Social revolution  

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 +[[Image:Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le peuple.jpg|thumb|200px|This page '''{{PAGENAME}}''' is part of the [[politics]] series.<br><small>Illustration:''[[Liberty Leading the People]]'' (1831, detail) by [[Eugène Delacroix]].</small>]]
{{Template}} {{Template}}
-:"A [[Late 20th century]] development, a shift from [[industrial society|industrial]] to [[service economy]]) that took place since [[1950s]] and [[1960]]s, with a peak in the [[Social Revolution]] of [[1968]] — are described with the term ''[[postmodernity]]''."+:''[[Counterculture of the 1960s]]''
 +The term '''social revolution''' may have different connotations depending on the speaker.
-'''Postmodernity''' (also spelled '''post-modernity''' or the pejorative '''postmodern condition''') may be used to describe the present social, cultural, and economical state, using the term of the art movement, or [[cultural movement]], of [[postmodernism]] and its implication of a certain reaction to a perceived failure of the movement [[modernism]] ([[i.e.]], [[structuralism]], optimism, progressiveness, and creativity) and the shocking events perceivingly ending [[modernity]], especially the mass killings of [[Auschwitz]] and [[Nagasaki]], which were both a horrible contradiction of modern values. The time period would cover the time since the [[Second World War]], with a peak in the 1960s with their [[decolonization]] and [[Social Revolution]]s. Still, postmodernity does not yet have a simple, general definition on its own account. This distinction (postmodernism/postmodernist and postmodernity/postmodern) is not made by the [[Encyclopaedia Britannica]], and is debatable; eg. "postmodern" art would refer to the movement.+In the [[Trotskyism|Trotskyist]] movement, the term "social revolution" refers to an upheaval in which existing property relations are smashed. Examples include the [[October Revolution]] in Russia in 1917 and the [[Cuban Revolution]], as both caused capitalist (and in some cases pre-capitalist) property relations to turn into post-capitalist property relations as they operated by plan rather than by market. Social revolutions are contrasted with purely [[political revolution]]s in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. Social revolutions do not imply necessarily that the working class as a whole has control over the production and distribution of capital and goods - in countries such as Cuba this is done by a caste in the form of the Cuban Communist Party - they just mean that the market is no longer used, and that the capitalist class has been expropriated.
-The term is used by philosophers, social scientists, and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary culture, economics and society that are the result of the unique features of late [[20th century]] and early [[21st century]] life. These features include the fragmentation of authority, and the [[commoditization]] of knowledge (''see'' "[[Modernity]]").+In [[libertarian socialism|libertarian socialist]] and [[anarchism|anarchist]] parlance, a "social revolution" is a bottom-up, as opposed to vanguard-led or purely political, revolution aiming to reorganize all of society. In the words of [[Peter Kropotkin]], "social revolution means the reorganization of the industrial, economic life of the country and consequently also of the entire structure of society."
-== History ==+
- +
-Postmodernity has been said to have gone through two relatively distinct phases: the first phase beginning in the 1950s and running through the end of the [[Cold War]], where analog dissemination of information produced sharp limits on the width of channels, and encouraged a few authoritative media channels, and the second beginning with the explosion of cable television, internetworking and the end of the Cold War and the expansion of "new media" based on [[digital]] means of information dissemination and broadcast.+
- +
-The first phase of postmodernity overlaps the end of [[modernity]] and is regarded by many as being part of the modern period (see [[lumpers/splitters]], [[periodization]]). In this period there was the rise of television as the primary news source, the decreasing importance of manufacturing in the economies of Western Europe and the United States, the increase of trade volumes within the developed core. In 1967-1969 a crucial cultural explosion took place within the developed world as the [[baby boom]] generation, which had grown up with postmodernity as their fundamental experience of society, demanded entrance into the political, cultural and educational power structure. A series of demonstrations and acts of rebellion - ranging from nonviolent and cultural, through violent acts of terrorism - represented the opposition of the young to the policies and perspectives of the previous age. Central to this was opposition to the [[Algerian War]] and the [[Vietnam War]]; to laws allowing or encouraging racial segregation; and to laws which overtly discriminated against women, and restricted access to [[divorce]]. The era was marked by an upswing in visible use of [[cannabis (drug)|marijuana]] and [[hallucinogens]] and the emergence of pop cultural styles of music and drama, including [[Rock and roll|rock music]]. The ubiquity of [[stereo]], television and [[radio]] helped make these changes visible to the broader cultural context.+
