Jan Łukasiewicz  

From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia

(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
Revision as of 13:53, 23 February 2013
Jahsonic (Talk | contribs)

← Previous diff
Current revision
Jahsonic (Talk | contribs)

Line 1: Line 1:
{{Template}} {{Template}}
 +'''Jan Łukasiewicz''' ({{IPA-pol|ˈjan wukaˈɕɛvʲitʂ|lang}}) (21 December 1878 – 13 February 1956) was a [[Poland|Polish]] [[logician]] and [[philosopher]] born in [[Lwów]] (Lemberg in German), [[Austrian Galicia|Galicia]], then [[Austria–Hungary]]. His work centred on [[analytical philosophy]] and [[mathematical logic]]. He thought innovatively about traditional [[propositional logic]], the principle of [[principle of contradiction|non-contradiction]] and the [[law of excluded middle]].
-In [[Rome]], these Greek concepts were partly shaken. [[Horace]] wrote that not only poets but painters as well were entitled to the privilege of daring whatever they wished to ("''quod libet audendi''"). In the declining period of antiquity, [[Philostratus]] wrote that "one can discover a similarity between [[poetry]] and [[art]] and find that they have [[imagination]] in common." [[Callistratos]] averred that "Not only is the art of the [[poet]]s and [[prose|prosaist]]s inspired, but likewise the hands of [[sculptor]]s are gifted with the blessing of divine [[inspiration]]." This was something new: [[classical Greece|classical Greeks]] had not applied the [[concept]]s of [[imagination]] and [[inspiration]] to the [[visual arts]] but had restricted them to [[poetry]]. [[Latin]] was richer than [[Greek language|Greek]]: it had a term for "creating" ("''creatio''") and for "''creator''," and had ''two'' expressions — "''facere''" and "''creare''" — where Greek had but one, "''poiein''." Still, the two Latin terms meant much the same thing.  
-A fundamental change, however, came in the [[Christianity|Christian]] period: "''creatio''" came to designate [[God]]'s act of "creation from nothing" ("''creatio ex nihilo''"). "''Creatio''" thus took on a different meaning than "''facere''" ("to make"), and ceased to apply to human functions. As the [[6th century|6th-century]] Roman official and literary figure [[Cassiodorus]] wrote, "things made and created differ, for we can make, who cannot create."+=== Papers ===
-Alongside this new, [[religion|religious]] interpretation of the expression, there persisted the ancient view that art is not a domain of creativity. This is seen in two early and influential Christian writers, [[Pseudo-Dionysius]] and [[Augustine of Hippo|St. Augustine]]. Later [[medieval]] men such as [[Hraban the Moor]], and [[Robert Grosseteste]] in the [[13th century]], thought much the same way. The [[Middle Ages]] here went even further than [[classical antiquity|antiquity]]; they made no exception of poetry: it too had its rules, was an [[art]], and was therefore [[craft]] and not creativity. +* 1903 "On Induction as Inversion of Deduction"
 +* 1906 "Analysis and Construction of the Concept of Cause"
 +* 1910 "On Aristotle's Principle of Contradiction"
 +* 1913 "On the Reversibility of the Relation of Ground and Consequence"
 +* 1920 "On Three-valued Logic"
 +* 1921 "Two-valued Logic"
 +* 1922 "A Numerical Interpretation of the Theory of Propositions"
 +* 1928 "Concerning the Method in Philosophy"
 +* 1929 "Elements of Mathematical Logic"
 +* 1929 "On Importance and Requirements of Mathematical Logic"
 +* 1930 "Philosophical Remarks on Many-Valued Systems of Propositional Logic"
 +* 1930 "Investigations into the Sentential Calculus" ["Untersuchungen über den Aussagenkalkül"], with Alfred Tarski
 +* 1931 "Comments on Nicod's Axiom and the 'Generalizing Deduction'"
 +* 1934 "On Science"
 +* 1934 "Importance of Logical Analysis for Knowledge"
 +* 1934 "Outlines of the History of the Propositional Logic"
 +* 1936 "Logistic and Philosophy"
 +* 1937 "In Defense of the Logistic"
 +* 1938 "On Descartes's Philosophy"
 +* 1943 "The Shortest Axiom of the Implicational Calculus of Propositions"
 +* 1951 "On Variable Functors of Propositional Arguments"
 +* 1952 "On the Intuitionistic Theory of Deduction"
 +* 1953 "A System of Modal Logic"
 +* 1954 "On a Controversial Problem of Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic"
-All this changed in modern times. [[Renaissance]] men had a sense of their own independence, freedom and creativity, and sought to give voice to this sense of independence and creativity. The philosopher [[Marsilio Ficino]] wrote that the artist "thinks up" ("''excogitatio''") his works; the theoretician of architecture and painting, [[Leon Battista Alberti]], that he "preordains" ("''preordinazione''"); [[Raphael]], that he shapes a painting according to his idea; [[Leonardo da Vinci]], that he employs "shapes that do not exist in nature"; [[Michelangelo]], that the artist realizes his vision rather than imitating nature; [[Giorgio Vasari]], that "nature is conquered by art"; the Venetian art theoretician, [[Paolo Pino]], that painting is "inventing what is not"; [[Paolo Veronese]], that painters avail themselves of the same liberties as do poets and madmen; [[Federico Zuccari]] ([[1542]]-[[1609]]), that the artist shapes "a new world, new paradises"; [[Cesare Cesariano]] ([[1483]]-[[1541]]), that architects are "demi-gods." Among [[musician]]s, the [[Holland|Dutch]] composer and musicologist [[Jan Tinctoris]] ([[1446]]-[[1511]]) demanded novelty in what a composer did, and defined a composer as "one who produces ''new'' songs." +==See also==
