Philosophy of language  

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-{{Template}}'''Philosophy of language''' is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of [[language]]. As a topic, the philosophy of language for [[Analytic philosophy|Analytic Philosopher]]s is concerned with four central problems: the nature of [[Meaning (linguistic)|meaning]], language use, language cognition, and the relationship between language and [[reality]]. For [[Continental philosophy|Continental philosopher]]s, however, the philosophy of language tends to be dealt with, not as a separate topic, but as a part of [[Logic]], [[History]] or [[Politics]]. +{{Template}}
 +'''Philosophy of language''' is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of [[language]]. As a topic, the philosophy of language for [[Analytic philosophy|Analytic Philosopher]]s is concerned with four central problems: the nature of [[Meaning (linguistic)|meaning]], language use, language cognition, and the relationship between language and [[reality]]. For [[Continental philosophy|Continental philosopher]]s, however, the philosophy of language tends to be dealt with, not as a separate topic, but as a part of [[Logic]], [[History]] or [[Politics]].
 +== History ==
 +:''[[History of linguistics]]''
 + 
 +===Antiquity===
 +Linguistic speculation in [[Indian subcontinent|India]] is attested since the [[Vedic period]] ([[Indian Iron Age|Iron Age]]), beginning with the deification of ''[[vāk]]'' "speech" and the role of language (utterance, [[shabda]]) in [[Kalpa (ritual)|ritual]]. [[Vyākaraṇa|Sanskrit grammatical tradition]] gives rise to linguistic philosophy beginning in the final centuries BC and early centuries AD, notably in the philosophical schools of [[Nyaya]] and [[Mimamsa]].
 + 
 +In the West, inquiry into language stretches back to the 5th century BC with [[Socrates]], [[Plato]], [[Aristotle]], and the [[Stoicism|Stoics]]. Both in India and in Greece, linguistic speculation predates the emergence of [[grammar|grammatical traditions]] of systematic description of language, which emerged around the 5th century BC in India (see [[Yāska]]), and around the 3rd century BC in Greece (see [[Rhianus]]).
 + 
 +In the dialogue ''[[Cratylus (dialogue)|Cratylus]]'', Plato considered the question of whether the names of things were determined by convention or by nature. He criticized [[conventionalism]] because it led to the bizarre consequence that anything can be conventionally denominated by any name. Hence, it cannot account for the correct or incorrect application of a name. He claimed that there was a natural correctness to names. To do this, he pointed out that [[compound words]] and phrases have a range of correctness. He also argued that primitive names had a natural correctness, because each [[phoneme]] represented basic ideas or sentiments. For example, for Plato the letter ''l'' and its sound represented the idea of softness. However, by the end of the ''Cratylus'', he had admitted that some social conventions were also involved, and that there were faults in the idea that phonemes had individual meanings.
 + 
 +Aristotle concerned himself with the issues of [[logic]], categories, and meaning creation. He separated all things into categories of [[species]] and [[genus]]. He thought that the meaning of a [[Predicate (grammar)|predicate]] was established through an abstraction of the similarities between various individual things. This theory later came to be called ''nominalism''. However, since Aristotle took these similarities to be constituted by a real commonality of form, he is more often considered a proponent of "moderate realism".
 + 
 +The [[Stoicism|Stoic]] philosophers made important contributions to the analysis of grammar, distinguishing five parts of speech: nouns, verbs, appellatives (names or [[epithet]]s), [[conjunctions]] and [[Article (grammar)|articles]]. They also developed a sophisticated doctrine of the ''lektón'' associated with each sign of a language, but distinct from both the sign itself and the thing to which it refers. This ''lektón'' was the meaning (or sense) of every term. The ''lektón'' of a sentence is what we would now call its [[proposition]]. Only propositions were considered "[[truth-bearer]]s" or "truth-vehicles" (i.e., they could be called true or false) while sentences were simply their vehicles of expression. Different ''lektá'' could also express things besides propositions, such as commands, questions and exclamations.
 + 
 +===Middle Ages===