- +
-This period is associated with the work of [[Marshall McLuhan]], a philosopher who focused on the results of living in a media culture, and argued that participation in a mass media culture both overshadows actual content disseminated, and is liberating because it loosens the authority of local social normative standards. +
- +
-The second phase of postmodernity is visible by the increasing power of personal and [[digital]] means of communication, including fax machines, modems, cable, and eventually high speed internet. This led to the creation of the [[new economy]], whose supporters argued that the dramatic fall in information costs would alter society fundamentally. The simplest demarcation point is the collapse of the [[Soviet Union]], and the liberalisation of China. For a period of time it was believed that this change ended the need for an overarching social order, which was called "The End of History" by [[Francis Fukuyama]]. However, such predictions, in light of subsequent events, now are seen by many as extremely naive. Internetworking in particular has altered the condition of postmodernity dramatically: digital production of information allows individuals to manipulate virtually every aspect of the media environment, from the [[source code]] of their computers, to the [[wikipedia]] project itself. This condition of [[digitality]] has brought producers of [[content]] in conflict with consumers over [[intellectual capital]] and [[intellectual property]].+
- +
-In the 1990s a debate grew as to whether the present was a "high modernity" or whether postmodernity should be regarded separately. In general those who believe that postmodernity is a separate condition acknowledge a transition where postmodernity, sometimes hyphenated, is an extension of modernity.+
- +
-In this period it began to be argued that [[digitality]], or what [[Esther Dyson]] referred to as "being digital", had emerged as a separate condition from postmodernity. Those holding this position argued that the ability to manipulate items of popular culture, the world wide web, the use of search engines to index knowledge, and telecommunications were producing a "convergence", which would be marked by the rise of "participatory culture" in the words of [[Henry Jenkins]] and the use of [[media appliances]], such as Apple's [[iPod]].+
 +More generally, the term "social revolution" may be used to refer to a massive change in society, for instance the [[French Revolution]], the [[American Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)|American Civil Rights Movement]] and the 1960 [[hippie]] or [[Counterculture of the 1960s|counterculture]] reformation on [[religious belief]], [[personal identity]], [[freedom of speech]], music and [[arts]], [[fashion]], [[alternative technology]] or [[environmentalism]] and decentralised media.
 +==See also==
 +* [[Spanish Revolution]]
 +* [[Paris commune]]
 +* [[Dictatorship of the proletariat]]
 +* [[Hippies]]
 +* [[Industrial Revolution|The Industrial Revolution]]
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This page Social revolution is part of the politics series.Illustration:Liberty Leading the People (1831, detail) by Eugène Delacroix.
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This page Social revolution is part of the politics series.
Illustration:Liberty Leading the People (1831, detail) by Eugène Delacroix.

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The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker.

In the Trotskyist movement, the term "social revolution" refers to an upheaval in which existing property relations are smashed. Examples include the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 and the Cuban Revolution, as both caused capitalist (and in some cases pre-capitalist) property relations to turn into post-capitalist property relations as they operated by plan rather than by market. Social revolutions are contrasted with purely political revolutions in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. Social revolutions do not imply necessarily that the working class as a whole has control over the production and distribution of capital and goods - in countries such as Cuba this is done by a caste in the form of the Cuban Communist Party - they just mean that the market is no longer used, and that the capitalist class has been expropriated.

In libertarian socialist and anarchist parlance, a "social revolution" is a bottom-up, as opposed to vanguard-led or purely political, revolution aiming to reorganize all of society. In the words of Peter Kropotkin, "social revolution means the reorganization of the industrial, economic life of the country and consequently also of the entire structure of society."

More generally, the term "social revolution" may be used to refer to a massive change in society, for instance the French Revolution, the American Civil Rights Movement and the 1960 hippie or counterculture reformation on religious belief, personal identity, freedom of speech, music and arts, fashion, alternative technology or environmentalism and decentralised media.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Social revolution" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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