Women and children first  

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{{Template}} {{Template}}
-:''The act of [[expurgate|expurgating]], [[purge|purging]], or [[cleanse|cleansing]]; [[purification]] from anything [[noxious]], [[offensive]], [[sinful]], or [[erroneous]].'' 
-'''Expurgation''' is a form of [[censorship]] by way of purging anything deemed noxious or offensive, usually from an artistic work. It has also been called '''[[bowdlerization]]''', after [[Thomas Bowdler]], who in 1818 published an expurgated edition of [[William Shakespeare]]'s work that he considered to be more appropriate for [[women and children]]. He similarly edited [[Edward Gibbon]]'s ''[[Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire]]''.+"'''Women and children first'''" is a saying that implies that the lives of [[women]] and [[children]] are to be saved first if the lives of a group of people are at stake. The saying is most famously associated with the sinking of [[RMS Titanic|RMS ''Titanic'']] in 1912.
-== Examples ==+== History ==
-* In 1264, [[Clement IV]] ordered the [[Judaism|Jews]] of [[Aragon]] to submit their books to [[Dominican Order|Dominican]] censors for expurgation. +The practice arose from the [[chivalry|chivalrous]] actions of soldiers during sinking of [[HMS Birkenhead (1845)|HMS ''Birkenhead'']] in 1852, though the phrase was not coined until 1860. Although never part of international [[maritime law]], the phrase was popularised by its usage on the [[RMS Titanic|RMS ''Titanic'']], where, as a consequence of this practice, 74% of the women on board were saved and 52% of the children, but only 20% of the men.
-* The ''Private Memoirs'' of [[Kenelm Digby]] (1603–1665) were only published in 1828, in a bowdlerized form.+
-* [[Victor Hugo]]'s dramas were bowdlerized almost out of recognition in the 1845 English translations of [[Frederick Lokes Slous]] included in the 1877 ''Complete Works''. ''[[Le roi s'amuse|Le Roi s'amuse]]'', familiar in [[Verdi]]'s operatic treatment ''[[Rigoletto]]'', was furnished with a happy ending: there is no hint of Blanche/Gilda being deflowered, rather, she comes within a hairbreadth of touching her lips to a glass of wine which contains the poison that Saltabadil/Sparafucile prefers to his usual instrument in this version. ''[[Lucrezia Borgia]]'' is similarly altered.+
-* ''[[Fanny Hill]]'' (1748) was [[self-censored]] by author [[John Cleland]] in a 1750 edition. A modern edition was banned in the United States until ''[[Memoirs v. Massachusetts]]'' overturned the ban in 1966.+
-* ''[[Justine (Sade)|Justine]]'' (1791, also known as ''The Misfortunes of Virtue'') by the [[Marquis de Sade]] was not completely translated into English until 1953 by [[Austryn Wainhouse]].+
-* Several themes in the play ''[[Cat on a Hot Tin Roof]]'' were toned down in the 1958 [[Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (film)|film of the same name]], resulting in the playwright [[Tennessee Williams]] advising people to not view the film.+
-*''[[Lysistrata]]'', by [[Aristophanes]], was bowdlerized in all English translations before 1960.+
-* In 1986, to mark the centenary of [[Hugh Lofting]]'s birth, new editions of his ''[[Doctor Dolittle]]'' stories were published, in which derogatory terms and images for certain ethnic groups were removed.+
 +Unfortunately, some officers on the ''Titanic'' misinterpreted the order from Captain Smith, and tried to prevent men from boarding the lifeboats.{{Citation needed|date=September 2009}} It was intended that women and children would board first, with any remaining free spaces for men. Because so few men were saved on the ''Titanic'', the men who did survive were initially branded as cowards, including [[J. Bruce Ismay]].
-== See also ==+== Criticism ==
-*'''Unexpurgated''' can be compared to [[uncut]] in the cinematic realm.+Some analysts such as Dr Carey Roberts and Dr David Benatar have viewed the policy of "women and children first" (and [[conscription]]) as evidence of what [[Warren Farrell]] refers to as "male disposability," where preservation of a woman's life is given priority over preservation of a man's life. Further, this policy, particularly as applied to incidents like the sinking of the Titanic, resulted in high numbers of widows or orphans who might then face economic and social difficulty.
-*[[Bowdlerization]]{{GFDL}}+ 
 + 
 +{{GFDL}}

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

"Women and children first" is a saying that implies that the lives of women and children are to be saved first if the lives of a group of people are at stake. The saying is most famously associated with the sinking of RMS Titanic in 1912.

History

The practice arose from the chivalrous actions of soldiers during sinking of HMS Birkenhead in 1852, though the phrase was not coined until 1860. Although never part of international maritime law, the phrase was popularised by its usage on the RMS Titanic, where, as a consequence of this practice, 74% of the women on board were saved and 52% of the children, but only 20% of the men.

Unfortunately, some officers on the Titanic misinterpreted the order from Captain Smith, and tried to prevent men from boarding the lifeboats.Template:Citation needed It was intended that women and children would board first, with any remaining free spaces for men. Because so few men were saved on the Titanic, the men who did survive were initially branded as cowards, including J. Bruce Ismay.

Criticism

Some analysts such as Dr Carey Roberts and Dr David Benatar have viewed the policy of "women and children first" (and conscription) as evidence of what Warren Farrell refers to as "male disposability," where preservation of a woman's life is given priority over preservation of a man's life. Further, this policy, particularly as applied to incidents like the sinking of the Titanic, resulted in high numbers of widows or orphans who might then face economic and social difficulty.





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