Seljuk Empire  

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-The '''Seljuk Empire''' ({{lang-fa|آل سلجوق|translit=Āl-e Saljuq|lit=House of Saljuq}}) or '''Great Seljuq Empire'''<ref>+The '''Seljuk Empire''' was a [[medieval]] [[Turko-Persian tradition|Turko-Persian]] [[Sunni Islam|Sunni Muslim]] [[empire]], originating from the [[Kınık (tribe)|Qiniq]] branch of [[Oghuz Turks]].
-* A. C. S. Peacock, ''Great Seljuk Empire'', (Edinburgh University Press, 2015), 1–378+
-* Christian Lange; Songül Mecit, eds., ''Seljuqs: Politics, Society and Culture'' (Edinburgh University Press, 2012), 1–328+
-* P.M. Holt; Ann K.S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis, ''The Cambridge History of Islam (Volume IA): The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War'', (Cambridge University Press, 1977), 151, 231–234</ref>{{efn|In order to distinguish from the [[Anatolia]]n branch of the family, the [[Sultanate of Rum]].{{sfn|Mecit|2014|page=128}}{{sfn|Peacock|Yıldız|2013|page=6}}}} was a [[medieval]] [[Turko-Persian tradition|Turko-Persian]]<ref>* "Aḥmad of Niǧde's ''al-Walad al-Shafīq'' and the Seljuk Past", A. C. S. Peacock, ''Anatolian Studies'', Vol. 54, (2004), 97; "With the growth of Seljuk power in Rum, a more highly developed Muslim cultural life, based on the ''Persianate culture'' of the Seljuk court, was able to take root in Anatolia."+
-* Meisami, Julie Scott, ''Persian Historiography to the End of the Twelfth Century'', (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143; "Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model&nbsp;k..."+
-* ''[[Encyclopaedia Iranica]]'', "[http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/sahrbanu Šahrbānu]", Online Edition: "here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkmen heroes or Muslim saints&nbsp;..."+
-* [[Josef W. Meri]], ''Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia'', Routledge, 2005, p. 399+
-* [[Michael Mandelbaum]], ''Central Asia and the World'', [[Council on Foreign Relations]] (May 1994), p. 79+
-* Jonathan Dewald, ''Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World'', Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24: "Turcoman armies coming from the East had driven the Byzantines out of much of Asia Minor and established the Persianized sultanate of the Seljuks."+
-* [[Grousset, Rene]], ''The Empire of the Steppes'', (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161, 164; "renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran." "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."+
-* Wendy M. K. Shaw, ''Possessors and possessed: museums, archaeology, and the visualization of history in the late Ottoman Empire''. University of California Press, 2003, {{ISBN|0-520-23335-2}}, {{ISBN|978-0-520-23335-5}}; p. 5.</ref> [[Sunni Islam|Sunni Muslim]] [[empire]], originating from the [[Kınık (tribe)|Qiniq]] branch of [[Oghuz Turks]].<ref>* {{cite journal |last=Jackson |first=P. |year=2002 |title=Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens |journal=Journal of Islamic Studies |volume=13 |issue=1 |pages=75–76 |doi=10.1093/jis/13.1.75 |publisher=[[Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies]] }}+
-* Bosworth, C. E. (2001). 0Notes on Some Turkish Names in Abu 'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-i Mas'udi". ''Oriens'', Vol. 36, 2001 (2001), pp. 299–313.+
-* Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). ''History of Civilizations of Central Asia''. [[Motilal Banarsidass Publishers]] (Pvt. Ltd).+
-* [[Ian Hancock|Hancock, I.]] (2006). ''On Romani origins and identity''. The Romani Archives and Documentation Center. [[The University of Texas at Austin]].+
-* Asimov, M. S., Bosworth, C. E. (eds.). (1998). ''History of Civilizations of Central Asia'', Vol. IV: "The Age of Achievement: AD 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century", Part One: "The Historical, Social and Economic Setting". Multiple History Series. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.+
-* Dani, A. H., Masson, V. M. (Eds), Asimova, M. S. (Eds), Litvinsky, B. A. (Eds), Boaworth, C. E. (Eds). (1999). ''History of Civilizations of Central Asia''. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Ltd).</ref> The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the [[Hindu Kush]] to western [[Anatolia]] and the [[Levant]], and from [[Central Asia]] to the [[Persian Gulf]]. The Seljuk empire was founded by [[Tughril Beg]] (1016–1063) in 1037. From their homelands near the [[Aral Sea]], the Seljuks advanced first into [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasan]] and then into mainland [[Persia]], before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the [[battle of Manzikert]] in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the [[Byzantine Empire]], which became one of the reasons for the [[first crusade]] (1095-1099). From c. 1150-1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was around 1260 invaded by the [[Mongol Empire|Mongols]]. The Mongols divided Anatolia into [[emirate]]s. Eventually one of these, the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]], would conquer the rest.+
-Seljuk gave his name to both the Seljuk empire and the [[Seljuk dynasty]]. The Seljuks united the fractured political scene of the eastern [[Islamic world]] and played a key role in the first and [[Second Crusade|second]] crusades. Highly [[Persianized]] the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the [[Turko-Persian tradition]],<ref>"The [[Turko-Persian tradition]] features Persian culture patronized by Turkic rulers." See Daniel Pipes: "The Event of Our Era: Former Soviet Muslim Republics Change the Middle East" in Michael Mandelbaum, "Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkemenistan and the World", Council on Foreign Relations, p. 79. Exact statement: "In Short, the Turko-Persian tradition featured Persian culture patronized by Turcophone rulers."</ref> even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia.<ref>Grousset, Rene, ''The Empire of the Steppes'', (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 574.</ref><ref>Bingham, Woodbridge, Hilary Conroy and Frank William Iklé, ''History of Asia'', Vol.1, (Allyn and Bacon, 1964), 98.