Stimulus (physiology)  

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-'''Stimulation''' is the action of various agents ([[Stimulus (physiology)|stimuli]]) on [[muscle]]s, [[nerve]]s, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous [[impulse]] produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state of activity.+In [[physiology]], a '''stimulus''' (plural '''stimuli''') is a detectable change in the internal or external [[Environment (systems)|environment]]. The ability of an [[organism]] or [[Organ (anatomy)|organ]] to respond to external stimuli is called '''sensitivity'''. When a '''stimulus''' is applied to a [[sensory receptor]], it normally elicits or influences a [[Reflex action|reflex]] via [[Transduction (physiology)|stimulus transduction]]. These sensory receptors can receive information from outside the body, as in touch receptors found in the skin or light receptors in the eye, as well as from inside the body, as in [[chemoreceptors]] and [[mechanoreceptors|mechanorceptors]]. An internal stimulus is often the first component of a [[Homeostasis|homeostatic control system]]. External stimuli are capable of producing systemic responses throughout the body, as in the [[fight-or-flight response]]. In order for a stimulus to be detected with high probability, its level must exceed the [[absolute threshold]]; if a signal does reach threshold, the information is transmitted to the [[central nervous system]] (CNS), where it is integrated and a decision on how to react is made. Although stimuli commonly cause the body to respond, it is the CNS that finally determines whether a signal causes a reaction or not.
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-The word is also often used [[metaphor]]ically. For example, an interesting or fun activity can be described as "stimulating," regardless of its physical effects on nerves. 
==See also== ==See also==
-* [[Psychomotor agitation]]+* [[Stimulation]]
-* [[Stimulus (physiology)]]+* [[Stimulus (psychology)]]
-* [[Stimming]]+ 
-* [[Irritation]]+
-* [[Hypoadrenia]]+
-* [[Stress (medicine)|Stress]]+
-* [[Stress management]]+
-* [[Sexual stimulation]]+
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In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity. When a stimulus is applied to a sensory receptor, it normally elicits or influences a reflex via stimulus transduction. These sensory receptors can receive information from outside the body, as in touch receptors found in the skin or light receptors in the eye, as well as from inside the body, as in chemoreceptors and mechanorceptors. An internal stimulus is often the first component of a homeostatic control system. External stimuli are capable of producing systemic responses throughout the body, as in the fight-or-flight response. In order for a stimulus to be detected with high probability, its level must exceed the absolute threshold; if a signal does reach threshold, the information is transmitted to the central nervous system (CNS), where it is integrated and a decision on how to react is made. Although stimuli commonly cause the body to respond, it is the CNS that finally determines whether a signal causes a reaction or not.


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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Stimulus (physiology)" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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