 +Medieval philosophers were greatly interested in the subtleties of language and its usage. For many [[Scholasticism|scholastics]], this interest was provoked by the necessity of translating [[Greek language|Greek]] texts into [[Latin]]. There were several noteworthy philosophers of language in the medieval period. According to Peter J. King, (although this has been disputed), [[Peter Abelard]] anticipated the modern ideas of ''[[sense and reference]]''. Also, [[William of Ockham]]'s ''[[Sum of Logic|Summa Logicae]]'' brought forward one of the first serious proposals for codifying a mental language.
 + 
 +The scholastics of the high medieval period, such as Ockham and [[John Duns Scotus]], considered logic to be a ''scientia sermocinalis'' (science of language). The result of their studies was the elaboration of linguistic-philosophical notions whose complexity and subtlety has only recently come to be appreciated. Many of the most interesting problems of modern philosophy of language were anticipated by medieval thinkers. The phenomena of vagueness and ambiguity were analyzed intensely, and this led to an increasing interest in problems related to the use of ''syncategorematic'' words such as ''and'', ''or'', ''not'', ''if'', and ''every''. The study of ''categorematic'' words (or ''terms'') and their properties was also developed greatly. One of the major developments of the scholastics in this area was the doctrine of the ''suppositio''. The suppositio of a term is the interpretation that is given of it in a specific context. It can be ''proper'' or ''improper'' (as when it is used in [[metaphor]], [[metonym]]s and other figures of speech). A proper suppositio, in turn, can be either formal or material accordingly when it refers to its usual non-linguistic referent (as in "Charles is a man"), or to itself as a linguistic entity (as in "''Charles'' has seven letters"). Such a classification scheme is the precursor of modern distinctions between [[use–mention distinction|use and mention]], and between language and metalanguage.
 + 
 +There is a tradition called speculative grammar which existed from the 11th to the 13th century. Leading scholars included, among others, Martin of Dace and Thomas of Erfurth.
 + 
 +===Early modern period===
 +Linguists of the [[Renaissance]] and [[Baroque]] periods such as [[Johannes Goropius Becanus]], [[Athanasius Kircher]] and [[John Wilkins]] were infatuated with the idea of a [[philosophical language]] reversing the [[confusion of tongues]], influenced by the gradual discovery of [[Chinese character]]s and [[Egyptian hieroglyphs]] (''[[Hieroglyphica]]''). This thought parallels the idea that there might be a universal language of music.
 + 
 +European scholarship began to absorb the [[Vyākaraṇa|Indian linguistic tradition]] only from the mid-18th century, pioneered by [[Jean François Pons]] and [[Henry Thomas Colebrooke]] (the ''editio princeps'' of [[Varadarāja]], a 17th century [[Sanskrit]] grammarian, dating to 1849).
 + 
 +In the early 19th century, the Danish philosopher [[Søren Kierkegaard]] insisted that language ought to play a larger role in Western philosophy. He argues that philosophy has not sufficiently focused on the role language plays in cognition and that future philosophy ought to proceed with a conscious focus on language:
 + 
 +:If the claim of philosophers to be unbiased were all it pretends to be, it would also have to take account of language and its whole significance in relation to speculative philosophy ... Language is partly something originally given, partly that which develops freely. And just as the individual can never reach the point at which he becomes absolutely independent ... so too with language.
 + 
 +Hence, language began to play a central role in Western philosophy in the late 19th century, especially with Port Royal in France, and in the English-speaking world and other parts of Europe. The foundational work was [[Ferdinand de Saussure]]'s ''[[Cours de linguistique générale]]'', published posthumously in 1916.
 + 
 +The philosophy of language then became so pervasive that for a time, in [[analytic philosophy]] circles, philosophy as a whole was understood to be a matter of philosophy of language. In the 20th century, "language" became an even more central theme within the most diverse traditions of philosophy. The phrase "the [[linguistic turn]]" was used to describe the noteworthy emphasis that modern-day philosophers put upon language.
 + 
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Philosophy of language is the reasoned inquiry into the nature, origins, and usage of language. As a topic, the philosophy of language for Analytic Philosophers is concerned with four central problems: the nature of meaning, language use, language cognition, and the relationship between language and reality. For Continental philosophers, however, the philosophy of language tends to be dealt with, not as a separate topic, but as a part of Logic, History or Politics.

