List of rulers of Tuscany  

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-[[Pietro Aretino]] wrote a letter to [[Michelangelo]] on the subject of the [[The Last Judgment (Michelangelo) |Last Judgement]] at the [[Sistine Chapel]]. The letter was first published in ''[[The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti]]'' by [[John Addington Symonds]]. Symonds notes that the "reference to the [[Duke of Florence]] seems to indicate that he wished to arouse suspicions among great and influential persons regarding the religious and moral quality of [[Michelangelo]]'s work ... It was obviously intended to hurt and insult Michelangelo as much as lay within his power of innuendo and direct abuse."+The '''rulers of [[Tuscany]]''' have varied over time, sometimes being [[margrave]]s, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.
-Symonds adds+==Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197==
-:The malignancy of this letter is only equalled by its stylistic ingenuity. Aretino used every means he could devise to wound and irritate a sensitive nature. The allusion to Raffaello, the comparison of his own pornographic dialogues with the Last Judgment in the Sistine, the covert hint that folk gossiped about Michelangelo's relations to young men, his sneers at the great man's exclusiveness, his cruel insinuations with regard to the Tomb of Julius, his devout hope that Paul will destroy the fresco, and the impudent eulogy of his precious letter on the Last Day, were all nicely calculated to annoy. Whether the missive was duly received by Buonarroti we do not know. Gaye asserts that it appears to have been sent through the post.+'''Bonifacii'''
 +:These were originally counts of [[Lucca]] who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.
 +*812-813 [[Boniface I of Tuscany|Boniface I]]
 +*828-834 [[Boniface II of Tuscany|Boniface II]]
 +*835-845 [[Aganus of Tuscany|Aganus]] (not of the dynasty)
 +*847-886 [[Adalbert I of Tuscany|Adalbert I]]
 +*886-915 [[Adalbert II of Tuscany|Adalbert II the Rich]]
 +*915-929 [[Guy of Tuscany|Guy]]
 +*929-931 [[Lambert of Tuscany|Lambert]]
-;The letter +'''House of Arles'''
 +:These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of [[Hugh of Arles]], [[King of Italy]], whom he appointed to their post after removing the original dynasty.
 +*931-936 [[Boso of Tuscany|Boso]]
 +*936-961 [[Humbert of Tuscany|Humbert]]
 +*961-1001 [[Hugh of Tuscany|Hugh the Great]]
-::"Sir, when I inspected the complete sketch of the whole of your [[The Last Judgment (Michelangelo)|Last Judgment]], I arrived at recognising the eminent graciousness of Raffaello in its agreeable beauty of invention.+'''Various'''
 +*1004-1011 [[Boniface, Count of Bologna|Boniface (III)]]
 +*1014-1027 [[Rainier of Tuscany|Rainier]]
-::"Meanwhile, as a baptized Christian, I blush before the [[license]], so forbidden to man's intellect, which you have used in expressing ideas connected with the highest aims and final ends to which our faith aspires. So, then, that Michelangelo stupendous in his fame, that Michelangelo renowned for prudence, that Michelangelo whom all admire, has chosen to display to the whole world an impiety of irreligion only equalled by the perfection of his painting! Is it possible that you, who, since you are divine, do not condescend to consort with human beings, have done this in the greatest temple built to God, upon the highest altar raised to Christ, in the most sacred chapel upon earth, where the mighty hinges of the Church, the venerable priests of our religion, the Vicar of Christ, with solemn ceremonies and holy prayers, confess, contemplate, and adore his body, his blood, and his flesh?+'''House of Canossa'''
 +:These were the descendants of the [[Counts of Canossa]].
 +*1027-1052 [[Boniface III of Tuscany|Boniface III]] (also IV)
 +*1052-1055 [[Frederick of Tuscany|Frederick]]
 +*1052-1076 [[Beatrice of Bar|Beatrice]] as wife of Boniface III and regent for Frederick and Matilda
 +**1054-1069 [[Godfrey III, Duke of Lower Lorraine|Godfrey I]] as husband of Beatrice
 +**1069-1076 [[Godfrey IV, Duke of Lower Lorraine|Godfrey II]] as husband of Matilda
 +*1076-1115 [[Matilda of Tuscany|Matilda]]
 +**1089-1095 [[Welf II, Duke of Bavaria|Welf]] as husband of Matilda
-::"If it were not infamous to introduce the comparison, I would plume myself upon my virtue when I wrote ''[[La Nanna]]''. I would demonstrate the superiority of my reserve to your indiscretion, seeing that I, while handling themes lascivious and immodest, use language comely and decorous, speak in terms beyond reproach and inoffensive to chaste ears. You, on the contrary, presenting so awful a subject, exhibit saints and angels, these without earthly decency, and those without celestial honours.+'''Various'''
