La Arcadia  

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-:''[[history of the novel]]'' +:''[[pastoral literature]]''
-== Individual Novels Discussed ==+
-:''[[earliest, extant novels]], [[ancient Greek novel]]'' 
-From [[Western antiquity]]—Greece and Rome—these are the earliest, extant novels: 
-*[[Xenophon]], ''[[Cyropaedia (Xenophon)|The Education of Cyrus]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[4th century BC]]). A largely fictional account of the education of King [[Cyrus the Great]] of Persia. This is considered a precursor to the novel. 
-*[[Petronius Arbiter|Petronius]], ''[[Satyricon]]'' ([[Latin]], [[1st century]]). 
-*[[Apuleius]], ''[[The Golden Ass]]'' ([[Latin]], [[2nd century]]).  
-*[[Chariton]], ''[[The Loves of Chaereas and Callirhoe]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[1st century]]–[[2nd century]]). 
-*[[Achilles Tatius]], ''[[Leucippe and Clitophon]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[2nd century]]). 
-*[[Longus]], ''[[Daphnis and Chloe]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[2nd century]]). 
-*[[Xenophon of Ephesus]], ''[[Ephesian Tale]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[2nd century]]–[[3rd century]]). 
-*[[Heliodorus of Emesa|Heliodorus]], ''[[Ethiopian Tale]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[3rd century]]–[[4th century]]). 
-*Anon, ''[[Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[3rd century]]–[[4th century]]). 
-*Anon, ''[[Joseph and Aseneth]]'' ([[Greek language|Greek]], [[1st century]]–[[5th century]]). 
-*Anon, ''[[Apollonius King of Tyre|The Story of Apollonius, King of Tyre]]'' ([[Latin]] adaptation of lost [[Greek language|Greek]] original, [[5th century]]–[[6th century]]). 
-===Asian works=== 
-:''[[Asian novel]]'' 
-Early important Asian novels include: 
-*[[Dandin]], ''[[The Adventures of the Ten Princes]]'' ([[Sanskrit]], [[6th century]]–[[7th century]]). 
-*[[Banabhatta]], ''[[Kadambari]]'' ([[Sanskrit]], [[7th century]]). 
-*Anon, ''[[The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter]]'' ([[Japanese language|Japanese]], [[10th century]]). 
-*[[Murasaki Shikibu]], ''[[The Tale of Genji]]'' ([[Japanese language|Japanese]], [[11th century]]). Arguably the first novel, in the sense of a continued fictional narrative written by one author. 
-*[[Luo Guanzhong]], ''[[Romance of the Three Kingdoms]]'' ([[Chinese language|Chinese]], [[14th century]]). 
-*[[Shi Nai'an]] and [[Luo Guanzhong]], ''[[Water Margin]]'' ([[Chinese language|Chinese]], [[15th century]]). 
-*[[Wu Cheng'en]], ''[[Journey to the West]]'' ([[Chinese language|Chinese]], [[16th century]]). 
-*[[Cao Xueqin]], ''[[Dream of the Red Chamber]]'' ([[Chinese language|Chinese]], [[18th Century]]). 
-=== The 13th century === 
-:''[[13th century literature]]'' 
-*[[Ramon Llull]], ''[[Blanquerna]]'' ([[1283]]) 
-=== The 14th century === 
-:''[[15th century literature]]'' 
-* [[Giovanni Boccaccio]], ''[[Decameron]]'' ([[1353]]) 
-* [[Geoffrey Chaucer]], ''[[Canterbury Tales]]'' ([[1386]]-[[1400]]) 
-=== The 15th century === 
-:''[[15th century literature]]'' 
-*[[Antoine de la Sale]], ''[[Petit Jehan de Saintré]]'' ([[1456]]) 
-*[[Thomas Malory]], ''[[Le Morte d'Arthur]]'', ([[English language|English]], [[1485]]). 
-*[[Joanot Martorell]], ''[[Tirant lo Blanc]]'' ([[Catalan language|Catalan]], [[1490]]), chivalric romance. 
-=== The 16th century === 
-:''[[16th century literature]]'' 
*[[Jacopo Sannazaro]], ''[[La Arcadia]]'', ([[Italian language|Italian]], [[1504]]), pastoral novel. *[[Jacopo Sannazaro]], ''[[La Arcadia]]'', ([[Italian language|Italian]], [[1504]]), pastoral novel.
-*[[Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo]], ''[[Amadis de Gaula]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]] adaptation of lost [[13th century]] original, [[1508]]). 
-*[[Thomas More]], ''[[Utopia (Novel)|Utopia]]'' ([[Latin]], circa [[1516]]). 
-*[[François Rabelais]], ''[[Pantagruel]]'', ([[French language|French]], [[1532]]). 
