Sociality  

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-{{Template}}+[[Image:Jean-Leon Gerome Pollice Verso.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''[[Pollice Verso (Gérôme)|Pollice Verso]]'' (1872) by Jean-Léon Gérôme]]{{Template}}
-In [[sociology]], media '''social system''' is the patterned network of relationships constituting a coherent whole that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions.+'''Sociality''' is the degree to which individuals in an [[animal]] [[population]] tend to associate in [[social group]]s ('''gregariousness''') and form cooperative [[societies]].
-In sociological systems theory there is a controversy what kind of structural elements a social system consists of. For [[Talcott Parsons]] it is [[Instrumental action|actions]], while [[Niklas Luhmann]] considers communication processes which constitute a social system. Though communication is also an action (e.g. speech acts) and on the surface this seems to be a discussion about terms only, the selection of basic terms has theoretical and empirical consequences.+Sociality is a survival response to [[evolutionary pressure]]s. For example, when a mother [[wasp]] stays near her [[larva]]e in the nest, [[parasite]]s are less likely to eat the larvae. Biologists suspect that pressures from parasites and other [[predator]]s [[Natural selection|selected]] this behavior in wasps of the [[Family (biology)|family]] [[Vespidae]].
-== See also ==+
-* [[Economic system]]+
-* [[Open and closed systems in social science|Open and closed systems (social science)]]+
-* [[Political system]]+
-* [[Social network]]+
-* [[Social web]]+
-*[[Social rule system theory]]+
-* [[Systems psychology]]+
-* [[Systems theory in anthropology]]+
 +This wasp behaviour evidences the most fundamental characteristic of animal sociality: [[parental investment]]. Parental investment is any expenditure of [[resource]]s (time, energy, [[social capital]]) to benefit one's [[offspring]]. Parental investment detracts from a parent's capacity to invest in future reproduction and aid to [[Family|kin]] (including other offspring). An animal that cares for its young but shows no other sociality traits is said to be ''subsocial''.
 +
 +An animal that exhibits a high degree of sociality is called a ''social animal''. The highest degree of sociality recognized by sociobiologists is ''[[eusociality]]''. A eusocial [[taxon]] is one that exhibits [[Overlapping generations|overlapping adult generations]], [[Reproduction|reproductive]] [[division of labor]], cooperative care of young, and—in the most refined cases—a biological [[caste system]].
 +=== Human sociality ===
 +For issues of human sociality, see ''[[society]]''.
 +
 +== See also ==
 +:''[[termite]], [[human]], [[ape]]''
 +* [[Collectivism]]
 +* [[Dominance hierarchy]]
 +* [[Group cohesiveness]]
 +* [[Group selection]]
 +* [[Individualism]]
 +* [[Interdependence]]
 +* [[Nesting instinct]]
 +* [[Prosocial behavior]]
 +* [[Reciprocal altruism]]
 +* [[Social behavior]]
 +* [[Stigmergy]]
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Pollice Verso (1872) by Jean-Léon Gérôme
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Pollice Verso (1872) by Jean-Léon Gérôme

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.

Sociality is a survival response to evolutionary pressures. For example, when a mother wasp stays near her larvae in the nest, parasites are less likely to eat the larvae. Biologists suspect that pressures from parasites and other predators selected this behavior in wasps of the family Vespidae.

This wasp behaviour evidences the most fundamental characteristic of animal sociality: parental investment. Parental investment is any expenditure of resources (time, energy, social capital) to benefit one's offspring. Parental investment detracts from a parent's capacity to invest in future reproduction and aid to kin (including other offspring). An animal that cares for its young but shows no other sociality traits is said to be subsocial.

An animal that exhibits a high degree of sociality is called a social animal. The highest degree of sociality recognized by sociobiologists is eusociality. A eusocial taxon is one that exhibits overlapping adult generations, reproductive division of labor, cooperative care of young, and—in the most refined cases—a biological caste system.

Human sociality

For issues of human sociality, see society.

See also

termite, human, ape




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