 +*1120-1127 [[Conrad von Scheiern]]
 +*1135-1137 [[Engelbert III of Sponheim|Engelbert]]
 +*1137-1139 [[Henry X, Duke of Bavaria|Henry]]
 +*1139-1152 [[Ulrich von Attems]]
 +*1152-1160 [[Welf VI]] (first rule)
 +*1160-1167 [[Welf VII]]
 +**1160-1163 [[Rainald of Dassel]] in opposition
 +**1163-1173 [[Christian, Archbishop of Mainz|Christian of Buch]] as imperial vicar
 +*1167-1173 [[Welf VI]] (second rule)
 +*1195-1197 [[Philip of Swabia|Philip]]
-::"The pagans, when they modelled a Diana, gave her clothes; when they made a naked Venus, hid the parts which are not shown with the hand of modesty. And here there comes a Christian, who, because he rates art higher than the faith, deems it a royal spectacle to portray martyrs and virgins in improper attitudes, to show men dragged down by their shame, before which things houses of ill-fame would shut the eyes in order not to see them. Your art would be at home in some voluptuous bagnio, certainly not in the highest chapel of the world. Less criminal were it if you were an infidel, than, being a believer, thus to sap the faith of others. Up to the present time the splendour of such audacious marvels hath not gone unpunished; for their very superexcellence is the death of your good name. Restore them to repute by turning the indecent parts of the damned to flames, and those of the blessed to sunbeams; or imitate the modesty of Florence, who hides your David's shame beneath some gilded leaves. And yet that statue is exposed upon a public square, not in a consecrated chapel.+==Unofficial [[Medici]] Rulers of Florence, 1434-1531==
 +*[[Cosimo de' Medici]] 1434-1464
 +*[[Piero I de' Medici]] 1464-1469 ("The Gouty")
 +*[[Lorenzo I de' Medici]] 1469-1492 ("The Magnificent")
 +*[[Giuliano di Piero de' Medici|Giuliano de' Medici]] 1469-1478
 +*[[Piero II de' Medici]] 1492-1494
 +*''Republic restored'' 1494-1512
 +*[[Pope Leo X|Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici]] 1512-1513
 +*[[Lorenzo II de' Medici]] 1513-1519
 +*[[Pope Clement VII|Cardinal Giulio de' Medici]] 1519-1523
 +*[[Ippolito de' Medici]] 1523-1527
 +*[[Alessandro de' Medici]] 1523-1527
 +*''Republic restored'' 1527-1530
 +*[[Alessandro de' Medici]] 1530-1531
-::"As I wish that God may pardon you, I do not write this out of any resentment for the things I begged of you. In truth, if you had sent me what you promised, you would only have been doing what you ought to have desired most eagerly to do in your own interest; for this act of courtesy would silence the envious tongues which say that only certain Gerards and Thomases dispose of them.+==Medici Dukes of Florence, 1531-1569==
-::"Well, if the treasure bequeathed you by Pope Julius, in order that you might deposit his ashes in an urn of your own carving, was not enough to make you keep your plighted word, what can I expect from you? It is not your ingratitude, your avarice, great painter, but the grace and merit of the Supreme Shepherd, which decide his fame. God wills that Julius should live renowned for ever in a simple tomb, inurned in his own merits, and not in some proud monument dependent on your genius. Meantime, your failure to discharge your obligations is reckoned to you as an act of thieving. 
-::"Our souls need the tranquil emotions of piety more than the lively impressions of plastic art. May God, then, inspire his Holiness Paul with the same thoughts as he instilled into Gregory of blessed memory, who rather chose to despoil Rome of the proud statues of the Pagan deities than to let their magnificence deprive the humbler images of the saints of the devotion of the people.+{| class="wikitable" cellpadding=2 cellspacing=2
 +|-
 +! with=150px | # !! width=300px | Name !! width=100px | Started !! width=100px | Ended !! width=300px | Relationship with predecessor(s)
 +|-
 +|1||[[Alessandro de' Medici|Alessandro]]||[[1532-05-01]]||[[1537-01-06]]|| 
 +|-
 +|2||[[Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Cosimo I]]||[[1537-09-20]]||[[1569-08-21]]||fourth cousin of Alessandro
 +|}
-::"Lastly, when you set about composing your picture of the universe and hell and heaven, if you had steeped your heart with those suggestions of glory, of honour, and of terror proper to the theme which I sketched out and offered to you in the letter I wrote you and the whole world reads, I venture to assert that not only would nature and all kind influences cease to regret the illustrious talents they endowed you with, and which to-day render you, by virtue of your art, an image of the marvellous: but Providence, who sees all things, would herself continue to watch over such a masterpiece, so long as order lasts in her government of the hemispheres.+==Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569-1737==
