Zephyr (artist)  

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-[[Graffiti]] was integral to the spread of [[hip hop culture]]. In 1979, graffitists [[Lee Quinones]] and [[Fab Five Freddy|Fab 5 Freddy]] were given a gallery opening in Rome by art dealer Claudio Bruni. For many outside of New York, it was their first encounter with their art form. Fab 5 Freddy's friendship with [[Debbie Harry]] influenced [[Blondie (band)|Blondie]]'s single "[[Rapture (Blondie song)|Rapture]]" ([[Chrysalis Records|Chrysalis]], 1981), the video of which featured [[Jean-Michel Basquiat]], and offered many their first glimpse of a depiction of elements of graffiti in hip hop culture. JaJaJa toured Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, and Holland with a large graffiti canvas as a backdrop. Charlie Ahearn's independently released fiction film ''[[Wild Style]]'' (Wild Style, 1983), the early [[Public Broadcasting Service|PBS]] documentary ''[[Style Wars]]'' (1983), hit songs such as "[[The Message (Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five song)|The Message]]" and "[[Planet Rock (song)|Planet Rock]]" and their accompanying [[music video]]s (both 1982) contributed to a growing interest outside New York in all aspects of hip hop. 
-''Style Wars'' depicted not only famous graffitists such as Skeme, [[DONDI|Dondi]], MinOne, and [[Zephyr (artist)|ZEPHYR]], but also reinforced graffiti's role within New York's emerging hip-hop culture by incorporating famous early break-dancing groups such as Rock Steady Crew into the film and featuring rap in the soundtrack. Although many officers of the New York City Police Department found this film to be controversial, Style Wars is still recognized as the most prolific film representation of what was going on within the young hip hop culture of the early 1980s. Fab 5 Freddy and Futura 2000 took hip hop graffiti to Paris and London as part of the New York City Rap Tour in 1983. Hollywood also paid attention, consulting writers such as [[PHASE 2]] as it depicted the culture and gave it international exposure in movies such as ''[[Beat Street]]'' ([[Orion Pictures|Orion]], 1984). 
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-'''Graffiti''' (singular: ''graffito''; the plural is used as a [[mass noun]]) is writing or drawings scribbled, scratched, or sprayed illicitly on a wall or other surface in a public place. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, and has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to [[Ancient Greece]] and the [[Roman Empire]].+'''ZEPHYR''', born Andrew Witten, is a [[graffiti]] artist, lecturer and author from [[City of New York|New York City]]. He began creating graffiti in 1975 and first signed using the name "Zephyr" in 1977. He is considered a graffiti "elder", who along with [[Futura 2000]], Blade, [[PHASE 2]], [[CASH]], [[Lady Pink]] and [[TAKI 183]] invented styles and standards which are still in use.