Contents

History

History of linguistics

Antiquity

Linguistic speculation in India is attested since the Vedic period (Iron Age), beginning with the deification of vāk "speech" and the role of language (utterance, shabda) in ritual. Sanskrit grammatical tradition gives rise to linguistic philosophy beginning in the final centuries BC and early centuries AD, notably in the philosophical schools of Nyaya and Mimamsa.

In the West, inquiry into language stretches back to the 5th century BC with Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. Both in India and in Greece, linguistic speculation predates the emergence of grammatical traditions of systematic description of language, which emerged around the 5th century BC in India (see Yāska), and around the 3rd century BC in Greece (see Rhianus).

In the dialogue Cratylus, Plato considered the question of whether the names of things were determined by convention or by nature. He criticized conventionalism because it led to the bizarre consequence that anything can be conventionally denominated by any name. Hence, it cannot account for the correct or incorrect application of a name. He claimed that there was a natural correctness to names. To do this, he pointed out that compound words and phrases have a range of correctness. He also argued that primitive names had a natural correctness, because each phoneme represented basic ideas or sentiments. For example, for Plato the letter l and its sound represented the idea of softness. However, by the end of the Cratylus, he had admitted that some social conventions were also involved, and that there were faults in the idea that phonemes had individual meanings.

Aristotle concerned himself with the issues of logic, categories, and meaning creation. He separated all things into categories of species and genus. He thought that the meaning of a predicate was established through an abstraction of the similarities between various individual things. This theory later came to be called nominalism. However, since Aristotle took these similarities to be constituted by a real commonality of form, he is more often considered a proponent of "moderate realism".

The Stoic philosophers made important contributions to the analysis of grammar, distinguishing five parts of speech: nouns, verbs, appellatives (names or epithets), conjunctions and articles. They also developed a sophisticated doctrine of the lektón associated with each sign of a language, but distinct from both the sign itself and the thing to which it refers. This lektón was the meaning (or sense) of every term. The lektón of a sentence is what we would now call its proposition. Only propositions were considered "truth-bearers" or "truth-vehicles" (i.e., they could be called true or false) while sentences were simply their vehicles of expression. Different lektá could also express things besides propositions, such as commands, questions and exclamations.

Middle Ages

Medieval philosophers were greatly interested in the subtleties of language and its usage. For many scholastics, this interest was provoked by the necessity of translating Greek texts into Latin. There were several noteworthy philosophers of language in the medieval period. According to Peter J. King, (although this has been disputed), Peter Abelard anticipated the modern ideas of sense and reference. Also, William of Ockham's Summa Logicae brought forward one of the first serious proposals for codifying a mental language.

The scholastics of the high medieval period, such as Ockham and John Duns Scotus, considered logic to be a scientia sermocinalis (science of language). The result of their studies was the elaboration of linguistic-philosophical notions whose complexity and subtlety has only recently come to be appreciated. Many of the most interesting problems of modern philosophy of language were anticipated by medieval thinkers. The phenomena of vagueness and ambiguity were analyzed intensely, and this led to an increasing interest in problems related to the use of syncategorematic words such as and, or, not, if, and every. The study of categorematic words (or terms) and their properties was also developed greatly. One of the major developments of the scholastics in this area was the doctrine of the suppositio. The suppositio of a term is the interpretation that is given of it in a specific context. It can be proper or improper (as when it is used in metaphor, metonyms and other figures of speech). A proper suppositio, in turn, can be either formal or material accordingly when it refers to its usual non-linguistic referent (as in "Charles is a man"), or to itself as a linguistic entity (as in "Charles has seven letters"). Such a classification scheme is the precursor of modern distinctions between use and mention, and between language and metalanguage.

There is a tradition called speculative grammar which existed from the 11th to the 13th century. Leading scholars included, among others, Martin of Dace and Thomas of Erfurth.

Early modern period

Linguists of the Renaissance and Baroque periods such as Johannes Goropius Becanus, Athanasius Kircher and John Wilkins were infatuated with the idea of a philosophical language reversing the confusion of tongues, influenced by the gradual discovery of Chinese characters and Egyptian hieroglyphs (Hieroglyphica). This thought parallels the idea that there might be a universal language of music.

European scholarship began to absorb the Indian linguistic tradition only from the mid-18th century, pioneered by Jean François Pons and Henry Thomas Colebrooke (the editio princeps of Varadarāja, a 17th century Sanskrit grammarian, dating to 1849).

In the early 19th century, the Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard insisted that language ought to play a larger role in Western philosophy. He argues that philosophy has not sufficiently focused on the role language plays in cognition and that future philosophy ought to proceed with a conscious focus on language:

If the claim of philosophers to be unbiased were all it pretends to be, it would also have to take account of language and its whole significance in relation to speculative philosophy ... Language is partly something originally given, partly that which develops freely. And just as the individual can never reach the point at which he becomes absolutely independent ... so too with language.

Hence, language began to play a central role in Western philosophy in the late 19th century, especially with Port Royal in France, and in the English-speaking world and other parts of Europe. The foundational work was Ferdinand de Saussure's Cours de linguistique générale, published posthumously in 1916.

The philosophy of language then became so pervasive that for a time, in analytic philosophy circles, philosophy as a whole was understood to be a matter of philosophy of language. In the 20th century, "language" became an even more central theme within the most diverse traditions of philosophy. The phrase "the linguistic turn" was used to describe the noteworthy emphasis that modern-day philosophers put upon language.




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