Henry Mackenzie  

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-The '''sentimental novel''' or the '''novel of sensibility''' is an [[18th century in literature|18th century literary genre]] which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of [[sentiment]], [[sentimentalism]], and [[sensibility]]. [[Sentimentalism]], which is to be distinguished from [[sensibility]], was a fashion in both [[poetry]] and prose fiction beginning in the [[eighteenth century]] in reaction to the rationalism of the [[Augustan literature|Augustan Age]].+'''Henry Mackenzie''' (August, [[1745]] - 14 January 1831) was a [[Scotland|Scottish]] [[novelist]] and miscellaneous writer. He was also known by the [[sobriquet]] "'''Addison of the North'''."
-An early example is [[Manon Lescaut]] by [[Antoine François Prévost|Antoine-François Prévost]] in [[1731]], the story of a courtesan for whom a young seminary student of noble birth forsakes his career, family, and religion and ends as a [[card shark]] and [[confidence]] man. His downward progress, if not actually excused, is portrayed as a sacrifice to love.+==Biography==
 +Mackenzie was born in [[Edinburgh]].
-The prototype of the English sentimental novel is [[Samuel Richardson]]'s [[novel]] ''[[Pamela (novel)|Pamela]]'' (1740). The term and the literary style originate in medieval [[France|French]] (and later [[England|English]]) [[Romance (genre)|romances]], in which the [[hero]] is usually preoccupied with his or her love and love sufferings. The second important novel was ''[[The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling]]''. The sentimental novel was [[satire|satirized]] by [[Henry Fielding]] in [[Joseph Andrews]] a year later.+His father, Joshua Mackenzie, was a distinguished [[physician]], and his mother, Margaret Rose, belonged to an old [[Nairnshire]] family. Mackenzie was educated at the [[Royal High School (Edinburgh)|Royal High School]] and the [[University of Edinburgh]], and was then articled to George Inglis of Redhall, who was attorney for the crown in the management of exchequer business. In 1765 he was sent to London to prosecute his [[law|legal studies]], and on his return to Edinburgh became partner with Inglis, whom he afterwards succeeded as [[solicitor|attorney]] for the crown.
-Sentimental novels are related to the [[domestic fiction]] of the early eighteenth century. Among the most famous sentimental novels are [[Laurence Sterne]]'s ''[[A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy|Sentimental Journey]] (1768)'' and [[Henry Mackenzie]]'s ''[[The Man of Feeling]]'' (1771). +Mackenzie had attempted to interest publishers in what would become his first and most famous work, ''[[The Man of Feeling]]'', for several years, but they would not even accept it as a gift. Finally, Mackenzie published it anonymously in 1771, and it became instantly successful. The "Man of Feeling" is a weak creature, dominated by a futile benevolence, who goes up to London and falls into the hands of people who exploit his innocence. The sentimental key in which the book is written shows the author's acquaintance with [[Laurence Sterne|Sterne]] and [[Samuel Richardson|Richardson]], but he had neither the humour of Sterne nor the subtle insight into character of Richardson. A clergyman from Bath named Eccles claimed authorship of the book, bringing in support of his pretensions a manuscript full of changes and erasures. Mackenzie's name was then officially announced, but Eccles appears to have induced some people to believe in him. In 1773 Mackenzie published a second novel, ''[[Man of the World (1773 novel)|The Man of the World]]'', the hero of which was as consistently bad as the "Man of Feeling" had been "constantly obedient to his moral sense," as [[Sir Walter Scott]] says. ''Julia de Roubigné'' (1777) is an [[epistolary novel]].
-Along with a new vision of love, sentimentalism presented a new view of human nature which prized feeling over thinking, passion over reason, and personal instincts of "pity, tenderness, and benevolence" over social duties.+The first of his dramatic pieces, ''The Prince of Tunis'', was produced in Edinburgh in 1773 with a certain measure of success. The others were failures. At Edinburgh Mackenzie belonged to a literary club, at the meetings of which papers in the manner of ''[[The Spectator (1711)|The Spectator]]'' were read. This led to the establishment of a weekly periodical called the ''Mirror'' (23 January 1779 - 27 May 1780), of which Mackenzie was editor and chief contributor. It was followed in 1785 by a similar paper, the Lounger, which ran for nearly two years and had the distinction of containing one of the earliest tributes to the genius of [[Robert Burns]].