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-In modern times, paint, particularly [[aerosol paint|spray paint]], and [[marker pen]]s have become the most commonly used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's consent is considered defacement and [[vandalism]], which is a punishable crime.+
-Graffiti may also express underlying social and political messages and a whole genre of artistic expression is based upon spray paint graffiti styles. Within [[hip hop culture]], graffiti has evolved alongside [[hip hop music]], [[b-boying]], and other elements. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities.+
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-Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials/law enforcement and writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different types and styles of graffiti and it is a rapidly developing art form whose value is highly contested, reviled by many authorities while also subject to protection, sometimes within the same jurisdiction.+
-The term ''graffiti'' referred to the [[inscription]]s, figure drawings, etc., found on the walls of ancient [[sepulchre|sepulchers]] or ruins, as in the [[Catacombs of Rome]] or at [[Pompeii]]. Usage of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes [[vandalism]].+
-===Cave paintings===+
-The earliest forms of graffiti date back to [[30,000 BCE]] in the form of prehistoric [[cave paintings]] and [[pictographs]] using tools such as animal bones and [[pigments]]. These illustrations were often placed in ceremonial and sacred locations inside of the caves. The images drawn on the walls showed scenes of animal [[wildlife]] and [[hunting]] expeditions in most circumstances. This form of graffiti is subject to disagreement considering it is likely that members of prehistoric society endorsed the creation of these illustrations.+
-===Middle East===+
-The only known source of the [[Safaitic]] language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern [[Syria]], eastern [[Jordan]] and northern [[Saudi Arabia]]. Safaitic dates from the 1st century BCE to the 4th century [[Common Era|CE]].+
-===Ancient Greece===+
-The first known example of "modern style" graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of [[Ephesus]] (in modern-day [[Turkey]]). Local guides say it is an [[advertisement]] for [[prostitution]].Located near a [[mosaic]] and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint and a number. This is believed to indicate that a brothel was nearby, with the handprint symbolizing payment.+
-===Ancient Rome===+
-:''[[Roman graffiti]]''+
-The [[ancient Rome|ancient Romans]] carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which also survive in [[Ancient Egypt|Egypt]]. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than it carries in today’s society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, and simple words of thought compared to toady's popular messages of social and political ideals.+
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-The eruption of [[Vesuvius]] preserved graffiti in [[Pompeii]], including [[Latin]] curses, magic spells, declarations of love, alphabets, political slogans and famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute, apparently of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by the text, ''''mansueta tene'''': ''"Handle with care"''.+
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-Disappointed love also found its way onto walls in antiquity:+
-:''[[Quisquis amat. veniat. Veneri volo frangere costas]]+
-:''fustibus et lumbos debilitare deae.+
-:''Si potest illa mihi tenerum pertundere pectus+
-:'' quit ego non possim caput illae frangere fuste?+
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-:''Whoever loves, go to hell. I want to break Venus's ribs+
-:''with a club and deform her hips.+
-:''If she can break my tender heart+
-:''why can't I hit her over the head?+
-::-''[[Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum|CIL]]'' IV, 1284.+
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-Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. Errors in spelling and grammar in this graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin. Examples are ''[[CIL]]'' IV, 7838: ''Vettium Firmum / aed''[ilem] ''quactiliar''[ii] [sic] ''rog''[ant]. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co." The 83 pieces of graffiti found at ''[[CIL]]'' IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a [[peristyle]] which was being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens. The graffiti was left by both the foreman and his workers. The brothel at [[Lupanar (Pompeii)|''CIL'' VII, 12, 18-20]] contains over 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients. The [[gladiator]]ial academy at ''CIL'' IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens (''Suspirium puellarum Celadus thraex'': "Celadus the [[Thracians|Thracian]] makes the girls sigh.")+
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-Another piece from Pompeii, written on a tavern wall about the owner of the establishment and his questionable wine:+
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-:''Landlord, may your lies malign+
-:''Bring destruction on your head!+
-:''You yourself drink unmixed wine,+
