Sociality  

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-{{Template}}+[[Image:Jean-Leon Gerome Pollice Verso.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''[[Pollice Verso (Gérôme)|Pollice Verso]]'' (1872) by Jean-Léon Gérôme]]{{Template}}
-{{GFDL}} +'''Sociality''' is the degree to which individuals in an [[animal]] [[population]] tend to associate in [[social group]]s ('''gregariousness''') and form cooperative [[societies]].
-#REDIRECT [[Social]]+ 
 +Sociality is a survival response to [[evolutionary pressure]]s. For example, when a mother [[wasp]] stays near her [[larva]]e in the nest, [[parasite]]s are less likely to eat the larvae. Biologists suspect that pressures from parasites and other [[predator]]s [[Natural selection|selected]] this behavior in wasps of the [[Family (biology)|family]] [[Vespidae]].
 + 
 +This wasp behaviour evidences the most fundamental characteristic of animal sociality: [[parental investment]]. Parental investment is any expenditure of [[resource]]s (time, energy, [[social capital]]) to benefit one's [[offspring]]. Parental investment detracts from a parent's capacity to invest in future reproduction and aid to [[Family|kin]] (including other offspring). An animal that cares for its young but shows no other sociality traits is said to be ''subsocial''.
 + 
 +An animal that exhibits a high degree of sociality is called a ''social animal''. The highest degree of sociality recognized by sociobiologists is ''[[eusociality]]''. A eusocial [[taxon]] is one that exhibits [[Overlapping generations|overlapping adult generations]], [[Reproduction|reproductive]] [[division of labor]], cooperative care of young, and—in the most refined cases—a biological [[caste system]].
 +=== Human sociality ===
 +For issues of human sociality, see ''[[society]]''.
 + 
 +== See also ==
 +:''[[termite]], [[human]], [[ape]]''
 +* [[Collectivism]]
 +* [[Dominance hierarchy]]
 +* [[Group cohesiveness]]
 +* [[Group selection]]
 +* [[Individualism]]
 +* [[Interdependence]]
 +* [[Nesting instinct]]
 +* [[Prosocial behavior]]
 +* [[Reciprocal altruism]]
 +* [[Social behavior]]
 +* [[Stigmergy]]
 +{{GFDL}}

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Pollice Verso (1872) by Jean-Léon Gérôme
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Pollice Verso (1872) by Jean-Léon Gérôme

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.

Sociality is a survival response to evolutionary pressures. For example, when a mother wasp stays near her larvae in the nest, parasites are less likely to eat the larvae. Biologists suspect that pressures from parasites and other predators selected this behavior in wasps of the family Vespidae.

This wasp behaviour evidences the most fundamental characteristic of animal sociality: parental investment. Parental investment is any expenditure of resources (time, energy, social capital) to benefit one's offspring. Parental investment detracts from a parent's capacity to invest in future reproduction and aid to kin (including other offspring). An animal that cares for its young but shows no other sociality traits is said to be subsocial.

An animal that exhibits a high degree of sociality is called a social animal. The highest degree of sociality recognized by sociobiologists is eusociality. A eusocial taxon is one that exhibits overlapping adult generations, reproductive division of labor, cooperative care of young, and—in the most refined cases—a biological caste system.

Human sociality

For issues of human sociality, see society.

See also

termite, human, ape




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