-Possibly the most prominent example of sentimental fiction in America is [[Susan Warner]]'s ''[[The Wide, Wide World]]''.+Mackenzie was an ardent [[Tory]], and wrote many tracts intended to counteract the doctrines of the [[French Revolution]]. Most of these remained anonymous, but he acknowledged his ''Review of the Principal Proceedings of the Parliament of 1784'', a defence of the policy of [[William Pitt the Younger|William Pitt]], written at the desire of [[Henry Dundas]]. He was rewarded (1804) by the office of comptroller of the taxes for Scotland. In 1776 Mackenzie married Penuel, daughter of Sir Ludovich Grant of Grant. They had eleven children. He was, in his later years, a notable figure in Edinburgh society. He was nicknamed the "man of feeling," but he was in reality a hard-headed man of affairs with a kindly heart. Some of his literary reminiscences were embodied in his ''Account of the Life and Writings of John Home, Esq.'' (1822). He also wrote a ''Life of Doctor Blacklock'', prefixed to the 1793 edition of the poet's works.
-== The novel of sensibility == +
-After the [[1760s]], [[Laurence Sterne]]'s ''[[Tristram Shandy]]'' spawned the '''novel of sensibility'''; it is also a peak in the development of sentimentalism. In it, the protagonist, most often a young woman, naively encounters the world and learns to refine her natural goodness. Sensibility was a character trait important in the mid- to late-eighteenth century. A person with sensibility was attuned with nature and was easily, and rightly, affected by the feelings of others; the "sensible" person noticed the hurt of others and was a barometer of social morality. [[Tobias Smollett]] tried to imply the "cult of sensibility" in his [[Humphry Clinker]] 1771. An excellent example of this type of [[novel]] is Frances Burney's ''[[Evelina]]'' (1778), wherein the heroine, while naturally good, in part for being country-raised, hones her politeness when visiting London she is educated into propriety. This novel also is the beginning of "[[romantic comedy]]". +
-[[Johann Wolfgang von Goethe]]'s 1774 ''[[The Sorrows of Young Werther]]'' was highly sentimental and immediately extremely popular throughout Europe, and even caused young people who could relate to Werther's sorrows to commit suicide.+In 1807 ''The Works of Henry Mackenzie'' were published surreptitiously, and he then himself superintended the publication of his ''Works'' (8 vols., 1808). There is an admiring but discriminating criticism of his work in the ''Prefatory Memoir'' prefixed by Sir Walter Scott to an edition of his novels in Ballantyne's ''Novelist's Library'' (vol. v., 1823).
-== Gothic novel ==+He is buried at [[Greyfriars Kirkyard]], [[Edinburgh]].
-At the end of the eighteenth century, sensibility's value was questioned, as it made its bearers, particularly women, too overwrought and too prone to imagining worlds beyond their appointed ones. These anxieties are in the rise of the [[Gothic novel]], at century's end. The Gothic novel's story occurs in a distant time and place, often Renaissance Italy, and involved the fantastic exploits of an imperiled heroine. The classic Gothic novel is Horace Walpole’s ''[[The Castle of Otranto]]'' (1764). As in other Gothic novels, the notion of the [[Sublime (philosophy)|sublime]] is central. Eighteenth-century aesthetic theory held that the sublime and the beautiful were juxtaposed. The sublime was awful (awe-inspiring) and terrifying while the beautiful was calm and reassuring. The characters and landscapes of the Gothic rest almost entirely within the sublime, with the heroine the great exception. The “beautiful” heroine’s susceptibility to supernatural elements, integral to these novels, both celebrates and problematizes what came to be seen as hyper-sensibility. +
-Finally, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the overwrought emotions of sensibility, as expressed through the Gothic sublime, had run their course. [[Jane Austen]] wrote a Gothic novel parody titled ''[[Northanger Abbey]]'' (1803), reflecting the death of the Gothic novel. Moreover, while sensibility did not disappear, it was less valued. Austen introduced a different style of writing-the comedy of manners, but her novels often are not funny, but rather are scathing critiques of the restrictive, rural culture of the early nineteenth century. Jane Austen's ''[[Pride and Prejudice]]'' (1813), has been a blueprint for much subsequent [[romantic fiction]]. Her ''[[Sense and Sensibility]]'' is a "witty [[satire]] of the sentimental novel", by using the popular motives of the genre and the [[Age of Enlightenment]] (sense=reason and sensibility=sentimentalism) in contrast with reality ([[marriage]] and [[inheritance]]).+==Works==
 +* ''[[The Man of Feeling]]''
 +* ''[[Julia de Roubigné]]''
 +* ''[[The Prince of Tunis]]''
 +* ''[[Review of the Principal Proceedings of the Parliament of 1784]]''
 +* ''[[Account of the Life and Writings of John Home, Esq.]]''
 +* ''[[Life of Doctor Blacklock]]''
 +* ''[[The Works of Henry Mackenzie]]''
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Henry Mackenzie (August, 1745 - 14 January 1831) was a Scottish novelist and miscellaneous writer. He was also known by the sobriquet "Addison of the North."

