy Bentham

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation is a text by Jeremy Bentham. Printed for publication 1780, published 1789.

Chapter XVI: Division of Offenses

See sexual ethics

XXXVI. First, then, with regard to offences which affects person and reputation together. When any man, by a mode of treatment which affects the person, injures the reputation of another, his end and purpose must have been either his own immediate pleasure, or that sort of reflected pleasure, which in certain circumstances may be reaped from the suffering of another. Now the only immediate pleasure worth regarding, which any one can reap from the person of another, and which at the same time is capable of affecting the reputation of the latter, is the pleasure of the sexual appetites. This pleasure, then, if reaped at all, must have been reaped either against the consent of the party, or with consent. If with consent, the consent must have been obtained either freely and fairly both, or freely but not fairly, or else not even freely; in which case the fairness is out of the question. If the consent be altogether wanting, the offence is called rape: if not fairly obtained, seduction simply: if not freely, it may be called forcible seduction. In any case, either the offence has gone the length of consummation, or has stopped short of that period; if it has gone that length, it takes one or other of the names just mentioned: if not, it may be included alike in all cases under the denomination of a simple lascivious injury. Lastly, to take the case where a man injuring you in your reputation, by proceedings that regard your person, does it for the sake of that sort of pleasure which will sometimes result from the contemplation of another's pain. Under these circumstances either the offence has actually gone the length of a corporal injury, or it has rested in menacement: in the first case it may be styled a corporal insult; in the other, it may come under the name of insulting menacement. And thus we have six genera, or kind of offences, against person and reputation together; which, when ranged in the order most commodious for consideration, will stand thus:
1. Corporal insults.
2. Insulting menacement.
3. Seduction.
4. Rape.
5. Forcible seduction.
6. Simple lascivious injuries. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, Chapter XVI: Division of Offenses



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