- "Your servant, 
- "The Aretine. 
-::"Now that I have blown off some of the rage I feel against you for the cruelty you used to my devotion, and have taught you to see that, while you may be divine, I am not made of water, I bid you tear up this letter, for I have done the like, and do not forget that I am one to whose epistles kings and emperors reply.+{| class="wikitable" cellpadding=2 cellspacing=2
 +|-
 +! with=150px | # !! width=300px | Name !! width=100px | Started !! width=100px | Ended !! width=300px | Relationship with predecessor(s)
 +|-
 +|1||[[Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Cosimo I]]||[[1569-08-21]]||[[1574-04-21]]|| 
 +|-
 +|2||[[Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Francesco I]]||[[1574-04-21]]||[[1587-10-19]]||son of Cosimo I
 +|-
 +|3||[[Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Ferdinando I]]||[[1587-10-19]]||[[1609-02-07]]||brother of Francesco I<br>son of Cosimo I
 +|-
 +|4||[[Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Cosimo II]]||[[1609-02-07]]||[[1621-02-28]]||son of Ferdinando I
 +|-
 +|5||[[Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Ferdinando II]]||[[1621-02-28]]||[[1670-05-23]]||son of Cosimo II
 +|-
 +|6||[[Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Cosimo III]]||[[1670-05-23]]||[[1723-10-31]]||son of Ferdinando II
 +|-
 +|7||[[Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Gian Gastone]]||[[1723-10-31]]||[[1737-07-09]]||son of Cosimo III
 +|}
 + 
 +==[[Habsburg-Lorraine]] Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1737-1801==
 + 
 + 
 +{| class="wikitable" cellpadding=2 cellspacing=2
 +|-
 +! with=100px | # !! width=300px | Name !! width=100px | Started !! width=100px | Ended !! width=300px | Relationship with predecessor(s)
 +|-
 +|8||[[Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor|Francesco II Stefano]]||[[1737-07-12]]||[[1765-08-18]]||great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I
 +|-
 +|9||[[Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor|Pietro Leopoldo I]]||[[1765-08-18]]||[[1790-07-22]]||second son of Francesco II Stefano
 +|-
 +|10||[[Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Ferdinando III]]||[[1790-07-22]]||[[1801-08-03]]||second son of Pietro Leopoldo I
 +|}
 + 
 +==Bourbon [[Kingdom of Etruria|Kings of Etruria]], 1801-1807==
 + 
 +{| class="wikitable" cellpadding=2 cellspacing=2
 +|-
 +! with=100px | # !! width=300px | Name !! width=100px | Started !! width=100px | Ended !! width=300px | Relationship with predecessor(s)
 +|-
 +|1||[[Louis of Etruria|Ludovico I]]||[[1801-08-03]]||[[1803-05-27]]||Grandson of Francisco II Stefano
 +|-
 +|2||[[Charles II, Duke of Parma|Carlo Ludovico II]]||[[1803-05-27]]||[[1807-12-10]]||son of Ludovico I
 +|}
 + 
 +''Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807-1814. Napoleon's sister [[Elisa Bonaparte]] was given the honorary title of ''Grand Duchess of Tuscany'', but did not actually rule over the region.''
 + 
 +==Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814-1860==
 + 
 +{| class="wikitable" cellpadding=2 cellspacing=2
 +|-
 +! with=100px | # !! width=300px | Name !! width=100px | Started !! width=100px | Ended !! width=300px | Relationship with predecessor(s)
 +|-
 +|10||[[Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Ferdinando III]]||[[1814-04-27]]||[[1824-06-18]]||(restored)
 +|-
 +|11||[[Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Leopoldo II]]||[[1824-06-18]]||[[1859-07-21]]||son of Ferdinando III
 +|-
 +|12||[[Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Ferdinando IV]]||[[1859-07-21]]||[[1860-03-22]]||son of Leopoldo II
 +|}
 + 
 +''Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by [[Kingdom of Sardinia|Piedmont-Sardinia]], on 22 March 1860.''
 + 
 +==Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860-present==
 +* [[Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Ferdinand IV]] 1860-1908<!---heads of this line after Ferdinand IV may have used the title of grand duke, which Sigismund currently does--->
 +* [[Archduke Josef Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany|Joseph Ferdinand]] 1908-1921
 +* [[Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany|Peter Ferdinand]] 1921-1948
 +* [[Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany|Gottfried]] 1948-1984
 +* [[Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany|Leopold Franz]] 1984-1993
 +* [[Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany|Sigismund]] 1993-Present
 + 
 +==See also==
 +* [[List of Tuscan consorts]]
 +* [[Grand Duchy of Tuscany]]
 +* [[History of Tuscany]]
 +* [[Line of succession to the Tuscan throne]]
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The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Contents

