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-A [[theoretical]] model for [[governance]], common in [[democratic]] states, which features the division of [[sovereign]] power into at least three (but sometimes up to six) [[organs of state]] in order to [[forestall]] [[tyranny]], by preventing the [[acquisition]] of a [[monopoly]] of power by a [[monarch]] or [[oligarchy]]; also, such an [[arrangement]]. 
-== History == 
-The model was first developed in [[ancient Greece]] and came into widespread use by the [[Roman Republic]] as part of the uncodified [[Constitution of the Roman Republic]]. Under this model, the [[state]] is divided into branches or [[Estates of the realm|estates]], each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility. The normal division of estates is into an [[Executive (government)|executive]], a [[legislature]], and a [[judiciary]]. 
-[[Parliamentary democracy|Parliamentary democracies]] do not have distinct separation of powers. The executive, which often consists of a [[prime minister]] and [[cabinet]] ("government"), is drawn from the legislature ([[parliament]]). This is the principle of [[responsible government]]. However, although the legislative and executive branches are connected, in parliamentary systems there is usually a [[Judicial independence|independent judiciary]].+# The [[court]] system and [[judge]]s considered [[collective]]ly, the [[judicial]] branch of [[government]].
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-No democratic system exists with an absolute separation of powers or an absolute ''lack of'' separation of powers. Nonetheless, some systems are clearly founded on the principle of separation of powers, while others are clearly based on a fusion of powers.+
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-Coined by the [[French]] [[Age of Enlightenment]] philosopher [[Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu|Montesquieu]] (1689–1755).+
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Revision as of 18:13, 18 December 2008

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  1. The court system and judges considered collectively, the judicial branch of government.

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