-*[[Jorge de Montemayor]], ''[[La Diana]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[1559]]), pastoral novel.  
-*Anon, ''[[Lazarillo de Tormes]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[1554]]). 
-*[[Mateo Aleman|Mateo Alemán]], ''[[Guzmán de Alfarache]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[1599]]). 
-=== The 17th century === 
-:''[[17th century literature]]'' 
-*[[Miguel de Cervantes]], ''[[Don Quixote]] de la Mancha'' ([[1605]]). 
-*[[Miguel de Cervantes]], ''[[Novelas Exemplares]]'' ([[1613]]). 
-*[[Francisco de Quevedo]], ''[[El buscón]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[1626]]), masterpiece of the picaresque subgenre.  
-*[[Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen]], ''[[Simplicissimus]]'' ([[German language|German]], [[1668]]/[[1669]]), the [[Thirty Years War]] put into satirical autobiography. 
-*[[Aphra Behn]], [[Love-Letters between a Nobleman and his Sister]] ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1684]]/[[1685]]/[[1687]]), the first full blown epistolary novel. 
-*[[Aphra Behn]], ''[[Oroonoko]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1688]]). 
-=== The 18th century === 
-:''[[18th century literature]]'' 
-*[[Eliza Haywood]], ''[[Love in Excess]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1719]]) 
-*[[Daniel Defoe]], ''[[Robinson Crusoe]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1719]]) 
-*[[Samuel Richardson]], ''[[Pamela]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1740]]) 
-*[[Henry Fielding]], ''[[The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling|Tom Jones]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1749]]) 
-*[[Laurence Sterne]], ''[[Tristram Shandy]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1759]]-[[1767]]) 
-*[[Tobias Smollett]], ''[[The Expedition of Humphrey Clinker]]'', ([[Scotland|Scottish]], [[1771]]) 
-*[[Ignacy Krasicki]], ''[[The Adventures of Nicholas Experience]]'' (the first [[Poland|Polish]] novel, [[1776]]). 
-*[[Frances Burney]], ''[[Evelina]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1778]]) 
-*[[Ann Radcliffe]], ''[[The Mysteries of Udolpho]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1794]]) 
-*[[Mary Hays]], ''[[Memoirs of Emma Courtney]]'', ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1796]]) 
-=== The 19th century === 
-:''[[19th century literature]]'' 
-*[[Jane Austen]], ''[[Pride and Prejudice]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1811]]). 
-*[[Aleksandr Pushkin]], ''[[Eugene Onegin]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]]), [[1825]]-[[1831]]. 
-*[[Stendhal]], ''[[The Red and the Black]]'' ([[French language|French]], [[1831]]). 
-*[[Honoré de Balzac]], ''[[Le père Goriot|Père Goriot]]'' (Old Goriot; [[French language|French]], [[1835]]). 
-*[[Stendhal]], ''[[The Charterhouse of Parma]]'' ([[French language|French]], [[1839]]). 
-*[[Mikhail Lermontov]], ''[[A Hero of Our Time]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]]), [[1839]]. 
-*[[Alessandro Manzoni]], ''[[The Betrothed]]'' ([[Italian language|Italian]], [[1840]]). 
-*[[Emily Brontë]], ''[[Wuthering Heights]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1847]]). 
-*[[Charlotte Brontë]], ''[[Jane Eyre]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1847]]). 
-*[[Herman Melville]], ''[[Moby-Dick]]'' ([[American language|American]], [[1851]]). 
-*[[Anthony Trollope]], ''[[Barchester Towers]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1857]]).  
-*[[Gustave Flaubert]], ''[[Madame Bovary]]'' ([[French language|French]],[[1857]]). 
-*[[Ivan Goncharov]], ''[[Oblomov]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]]), [[1859]]. 
-*[[Charles Dickens]], ''[[Great Expectations]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1860]]-[[1861]]). 
-*[[Ivan Turgenev]], ''[[Fathers and Sons]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]]), [[1861]]. 
-*[[Victor Hugo]], ''[[Les Misérables]]'' ([[French language|French]], [[1862]]). 
-*[[Leo Tolstoy]], ''[[War and Peace]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]], [[1865]]). 
-*[[Fyodor Dostoyevsky]], ''[[Crime and Punishment]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]], [[1866]]). 
-*[[George Eliot]], ''[[Middlemarch]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1871]]). 
-*[[Leo Tolstoy]], ''[[Anna Karenina]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]]), ([[1875]]-[[1877]]). 
-*[[Józef Ignacy Kraszewski]], ''[[An Ancient Tale]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1876]]). 