-:''Water sell your guests instead.+
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-===Other cultures===+
-It was not only the Greeks and Romans that produced graffiti: the [[Maya civilization|Mayan]] site of [[Tikal]] in [[Guatemala]] also contains ancient examples. [[Viking]] graffiti survive in [[Rome]] and at [[Newgrange|Newgrange Mound]] in [[Ireland]], and a [[Varangian]] scratched his name (Halvdan) in [[Runic alphabet|rune]]s on a [[banister]] in the [[Hagia Sophia]] at [[Constantinople]].These early forms of graffiti have contributed to the understanding of lifestyles and languages of past cultures.+
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-Graffiti, known as Tacherons, were frequently scratched on Romanesque Scandanavaian church walls.+
-When [[Renaissance]] artists such as [[Pinturicchio]], [[Raphael]], [[Michelangelo]], [[Domenico Ghirlandaio|Ghirlandaio]] or [[Filippino Lippi]] descended into the ruins of Nero's [[Domus Aurea]], they carved or painted their names and returned with the ''[[grottesche]]'' style of decoration.+
-There are also examples of graffiti occurring in American history, such as Signature Rock, a national landmark along the [[Oregon Trail]].+
-===18th century===+
-Later, French soldiers carved their names on monuments during the Napoleonic [[French Revolutionary Wars: Campaigns of 1798|campaign of Egypt]] in the 1790s. [[Lord Byron]]'s survives on one of the columns of the Temple of [[Poseidon]] at [[Cape Sounion]] in [[Attica]], Greece.+
-== Decorative and high art ==+
-In the early 1980s, the first Art Galleries who started to show graffiti artists to the public were [[Fashion Moda]] in [[Bronx]] and [[Now Gallery]] in [[East Village, Manhattan]].+
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-A 2006 exhibition at the [[Brooklyn Museum]] displayed graffiti as an art form that began in New York's [[outer boroughs]] and reached great heights in the early 1980s with the work of Crash, Lee, Daze, [[Keith Haring]], and [[Jean-Michel Basquiat]].+
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-It displayed 22 works by New York graffiti artists, including [[Crash (graffiti artist)|Crash]], Daze, and [[Lady Pink]]. In an article about the exhibition in the magazine, ''Time Out'', curator Charlotta Kotik said that she hoped the exhibition would cause viewers to rethink their assumptions about graffiti. [[Terrance Lindall]], an artist and executive director of the Williamsburg Art and Historic Center, said regarding graffiti and the exhibition:+
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-<blockquote>"Graffiti is revolutionary, in my opinion", he says, "and any revolution might be considered a crime. People who are oppressed or suppressed need an outlet, so they write on walls—it's free."</blockquote>+
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-In Australia, art historians have judged some local graffiti of sufficient creative merit to rank them firmly within the arts. [[Oxford University Press]]'s art history text ''Australian Painting 1788–2000'' concludes with a long discussion of graffiti's key place within contemporary [[visual culture]], including the work of several Australian practitioners.+
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-Between March and April 2009, 150 artists exhibited 300 pieces of graffiti at the [[Grand Palais]] in Paris — a clear acceptance of the art form into the French [[art world]].+
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-Many graffiti artists have used their design talents in other artistic endeavors. In 2009 graffiti artist "[[Scape (graffiti artist)|Scape]]" published ''GRAFF; the Art & Technique of Graffiti'', the world's first book dedicated to displaying the full techniques of creating graffiti art. Other books that focus on graffiti include ''Faith of Graffiti'' by Norman Mailer, ''Trespass'' by Taschen press, and the comic book by [[Elite Gudz]], ''[[Concrete Immortalz]]'', which has a graffiti artist as its main character.+
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-Figurines by [[KAWS (artist)|KAWS]], featuring icons of pop culture, often with crossed-out eyes, run in limited editions and sell for thousands of dollars. World-renowned street artist [[Banksy]] directed a film in 2010, ''[[Exit Through the Gift Shop]]'', which explored street art and commercialism.+
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-== See also ==+
-* [[Anti-graffiti coating]]+
-* [[Graffiti abatement]]+
-* [[Graffiti terminology]]+
-* [[Kilroy was here]]+
-* [[Kotwica]]+
-* [[Spray paint art]]+
-* [[Stencil]]+
-* [[Street art]]+
-* [[Vandalism]]+
-* [[Visual pollution]]+
-* [[Yarn bombing]]+
-* [[Contemporary Art in Egypt|Graffiti post 2011 Egyptian Revolution]]+
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

ZEPHYR, born Andrew Witten, is a graffiti artist, lecturer and author from New York City. He began creating graffiti in 1975 and first signed using the name "Zephyr" in 1977. He is considered a graffiti "elder", who along with Futura 2000, Blade, PHASE 2, CASH, Lady Pink and TAKI 183 invented styles and standards which are still in use.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Zephyr (artist)" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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