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197

Bonifacii

These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.

House of Arles

These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the original dynasty.

Various

House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.

Various

Unofficial Medici Rulers of Florence, 1434-1531

Medici Dukes of Florence, 1531-1569

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1Alessandro1532-05-011537-01-06 
2Cosimo I1537-09-201569-08-21fourth cousin of Alessandro

Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569-1737

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1Cosimo I1569-08-211574-04-21 
2Francesco I1574-04-211587-10-19son of Cosimo I
3Ferdinando I1587-10-191609-02-07brother of Francesco I
son of Cosimo I
4Cosimo II1609-02-071621-02-28son of Ferdinando I
5Ferdinando II1621-02-281670-05-23son of Cosimo II
6Cosimo III1670-05-231723-10-31son of Ferdinando II
7Gian Gastone1723-10-311737-07-09son of Cosimo III

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1737-1801

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
8Francesco II Stefano1737-07-121765-08-18great-great-great-grandson of Francesco I
9Pietro Leopoldo I1765-08-181790-07-22second son of Francesco II Stefano
10Ferdinando III1790-07-221801-08-03second son of Pietro Leopoldo I

Bourbon Kings of Etruria, 1801-1807

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
1Ludovico I1801-08-031803-05-27Grandson of Francisco II Stefano
2Carlo Ludovico II1803-05-271807-12-10son of Ludovico I

Tuscany was annexed by France, 1807-1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814-1860

# Name Started Ended Relationship with predecessor(s)
10Ferdinando III1814-04-271824-06-18(restored)
11Leopoldo II1824-06-181859-07-21son of Ferdinando III
12Ferdinando IV1859-07-211860-03-22son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognized in Tuscany, and was deposed by the provisional government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Piedmont-Sardinia, on 22 March 1860.

Titular Habsburg-Lorraine claimants, 1860-present

See also




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