-*[[Fyodor Dostoyevsky]], ''[[The Brothers Karamazov]]'' ([[Russian language|Russian]]), [[1880]]). 
-*[[Mark Twain]], ''[[The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn]]'' ([[American language|American]], [[1885]]). 
-*[[Gabriela Zapolska]], ''[[Cathy the Caryatid]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1885]] – [[1886]]). 
-*[[Benito Pérez Galdós]], ''[[Fortunata y Jacinta]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[1886]]-[[1887]]). 
-*[[Wilhelm Raabe]], ''[[Stopfkuchen]]'', [[1891]] 
-*[[Henryk Sienkiewicz]], ''[[Quo Vadis (novel)|Quo Vadis]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1895]]). 
-*[[Boleslaw Prus|Bolesław Prus]], ''[[Faraon|Pharaoh]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1895]]). 
-*[[Joseph Conrad]], ''[[The Nigger of the 'Narcissus']]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1897]]). 
-*[[Theodor Fontane]], ''[[Der Stechlin]]'', [[1899]] 
-=== The 20th century === 
-:''[[20th century literature]]'' 
-*[[Stefan Zeromski|Stefan Żeromski]]: ''[[Ashes]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1902]] – [[1903]]) 
-*[[Wladyslaw Reymont|Władysław Reymont]]: ''[[The Peasants]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1902]] – [[1909]]). 
-*[[Gabriela Zapolska]], ''[[Seasonal Love]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1904]]). 
-*[[Marcel Proust]] ''[[In Search Of Lost Time]]'' ([[French language|French]], [[1913]]-[[1927]]).  
-*[[James Joyce]] ''[[Ulysses (novel)|Ulysses]]'' ([[Hiberno-English|Irish]], [[1922 in literature|1922]]). 
-*[[Thomas Mann]] ''[[The Magic Mountain]]'' ([[German language|German]], [[1924]]). 
-*[[Franz Kafka]] ''[[The Trial]]'' ([[German language|German]], [[1925]]).  
-*[[Betty Smith]] ''[[A Tree Grows In Brooklyn]]'' ([[United States|American]], [[1943]]). 
-*[[Virginia Woolf]] ''[[To the Lighthouse]]'' ([[United Kingdom|British]], [[1927]]).  
-*[[Robert Musil]] ''[[The Man Without Qualities]]'' ([[German language|Austrian]], [[1930]]-[[1942]]). 
-*[[William Faulkner]] ''[[As I Lay Dying]]'' ([[English language|American]], 1930). 
-*[[Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz|Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz]], ''[[Insatiability]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1930]]). 
-*[[Tadeusz Dolega-Mostowicz|Tadeusz Dołęga-Mostowicz]], ''[[The Career of Nicodemus Dyzma]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1932]]). 
-*[[Witold Gombrowicz]], ''[[Ferdydurke]]'' ([[Polish language|Polish]], [[1937]]).  
-*[[Vaikom Muhammad Basheer]], ''[[Baalyakaalasakhi]]'' ([[Malayalam language| Malayalam]], [[1944]]) 
-The 20th century also saw the emergence of many notable novelists of non-European and non-U.S. backgrounds. The years [[1960]] – [[1967]], in particular, witnessed the [[Latin America novel boom]]: 
-*[[Mario Vargas Llosa]], ''[[La ciudad y los perros]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]], [[1963]]). 
-*[[Gabriel García Márquez]], ''[[Cien años de soledad]]'' ([[Spanish language|Spanish]]). 
-*[[Isabel Allende]], ''[[The House of the Spirits]]'' (1982)  
-The most notable [[African American]] novelists have included: 
-*[[Zora Neale Hurston]], ''[[Their Eyes Were Watching God]]'' (1937)  
-*[[Ralph Ellison]], ''[[Invisible Man]]'' ([[1952]]) 
-*[[James Baldwin (writer)|James Baldwin]], ''[[Another Country (novel)|Another Country]]'' ([[1962]]) 
-*[[Toni Morrison]], ''[[Beloved (novel)|Beloved]]'' (1987) 
-[[Modernism]] continued into the late 20th century, sometimes becoming [[postmodernism]]; Toni Morrison (above) is part of that tradition: 
-* [[Vladimir Nabokov]], ''[[Lolita]]'' (1955) 
-* [[Thomas Pynchon]], ''[[Gravity's Rainbow]]'' (1973) 
-* [[Salman Rushdie]], ''[[Midnight's Children]]'' (1980)  
-* [[Milan Kundera]], ''[[The Unbearable Lightness of Being]]'' (1984) 
-Other novelists ignored or reacted against [[modernism]]: 
-* [[John Updike]], the ''Rabbit'' tetralogy (1959–1990) 
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Revision as of 22:13, 12 January 2010

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