Onomacritus  

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-'''Literary forgery''', also '''Literary forgeries and mystifications''', pertains to some [[writing]], especially in [[literature]], such as a [[manuscript]], presented as an [[original]], when in fact it is a [[fake]]. It is sometimes confused with [[plagiarism]], which it may also be, but need not be. In an instance of [[plagiarism]] the actual physical embodiment of the writing is not at issue; the content, meaning, or text are at issue. In an instance of [[forgery]], literary or otherwise, the physical object itself is not what it purports to be, irrespective of its content.+'''Onomacritus''' (c. [[530 BCE|530]] - [[480 BCE]]), also known as '''Onomacritos''' or '''Onomakritos''', was a [[Greece|Greek]] [[chresmologue]], or compiler of oracles, who lived at the court of the tyrant [[Pisistratus]] in Athens. He is said to have prepared an edition of the [[Homer]]ic poems, and was an industrious collector, as well as a forger of old oracles and poems.
-Furthermore, in the case of a ''plagiarism'', it is the [[authorship]] which is in dispute. Whereas in the case of a ''literary forgery'', the text itself is not what it purports to be according to its meaning — rather, it is a [[fabrication]] which merely appears [[authentic]].+[[Herodotus]] reports that Onomacritus was hired by Pisistratus to compile the oracles of [[Musaeus]], but that Onomacritus inserted forgeries of his own that were detected by [[Lasus of Hermione]]. As a result, Onomacritus was banished from [[Athens]] by Pisistratus' son [[Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus)|Hipparchus]]. After the flight of the Pisistratids to [[Persian Empire|Persia]], Onomacritus was reconciled with them. According to [[Herodotus]], Onomacritus induced [[Xerxes I of Persia|Xerxes I]], the King of Persia, by his oracular responses, to decide upon his war with [[Greece]].
-'''Literary forgeries and mystifications''' is also a subject category of the [[US]] [[Library of Congress]], for classification purposes, of its holdings.+[[Pausanias (geographer)|Pausanias]] attributes to Onomacritus certain poems forged under the name of [[Musaeus]] ([http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Paus.+1.22.7 1.22.7]). In explaining the presence of the [[Titan (mythology)|Titan]] [[Anytos]] at [[Lycosura]], he says that "Onomacritos took the name of the Titans from Homer and composed orgies for [[Dionysus]] and made the Titans the actual agents in the sufferings of Dionysos" (Pausanias [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text.jsp?doc=Paus.+8.37.5 8.37.5]). Therefore, Onomacritos is responsible for inventing an important aspect of the mythology concerning the Titans.
-The common, or popularly known, instance of ''literary forgery'' involves the work of a famous author whose writings have an established intrinsic, as well as, monetary value. In the attempt to gain the rewards of such a reputation, the forger often engages in two distinct activities. The forger must produce a writing which resembles the [[style]] of the known reputable author to whom the fake is to be attributed. However, that is not necessarily sufficient. To be persuasive the forger needs also to fake the physical alleged original [[manuscript]]. This is often done by imitating the ink and paper, and other materials if possible. The effect is in the physical result; the forger can thereby say not just that the style of writing is the same, but also that ink and paper is of the kind or type used by the famous author.+==References=={{GFDL}}
- +
-==[[Misery lit]]==+
- +
-The [[genre]] of false and deceptive [[autobiography]] or [[fake memoirs]] has seen the rise of [[Misery lit]] books, where the author has apparently suffered illness, abuse, drugs and so on during their upbringing. A recent example is a story about [[Los Angeles]] where a young girl was raised in a gangland culture involving drugs, forced sex and criminality. The author, [[Margaret Seltzer]] has been exposed as a fraud by her elder sister. In fact she lives a middle-class life without trauma, and received a good education (which also included a course in [[creative writing]]). Penguin Riverside has withdrawn the book and cancelled a book tour.+
- +
-== History of literary forgery ==+
- +
-[[Onomacritus]] (c. 530 - 480 BCE) is among the most ancient known literary forgers.+
- +
-[[The Protocols of the Elders of Zion]] is a well-known and widely discussed literary forgery. Some [[anti-semitism|anti-semitic]] organizations, such as [[Hamas]] and many [[neo-Nazi]] groups, still claim that the text is genuine.+
- +
-== See also ==+
-*[[Counterfeit]]+
-*[[Fake]]+
-*[[Fake memoirs]]+
-*[[False document]]+
-*[[Forgery]]+
-*[[Fraud]]+
-*[[Knock-off]]+
-*[[Misery lit]]+
-*[[Onomacritus]]+
- +
-{{GFDL}}+

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Onomacritus (c. 530 - 480 BCE), also known as Onomacritos or Onomakritos, was a Greek chresmologue, or compiler of oracles, who lived at the court of the tyrant Pisistratus in Athens. He is said to have prepared an edition of the Homeric poems, and was an industrious collector, as well as a forger of old oracles and poems.

Herodotus reports that Onomacritus was hired by Pisistratus to compile the oracles of Musaeus, but that Onomacritus inserted forgeries of his own that were detected by Lasus of Hermione. As a result, Onomacritus was banished from Athens by Pisistratus' son Hipparchus. After the flight of the Pisistratids to Persia, Onomacritus was reconciled with them. According to Herodotus, Onomacritus induced Xerxes I, the King of Persia, by his oracular responses, to decide upon his war with Greece.

Pausanias attributes to Onomacritus certain poems forged under the name of Musaeus (1.22.7). In explaining the presence of the Titan Anytos at Lycosura, he says that "Onomacritos took the name of the Titans from Homer and composed orgies for Dionysus and made the Titans the actual agents in the sufferings of Dionysos" (Pausanias 8.37.5). Therefore, Onomacritos is responsible for inventing an important aspect of the mythology concerning the Titans.

==References==



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