List of types of poison  

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-:"[[What is Classical is healthy; what is Romantic is sick]]." --Goethe. +The following is a '''list of types of [[poison]]''' by intended use:
-==Uses of poison==+*[[Algicide]] - a substance used for killing and preventing the growth of [[algae]]
-:''[[history of poison]]''+*[[Avicide]] - any substance which can be used to kill [[bird]]s
-Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been used as a method of [[assassination]], [[murder]], [[suicide]], and [[execution]]. As a method of execution, poison has been ingested, as the ancient Athenians did (see [[Socrates]]), inhaled, as with [[carbon monoxide]] or [[hydrogen cyanide]] (see [[gas chamber]]), or injected (see [[lethal injection]]). Many languages describe lethal injection with their corresponding words for "poison shot". Poison's lethal effect can be combined with its allegedly [[magical]] powers; an example is the [[China|Chinese]] [[gu (poison)|''gu'' poison]]. Poison was also employed in [[gunpowder warfare]]. For example, the 14th century Chinese text of the ''[[Huolongjing]]'' written by [[Jiao Yu]] outlined the use of a poisonous gunpowder mixture to fill [[cast iron]] [[grenade]] bombs.<+*[[Biocide]] - a [[chemical substance]] capable of killing [[life|living organisms]], usually in a selective way
- +*[[Fungicide]] - a [[chemical compound]] or biological [[organism]] used to kill or inhibit [[fungi]] or fungal spores
-On the whole, however, poisons are usually not used for their toxicity, but may be used for their other properties. The property of toxicity itself has limited non-lethal applications: mainly for controlling pests and weeds, cleaning and maintenance, and for preserving building materials and food stuffs. Where possible, specific agents which are less poisonous to humans have come to be preferred, but exceptions such as [[phosphine]] continue in use.+*[[Microbicide]] - any compound or substance whose purpose is to reduce the [[infection|infectivity]] of [[microbe]]s
- +**[[Germicide]] - a disinfectant
-Many over-the-counter medications, such as [[aspirin]] and [[paracetamol|Tylenol]], are quite toxic if ingested in sufficiently large quantities. Paracetamol/Acetaminophen is very poisonous to cats while being beneficial to the human. [[Short-term effects of alcohol|Alcohol]] is also toxic if too much is ingested in a short enough time. The dosage is as big a factor in toxicity as the natural properties of the substance. In laboratory environments, where specific chemical properties are often required, the most effective, easiest, safest, or cheapest option for use in a [[chemical synthesis]] may be a poisonous material. If a toxic substance possesses these properties more exactly than a non-toxic one, the toxic substance is superior. [[Chromic acid]] is an example of such a "simple to use" reagent, but reactivity, in particular, is important. [[Hydrogen fluoride]] (HF), for example, is both poisonous and extremely corrosive. However, it has a high [[chemical affinity|affinity]] ([[Thermodynamic free energy|free energy]]) for [[silicon]], which is exploited by using HF to [[Etching (microfabrication)|etch]] glass or to manufacture silicon semiconductor chips.+***[[Bactericide]] - a substance that kills [[bacteria]]
- +***[[Viricide]] - a chemical agent which "kills" [[viruses]] outside the body
-On the other hand, certain medical treatments actually make deliberate use of the toxicity of certain substances. [[Antibiotics]] (originally harvested from organisms but now artificially produced in laboratories) are highly disruptive to the biochemistry of micro-organisms while having almost no direct effect upon humans. Similarly, the drugs used in [[chemotherapy]] are quite toxic; the reason chemotherapeutic drugs have far more severe side effects than antibiotics is that their toxicity is not as narrowly tailored. Their benefit arises from the fact that they are—hopefully—more toxic to cancerous cells than normal ones. Such substances could be classified as poisons under the categories defined above, as they are generally artificial in nature, but are not generally discussed as such.+*[[Herbicide]] - a substance used to kill unwanted [[plants]]
- +*[[wikt:parasiticide|Parasiticide]] - any substance used to kill [[parasite]]s
-==Biological poisoning==+*[[Pesticide]] - a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a [[pest (organism)|pest]]
-Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time. Symptoms develop in close relation to the exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning. In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as [[lye]], are classified as [[corrosive]]s rather than poisons.+**[[Acaricide]] - [[pesticide]]s that kill [[mite]]s
- +**[[Insecticide]] - a [[pesticide]] used against [[insect]]s
-Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not occur immediately or after each exposure. The patient gradually becomes ill, or becomes ill after a long latent period. Chronic poisoning most commonly occurs following exposure to poisons that [[bioaccumulate]] such as [[mercury (element)|mercury]] and [[lead]].+**[[Molluscicide]] - [[pesticide]]s against [[molluscs]]
- +**[[Nematocide]] - a type of chemical [[pesticide]] used to kill [[parasitic]] [[nematode]]s (roundworms)
-Contact or absorption of poisons can cause rapid death or impairment. Agents that act on the [[nervous system]] can paralyze in seconds or less, and include both biologically derived [[neurotoxin]]s and so-called [[nerve gas]]es, which may be synthesized for [[chemical warfare|warfare]] or industry.+**[[Rodenticide]] - a category of [[pest control]] chemicals intended to kill [[rodent]]s
- +*[[Spermicide]] - a substance that kills [[sperm]]
-Inhaled or ingested [[cyanide]], used as a method of [[execution]] in [[gas chamber]]s, almost instantly starves the body of energy by [[enzyme inhibitor|inhibiting]] the [[enzymes]] in [[mitochondria]] that make [[Adenosine triphosphate|ATP]]. Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of [[potassium chloride]], such as in the execution of prisoners in parts of the United States, quickly stops the [[heart]] by eliminating the [[cell potential]] necessary for [[muscle contraction]].+
- +
-Most biocides, including [[pesticide]]s, are created to act as poisons to [[target organism]]s, although acute or less observable chronic poisoning can also occur in non-target organism, including the [[human]]s who apply the biocides and other [[beneficial organism]]s. For example, the herbicide [[2,4-D]] imitates the action of a plant hormone, to the effect that the lethal toxicity is specific to plants. Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison, but classified as "harmful" (EU).+
- +
-Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly, by [[toxication]]. An example is "wood alcohol" or [[methanol]], which is not poisonous itself, but is chemically converted to toxic [[formaldehyde]] and [[formic acid]] in the [[liver]]. Many [[Medication|drug]] molecules are made toxic in the liver, and the genetic variability of certain liver [[enzyme]]s makes the toxicity of many compounds differ between individuals.+
- +
-The study of the symptoms, mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis of biological poisoning is known as [[toxicology]].+
- +
-Exposure to radioactive substances can produce [[radiation poisoning]], an unrelated phenomenon.+
- +
-==See also==+
-* [[Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry]] (ATSDR)+
-* [[Antidote]]+
-* [[Biosecurity]]+
-* [[Food taster]]+
-* {{LD50}}+
-* [[Lethal injection]]+
-* [[List of extremely hazardous substances]]+
-* [[List of fictional toxins]]+
-* [[List of poisonings]]+
-* [[List of poisonous plants]]+
-* [[List of types of poison]]+
-* [[Toxics use reduction]]+
-* [[Venom]]+
-* [[Mr. Yuk]]+
-* [[TZ]]+
- +
- +
-== Related ==+
-*[[Sick]]+
-*[[Poisonous plant]]+
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The following is a list of types of poison by intended use:




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "List of types of poison" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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