Académies and études d'après nature  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

From the middle of the 19th century onwards académies (literaly English: academies) or études d'après nature (studies after nature) were a euphemisms for a nude photographs.

Collections of these type of photographs were published in magazines and anthologies such as Émile Bayard's Le Nu esthetique (The Esthetic Nude), Bruno Meyer's La Grace feminine [Feminine Grace] and Guy de Téramond's La Beauté du nu [The Beauty of the Nude].

These photographs were sold as artists models to art students but also to the general public in the 19th and early 20th century. Several were used for well-known works by Gustave Courbet. For example, Courbet's The Bathers is based on this[1] photograph by Julien Vallou de Villeneuve.

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