</ref> The settlement of Turkic tribes in the northwestern peripheral parts of the empire, for the strategic military purpose of fending off invasions from neighboring states, led to the progressive [[Turkicization]] of those areas.<ref>*''An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples'' (Peter B. Golden. Otto Harrasowitz, 1992). pg 386: "Turkic penetration probably began in the Hunnic era and its aftermath. Steady pressure from Turkic nomads was typical of the Khazar era, although there are no unambiguous references to permanent settlements. These most certainly occurred with the arrival of the Oguz in the 11th century. The Turkicization of much of Azarbayjan, according to Soviet scholars, was completed largely during the Ilxanid period if not by late Seljuk times. Sumer, placing a slightly different emphasis on the data (more correct in my view), posts three periods which Turkicization took place: Seljuk, Mongol and Post-Mongol (Qara Qoyunlu, Aq Qoyunlu and Safavid). In the first two, Oguz Turkic tribes advanced or were driven to the western frontiers (Anatolia) and Northern Azarbaijan (Arran, the Mugan steppe). In the last period, the Turkic elements in Iran (derived from Oguz, with lesser admixture of Uygur, Qipchaq, Qaluq and other Turks brought to Iran during the Chinggisid era, as well as Turkicized Mongols) were joined now by Anatolian Turks migrating back to Iran. This marked the final stage of Turkicization. Although there is some evidence for the presence of Qipchaqs among the Turkic tribes coming to this region, there is little doubt that the critical mass which brought about this linguistic shift was provided by the same Oguz-Turkmen tribes that had come to Anatolia. The Azeris of today are an overwhelmingly sedentary, detribalized people. Anthropologically, they are little distinguished from the Iranian neighbors."+The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the [[Hindu Kush]] to western [[Anatolia]] and the [[Levant]], and from [[Central Asia]] to the [[Persian Gulf]]. The Seljuk empire was founded by [[Tughril Beg]] (1016–1063) in 1037. From their homelands near the [[Aral Sea]], the Seljuks advanced first into [[Greater Khorasan|Khorasan]] and then into mainland [[Persia]], before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the [[battle of Manzikert]] in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the [[Byzantine Empire]], which became one of the reasons for the [[first crusade]] (1095-1099). From c. 1150-1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was around 1260 invaded by the [[Mongol Empire|Mongols]]. The Mongols divided Anatolia into [[emirate]]s. Eventually one of these, the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]], would conquer the rest.
-* John Perry: "We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the language map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids and Seljuks onward were already Iranized and patronized Persian literature in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the influx of massive Turkish-speaking populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol armies) and their settlement in large areas of Iran (particularly in Azerbaijan and the northwest), progressively turkicized local speakers of Persian, Kurdish and other Iranian languages"+
-(John Perry. "The Historical Role of Turkish in Relation to Persian of Iran". ''Iran & the Caucasus'', Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200.)+
-* According to C.E. Bosworth:+
-"The eastern Caucasus came under Saljuq control in the middle years of the 5th/11th century, and in c. 468/1075-56 Sultan Alp Arslān sent his slave commander ʿEmād-al-dīn Savtigin as governor of Azerbaijan and Arrān, displacing the last Shaddadids. From this period begins the increasing Turkicization of Arrān, under the Saljuqs and then under the line of Eldigüzid or Ildeñizid Atabegs, who had to defend eastern Transcaucasia against the attacks of the resurgent Georgian kings. The influx of Oghuz and other Türkmens was accentuated by the Mongol invasions. Bardaʿa had never revived fully after the Rūs sacking, and is little mentioned in the sources."+
-(C.E. Bsowrth, Arran in ''Encyclopædia Iranica'')+
-* According to Fridrik Thordarson:+
-"Iranian influence on Caucasian languages. There is general agreement that Iranian languages predominated in Azerbaijan from the 1st millennium b.c. until the advent of the Turks in a.d. the 11th century (see Menges, pp. 41–42; Camb. Hist. Iran IV, pp. 226–228, and VI, pp. 950–952). The process of Turkicization was essentially complete by the beginning of the 16th century, and today Iranian languages are spoken in only a few scattered settlements in the area."</ref>+
 +Seljuk gave his name to both the Seljuk empire and the [[Seljuk dynasty]]. The Seljuks united the fractured political scene of the eastern [[Islamic world]] and played a key role in the first and [[Second Crusade|second]] crusades.
== See also == == See also ==
* [[Artuqid]] * [[Artuqid]]

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The Seljuk Empire was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

The Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to western Anatolia and the Levant, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf. The Seljuk empire was founded by Tughril Beg (1016–1063) in 1037. From their homelands near the Aral Sea, the Seljuks advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia, before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Here the Seljuks won the battle of Manzikert in 1071 and conquered most of Anatolia from the Byzantine Empire, which became one of the reasons for the first crusade (1095-1099). From c. 1150-1250, the Seljuk empire declined, and was around 1260 invaded by the Mongols. The Mongols divided Anatolia into emirates. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would conquer the rest.

Seljuk gave his name to both the Seljuk empire and the Seljuk dynasty. The Seljuks united the fractured political scene of the eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades.

See also




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