 +* [[Łukasiewicz logic]]
 +* [[History of philosophy in Poland#Twentieth century|History of philosophy in Poland]]
 +* [[Stanisław Leśniewski]]
 +* [[List of Poles#Philosophy|List of Poles]]
 +* [[27114 Lukasiewicz]]
-Still more emphatic were those who wrote about [[poetry]]: [[G.P. Capriano]] held ([[1555]]) that the poet's invention springs "from nothing." [[Francesco Patrizi]] ([[1586]]) saw poetry as "fiction," "shaping," "transformation." 
- 
-Finally, at long last, someone ventured to use the word, "creation." He was the [[17th century|17th-century]] [[Poland|Polish]] poet and theoretician of poetry, [[Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski]] ([[1595]]-[[1640]]), known as "the last Latin poet." In his treatise, ''De perfecta poesi'', he not only wrote that a poet "invents," "after a fashion builds," but also that the poet "''creates anew''" ("''de novo creat''"). Sarbiewski even added: "in the manner of God" ("''instar Dei''"). 
- 
-Sarbiewski, however, regarded creativity as the exclusive privilege of poetry; creativity was not open to visual artists. "Other arts merely imitate and copy but do not create, because they assume the existence of the material from which they create or of the subject." As late as the end of the [[17th century]], [[André Félibien]] ([[1619]]-[[1675]]) would write that the painter is "so to speak [a] creator." The [[Spain|Spanish]] [[Jesuit]] [[Baltasar Gracián]] ([[1601]]-[[1658]]) wrote similarly as Sarbiewski: "Art is the completion of nature, as it were ''a second Creator''..." 
- 
-By the [[18th century]], the concept of creativity was appearing more often in art theory. It was linked with the concept of [[imagination]], which was on all lips. [[Joseph Addison]] wrote that the imagination "has something in it like creation." [[Voltaire]] declared ([[1740]]) that "the true poet is creative." With both these authors, however, this was rather only a ''comparison'' of poet with creator. 
- 
-Other writers took a different view. [[Denis Diderot]] felt that imagination is merely "the memory of forms and contents," and "creates nothing" but only combines, magnifies or diminishes. It was precisely in [[18th century|18th-century]] [[France]], indeed, that the idea of man's creativity met with resistance. [[Charles Batteux]] wrote that "The human mind ''cannot create'', strictly speaking; all its products bear the stigmata of their model; even monsters invented by an imagination unhampered by laws can only be composed of parts taken from nature." [[Luc de Clapiers, marquis de Vauvenargues]] ([[1715]]-[[1747]]), and [[Étienne Bonnot de Condillac]] ([[1715]]-[[1780]]) spoke to a similar effect. 
- 
-Their resistance to the idea of human creativity had a triple source. The expression, "creation," was then reserved for creation ''ex nihilo'' ([[Latin]]: "from nothing"), which was inaccessible to man. Second, creation is a mysterious act, and [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]] psychology did not admit of mysteries. Third, artists of the age were attached to their rules, and creativity seemed irreconcilable with rules. The latter objection was the weakest, as it was already beginning to be realized (e.g., by [[Houdar de la Motte]], [[1715]]) that rules ultimately are a ''human invention''.  
- 
-In the [[19th century]], art took its compensation for the resistance of preceding centuries against recognizing it as creativity. Now not only was art regarded as creativity, but ''it alone'' was so regarded. When later, at the turn of the [[20th century]], there began to be discussion as well of creativity in the [[science]]s (e.g., [[Jan Łukasiewicz]], [[1878]]-[[1956]]) and in [[nature]] (e.g., [[Henri Bergson]]), this was generally taken as the transference, to the sciences and to nature, of concepts proper to [[art]]. 
- 
-The start of the ''scientific'' study of creativity is sometimes taken as [[J. P. Guilford]]'s 1950 address to the [[American Psychological Association]], which helped popularize the subject.  
- 
-Other students of creativity have taken a more pragmatic approach, teaching practical [[creativity techniques]]. Three of the most well-known are [[Alex Osborn]]'s "[[brainstorming]]" (1950s to present), [[Genrikh Altshuller]]'s Theory of Inventive Problem Solving ([[TRIZ]], 1950s to present), and [[Edward de Bono]]'s "[[lateral thinking]]" (1960s to present). 
{{GFDL}} {{GFDL}}

