Petrarchan sonnet  

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-'''Edmund Spenser''' (c. [[1552]]–[[13 January]], [[1599]]) was an [[England|English]] [[poet]] and [[Poet Laureate]]. Spenser is a controversial figure due to his zeal for the destruction of [[Culture of Ireland|Irish culture]] and colonisation of Ireland, yet he is one of the premier craftsmen of Modern English verse in its infancy.  
-Spenser is best known for ''[[The Faerie Queene]]'', an epic poem celebrating, through fantastical allegory, the [[Tudor dynasty]] and [[Elizabeth I]]. +The '''Petrarchan sonnet''' is a type of [[sonnet]]. The concept (also '''Petrarchanism''' or '''Petrarchian''') refers to a concept of unattainable love, and was first developed by the [[Italy|Italian]] humanist and writer, [[Francesco Petrarca]]. Conventionally Petrarchan sonnets depicted the lady as a model and inspiration. This phrase is often used in reference to romantic literature, including analysis of [[Shakespeare]].
-==Structure of the Spenserian stanza and sonnet==+
-Spenser used a distinctive verse form, called the [[Spenserian stanza]], in several works, including ''[[The Faerie Queene]]''. The stanza's main meter is iambic pentameter with a final line in iambic hexameter (having six feet or stresses, known as an [[Alexandrine]]), and the rhyme scheme is ababbcbcc. +
-The Spenserian Sonnet is based on a fusion of elements of both the [[Petrarchan sonnet]] and the [[Shakespearean sonnet]]. It is similar to the Shakespearan sonnet in the sense that its set up is based more on the 3 [[quatrains]] and a [[couplet]],a system set up by Shakespeare; however it is more like the Petrarchan tradition in the fact that the conclusion follows from the argument or issue set up in the earlier quatrains. There is also a great use of the parody of the [[blason]] and the idealization or praise of the mistress, a literary device used by many poets. It is a way to look at a woman through the appraisal of her features in comparison to other things. In this description, the mistress's body is described part by part, i.e., much more of a scientific way of seeing one. As William Johnson states in his article "Gender Fashioning and Dynamics of Mutuality in Spenser's Amoretti," the poet-love in the scenes of Spenser's sonnets in [[Amoretti]], is able to see his lover in an objectified manner by moving her to another, or more clearly, an item. The purpose of Spenser doing this is to bring the woman from the "transcendental ideal" to a woman in everyday life. "Through his use of [[metonymy]] and [[metaphor]], by describing the lady not as a whole being but as bodily parts, by alluding to centuries of topoi which remove her in time as well as space, the poet transforms the woman into a text, the living 'other' into an inanimate object" (503). The opposite of this also occurs in ''The Faerie Queen''. The [[counter-blason]], or the opposition of appraisal, is used to describe Duessa. She is not objectified, but instead all of her flaws are highlighted.+[[Petrarch]] developed the Italian sonnet pattern, which is known to this day as the Petrarchan sonnet or the [[Italian sonnet]]. The original Italian sonnet form divides the poem's 14 lines into two parts, an octave (first eight lines) and a sestet (last six lines). The rhyme scheme for the octave is typically abbaabba. There are a few possibilities for the sestet, including cdecde, cdcdcd, and cdcdee. This form was used in the earliest English sonnets by Wyatt and others. For background on the pre-English sonnet, see Robert Canary's web page, ''The Continental Origins of the Sonnet''.
 +.
 + 
 +Because of the structure of Italian, the rhyme scheme of the Petrarchan sonnet is more easily fulfilled in that language than in English. The first eight lines create an octave, with the rhyme scheme a b b a a b b a. The last six lines make up a sestet and may consist of following rhyme schemes: 1) c d d c d d 2) c d e c d e 3) c d c d c d 4) c d d c e e
 + 
 +The Petrarchan sonnet form takes its name from being the trademark of the 14th-century Italian poet, Petrarch.
 + 
 +The octave and sestet have special functions in a Petrarchan sonnet. The octave's purpose is to introduce a problem, express a desire, reflect on reality, or otherwise present a situation that causes doubt or conflict within the speaker. It usually does this by introducing the problem within its first quatrain (unified four-line section) and developing it in the second. The beginning of the sestet is known as the volta, and it introduces a pronounced change in tone in the sonnet; the sestet's purpose as a whole is to make a comment on the problem or to apply a solution to it.
 + 
 +Poets adopting the Petrarchan sonnet form take liberties with it in that they do not necessarily restrict themselves to the strict metrical or rhyme schemes of the traditional Petrarchan form; some use iambic hexameter, while others do not observe the octave-sestet division created by the traditional rhyme scheme. Whatever the changes made by poets exercising artistic license, no "proper" Italian sonnet has more than five different rhymes in it.
 + 
 +[[Sir Thomas Wyatt]] and [[Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey]] are both known for their translations of Petrarch's sonnets from Italian into English. While Howard tended to use the English sonnet form in his own work, reserving the Petrarchan form for his translations of Petrarch, Wyatt made extensive use of the Italian sonnet form in the poems of his that were not translation and adaptation work.
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The Petrarchan sonnet is a type of sonnet. The concept (also Petrarchanism or Petrarchian) refers to a concept of unattainable love, and was first developed by the Italian humanist and writer, Francesco Petrarca. Conventionally Petrarchan sonnets depicted the lady as a model and inspiration. This phrase is often used in reference to romantic literature, including analysis of Shakespeare.

Petrarch developed the Italian sonnet pattern, which is known to this day as the Petrarchan sonnet or the Italian sonnet. The original Italian sonnet form divides the poem's 14 lines into two parts, an octave (first eight lines) and a sestet (last six lines). The rhyme scheme for the octave is typically abbaabba. There are a few possibilities for the sestet, including cdecde, cdcdcd, and cdcdee. This form was used in the earliest English sonnets by Wyatt and others. For background on the pre-English sonnet, see Robert Canary's web page, The Continental Origins of the Sonnet. .

Because of the structure of Italian, the rhyme scheme of the Petrarchan sonnet is more easily fulfilled in that language than in English. The first eight lines create an octave, with the rhyme scheme a b b a a b b a. The last six lines make up a sestet and may consist of following rhyme schemes: 1) c d d c d d 2) c d e c d e 3) c d c d c d 4) c d d c e e

The Petrarchan sonnet form takes its name from being the trademark of the 14th-century Italian poet, Petrarch.

The octave and sestet have special functions in a Petrarchan sonnet. The octave's purpose is to introduce a problem, express a desire, reflect on reality, or otherwise present a situation that causes doubt or conflict within the speaker. It usually does this by introducing the problem within its first quatrain (unified four-line section) and developing it in the second. The beginning of the sestet is known as the volta, and it introduces a pronounced change in tone in the sonnet; the sestet's purpose as a whole is to make a comment on the problem or to apply a solution to it.

Poets adopting the Petrarchan sonnet form take liberties with it in that they do not necessarily restrict themselves to the strict metrical or rhyme schemes of the traditional Petrarchan form; some use iambic hexameter, while others do not observe the octave-sestet division created by the traditional rhyme scheme. Whatever the changes made by poets exercising artistic license, no "proper" Italian sonnet has more than five different rhymes in it.

Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey are both known for their translations of Petrarch's sonnets from Italian into English. While Howard tended to use the English sonnet form in his own work, reserving the Petrarchan form for his translations of Petrarch, Wyatt made extensive use of the Italian sonnet form in the poems of his that were not translation and adaptation work.




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