Biography

Mackenzie was born in Edinburgh.

His father, Joshua Mackenzie, was a distinguished physician, and his mother, Margaret Rose, belonged to an old Nairnshire family. Mackenzie was educated at the Royal High School and the University of Edinburgh, and was then articled to George Inglis of Redhall, who was attorney for the crown in the management of exchequer business. In 1765 he was sent to London to prosecute his legal studies, and on his return to Edinburgh became partner with Inglis, whom he afterwards succeeded as attorney for the crown.

Mackenzie had attempted to interest publishers in what would become his first and most famous work, The Man of Feeling, for several years, but they would not even accept it as a gift. Finally, Mackenzie published it anonymously in 1771, and it became instantly successful. The "Man of Feeling" is a weak creature, dominated by a futile benevolence, who goes up to London and falls into the hands of people who exploit his innocence. The sentimental key in which the book is written shows the author's acquaintance with Sterne and Richardson, but he had neither the humour of Sterne nor the subtle insight into character of Richardson. A clergyman from Bath named Eccles claimed authorship of the book, bringing in support of his pretensions a manuscript full of changes and erasures. Mackenzie's name was then officially announced, but Eccles appears to have induced some people to believe in him. In 1773 Mackenzie published a second novel, The Man of the World, the hero of which was as consistently bad as the "Man of Feeling" had been "constantly obedient to his moral sense," as Sir Walter Scott says. Julia de Roubigné (1777) is an epistolary novel.

The first of his dramatic pieces, The Prince of Tunis, was produced in Edinburgh in 1773 with a certain measure of success. The others were failures. At Edinburgh Mackenzie belonged to a literary club, at the meetings of which papers in the manner of The Spectator were read. This led to the establishment of a weekly periodical called the Mirror (23 January 1779 - 27 May 1780), of which Mackenzie was editor and chief contributor. It was followed in 1785 by a similar paper, the Lounger, which ran for nearly two years and had the distinction of containing one of the earliest tributes to the genius of Robert Burns.

Mackenzie was an ardent Tory, and wrote many tracts intended to counteract the doctrines of the French Revolution. Most of these remained anonymous, but he acknowledged his Review of the Principal Proceedings of the Parliament of 1784, a defence of the policy of William Pitt, written at the desire of Henry Dundas. He was rewarded (1804) by the office of comptroller of the taxes for Scotland. In 1776 Mackenzie married Penuel, daughter of Sir Ludovich Grant of Grant. They had eleven children. He was, in his later years, a notable figure in Edinburgh society. He was nicknamed the "man of feeling," but he was in reality a hard-headed man of affairs with a kindly heart. Some of his literary reminiscences were embodied in his Account of the Life and Writings of John Home, Esq. (1822). He also wrote a Life of Doctor Blacklock, prefixed to the 1793 edition of the poet's works.

In 1807 The Works of Henry Mackenzie were published surreptitiously, and he then himself superintended the publication of his Works (8 vols., 1808). There is an admiring but discriminating criticism of his work in the Prefatory Memoir prefixed by Sir Walter Scott to an edition of his novels in Ballantyne's Novelist's Library (vol. v., 1823).

He is buried at Greyfriars Kirkyard, Edinburgh.

Works




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