Current revision

Related e

Google
Wikipedia
Wiktionary
Wiki Commons
Wikiquote
Wikisource
YouTube
Shop


Featured:
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Enlarge
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Jan Łukasiewicz (Template:IPA-pol) (21 December 1878 – 13 February 1956) was a Polish logician and philosopher born in Lwów (Lemberg in German), Galicia, then Austria–Hungary. His work centred on analytical philosophy and mathematical logic. He thought innovatively about traditional propositional logic, the principle of non-contradiction and the law of excluded middle.


Papers

  • 1903 "On Induction as Inversion of Deduction"
  • 1906 "Analysis and Construction of the Concept of Cause"
  • 1910 "On Aristotle's Principle of Contradiction"
  • 1913 "On the Reversibility of the Relation of Ground and Consequence"
  • 1920 "On Three-valued Logic"
  • 1921 "Two-valued Logic"
  • 1922 "A Numerical Interpretation of the Theory of Propositions"
  • 1928 "Concerning the Method in Philosophy"
  • 1929 "Elements of Mathematical Logic"
  • 1929 "On Importance and Requirements of Mathematical Logic"
  • 1930 "Philosophical Remarks on Many-Valued Systems of Propositional Logic"
  • 1930 "Investigations into the Sentential Calculus" ["Untersuchungen über den Aussagenkalkül"], with Alfred Tarski
  • 1931 "Comments on Nicod's Axiom and the 'Generalizing Deduction'"
  • 1934 "On Science"
  • 1934 "Importance of Logical Analysis for Knowledge"
  • 1934 "Outlines of the History of the Propositional Logic"
  • 1936 "Logistic and Philosophy"
  • 1937 "In Defense of the Logistic"
  • 1938 "On Descartes's Philosophy"
  • 1943 "The Shortest Axiom of the Implicational Calculus of Propositions"
  • 1951 "On Variable Functors of Propositional Arguments"
  • 1952 "On the Intuitionistic Theory of Deduction"
  • 1953 "A System of Modal Logic"
  • 1954 "On a Controversial Problem of Aristotle's Modal Syllogistic"

See also





Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Jan Łukasiewicz" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

Personal tools