Women in the workforce  

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 +Until modern industrialized times, legal and cultural practices, combined with the inertia of longstanding religious and educational traditions, have restricted women's entry and participation in the [[workforce]]. A traditional dependency upon menfolk, and consequently the poor [[socio-economic status]] of women have also restricted their entry into the [[workforce]]. Particularly as occupations have become [[professionalization|professionalized]] over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, women's meagre access to [[higher education]] has effectively excluded them from the practice of well-paid and high status occupations. Entry of women into the higher professions like [[law]] and [[medicine]] was delayed in most countries due to women being denied entry to universities and qualification for degrees. For example, [[Cambridge University]] only fully validated degrees for women late in 1947, and even then only after much opposition and acrimonious debate. Such factors have all conspired to confine women to low-paid and poor status occupations for most of the 19th and 20th centuries.
 +
 +Restrictions on women's access to and participation in the workforce include the [[wage gap]] and the [[glass ceiling]], inequities most identified with industrialized nations with nominal [[equal opportunity]] laws; legal and cultural restrictions on access to education and jobs, inequities most identified with developing nations; and unequal access to capital, variable but identified as a difficulty in both industrialized and developing nations.
 +
 +Although access to paying occupations (the "workforce") has been and remains unequal in many occupations and places around the world, scholars sometimes distinguish "work" from "paying work". Analyses distinguishing between unpaid work and paying work have led to the frequently cited slogan "Women do two-thirds of the world's work, receive 10 percent of the world's income, and own 1 percent of the means of production", which has come to capture the imbalance between work and remuneration faced by women. This analysis considers uncompensated household labor — for instance, childcare, eldercare, and family subsistence farming — as well as compensated work in the workforce.
 +
 +==See also==
 +*[[Feminisation of the workplace]]
 +*[[Rosie the Riveter]]
 +*[[Women's history]]
 +*[[Women's empowerment]]
 +*[[Women's rights]]
 +*[[Women's studies]]
 +*[[Gender studies]]
 +*[[Workplace discrimination]], [[Occupational sexism]], and [[Glass ceiling]]
 +*[[Labor history (discipline)|Labor history]]
 +*[[Educational Inequality]]
 +*[[Timeline of women's rights (other than voting)]]
 +*[[Motherhood penalty]]
 +*''[[Supervising Women Workers]]'' (short social guidance film)
 +*[[Western dress codes]]
 +
 +===Women's participation in different occupations===
 +Below is a list of encyclopedia articles that detail women's historical involvement in various occupations.
 +*Sciences – See generally [[Women in science]] and [[List of female scientists]]
 +**[[Women in computing]] (see also [[Women in the Information Age]] research project)
 +**[[Women in engineering]]
 +**[[Women in geology]]
 +**[[List of female mathematicians]]
 +*Medical professions – See generally [[Women in medicine]]
 +*Legal professions – See generally [[Women in the United States judiciary]]
 +:Although women comprise approximately half of the students enrolled in American law schools, they represent only 17% of partners at major law firms and less than a quarter of tenured law professors. Similarly, in the United States, there has been only one female attorney general, three female secretaries of state, two women Supreme Court justices, and one acting solicitor general.
 +*Arts, writing, media, sports and entertainment
 +**[[Women artists]] (visual arts)
 +**[[Women Surrealists]]
 +**Performing arts
 +***[[Vulcana Women's Circus]] (organization for women in the circus)
 +**Writing
 +***[[Women's writing in English]]
 +***[[Women in journalism and media professions]]
 +***[[List of female rhetoricians]]
 +***[[List of early-modern women playwrights (UK)]]
 +***[[List of female poets]]
 +**Film
 +***[[List of female film and television directors]]
 +***[[Women's cinema]] (discusses women screenwriters & directors)
 +**Music
 +***[[Female composers in the United States during the 20th century]]
 +***[[Women composers of Catholic music]]
 +***[[List of female composers]]
 +***[[List of female composers by name]]
 +***[[List of female film score composers]]
 +**Sports
 +***[[Women's professional sports]]
 +***[[Women's sports]] and browse [[:Category:Women's sports|the category]]
 +*Humanities
 +**[[Women in philosophy]] and [[List of female philosophers]]
 +*Crime: [[Women in piracy]]
 +*Government: [[Women in politics]]
 +*Military
 +**[[Women in the military]]
 +**[[Women in the military by country]], [[Women in the military in Europe|in Europe]], and [[Women in the military in the Americas|in the Americas]]
 +**[[History of women in the military]]; [[Timeline of women in ancient warfare]]; [[Timeline of Women in Medieval warfare]]
 +**[[List of women warriors in folklore, literature, and popular culture]]
 +**[[:Category:Female military personnel]]
 +**[[Women's Land Army]]
 +
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Until modern industrialized times, legal and cultural practices, combined with the inertia of longstanding religious and educational traditions, have restricted women's entry and participation in the workforce. A traditional dependency upon menfolk, and consequently the poor socio-economic status of women have also restricted their entry into the workforce. Particularly as occupations have become professionalized over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, women's meagre access to higher education has effectively excluded them from the practice of well-paid and high status occupations. Entry of women into the higher professions like law and medicine was delayed in most countries due to women being denied entry to universities and qualification for degrees. For example, Cambridge University only fully validated degrees for women late in 1947, and even then only after much opposition and acrimonious debate. Such factors have all conspired to confine women to low-paid and poor status occupations for most of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Restrictions on women's access to and participation in the workforce include the wage gap and the glass ceiling, inequities most identified with industrialized nations with nominal equal opportunity laws; legal and cultural restrictions on access to education and jobs, inequities most identified with developing nations; and unequal access to capital, variable but identified as a difficulty in both industrialized and developing nations.

Although access to paying occupations (the "workforce") has been and remains unequal in many occupations and places around the world, scholars sometimes distinguish "work" from "paying work". Analyses distinguishing between unpaid work and paying work have led to the frequently cited slogan "Women do two-thirds of the world's work, receive 10 percent of the world's income, and own 1 percent of the means of production", which has come to capture the imbalance between work and remuneration faced by women. This analysis considers uncompensated household labor — for instance, childcare, eldercare, and family subsistence farming — as well as compensated work in the workforce.

See also

Women's participation in different occupations

Below is a list of encyclopedia articles that detail women's historical involvement in various occupations.

Although women comprise approximately half of the students enrolled in American law schools, they represent only 17% of partners at major law firms and less than a quarter of tenured law professors. Similarly, in the United States, there has been only one female attorney general, three female secretaries of state, two women Supreme Court justices, and one acting solicitor general.




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