Guillaume Thomas François Raynal  

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-:''[[Atheism in the Age of the Enlightenment]]'' 
-'''Paul-Henri Thiry, baron d'Holbach''' (b. [[1723]] - d. [[1789]]) was a [[Germans|German]]-[[French people|French]] [[author]], [[philosopher]] and [[encyclopedist]], best-known for his book ''[[The System of Nature]]''. He was born '''Paul Heinrich Dietrich''' in [[Edesheim, Germany|Edesheim]], [[Germany]] but lived and worked mainly in [[Paris]]. He is most famous as being one of the first self-described [[Atheism|atheists]] in [[Europe]]. 
-===D'Holbach's salon=== 
-:''[[D'Holbach's Coterie]]''+'''Guillaume Thomas François Raynal''' (April 12, 1711 – March 6, 1796) was a [[France|French]] [[writer]] and [[man of letters]] during the [[Age of Enlightenment]].
-Although he spent much of his time at his country estate at Grandval, d'Holbach used his wealth to maintain one of the more notable and lavish Parisian [[Salon (gathering)|''salons'']], which soon became an important meeting place for the contributors to the ''[[Encyclopédie]]''. Meetings were held regularly twice a week, on Sundays and Thursdays, in d'Holbach's home in rue Royale, butte Saint-Roche between approximately 1750 - 1780. Visitors to the salon were exclusively males, and the tone of discussion high-brow, often extending to topics more extensive than those of other salons. This, along with the excellent food, expensive wine, and a library of over 3000 volumes, attracted many notable visitors. Among the regulars in attendance at the salon—the ''coterie holbachique'' -- were the following: [[Denis Diderot|Diderot]], [[Friedrich Melchior, baron von Grimm|Grimm]], [[Étienne Bonnot de Condillac|Condillac]], [[Marquis de Condorcet|Condorcet]], [[Jean le Rond d'Alembert|D'Alembert]], [[Jean-François Marmontel|Marmontel]], [[Turgot]], [[Charles Marie de La Condamine|La Condamine]], [[Guillaume Thomas François Raynal|Raynal]], [[Helvétius]], [[Ferdinando Galiani|Galiani]], [[André Morellet|Morellet]], [[Jacques-André Naigeon|Naigeon]] and, for a time, [[Jean-Jacques Rousseau]]. The salon was also visited by prominent British intellectuals, amongst them [[Adam Smith]], [[David Hume]], [[John Wilkes]], [[Horace Walpole]] and [[Edward Gibbon]]. +He was born at [[Lapanouse]] in [[Rouergue]]. He was educated at the [[Society of Jesus|Jesuit]] school of [[Pézenas]], and received priest's orders, but he was dismissed for unexplained reasons from the parish of [[Saint-Sulpice (Paris)|Saint-Sulpice]], [[Paris]], to which he was attached, and thenceforward he devoted himself to society and literature. The Abbé Raynal wrote for the ''[[Mercure de France]]'', and compiled a series of popular but superficial works, which he published and sold himself. These - ''L'Histoire du stathoudérat'' (The Hague, 1748), ''L'Histoire du parlement d'Angleterre'' (London, 1748), ''Anecdotes historiques'' (Amsterdam, 3 vols., 1753) - gained for him access to the salons of [[Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin|Mme. Geoffrin]], [[Claude Adrien Helvétius|Helvétius]], and the [[Baron d'Holbach]].
-D'Holbach was known for his generosity, often providing financial support discreetly or anonymously to his friends, amongst them Diderot. It is thought that the virtuous atheist Wolmar in [[Jean-Jacques Rousseau]]'s ''[[Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse]]'' is based on d'Holbach.+He had the assistance of various members of the ''philosophe côteries'' in his most important work, ''L'Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes'' (Amsterdam, 4 vols., 1770). [[Denis Diderot|Diderot]] indeed is credited with a third of this work, which was characterized by [[Voltaire]] as "''du réchauffé avec de la declamation''." The other chief collaborators were [[Pechméja]], Holbach, [[Jacques Paulze|Paulze]], the farmer-general of taxes, the Abbé Martin, and [[Alexandre Deleyre]]. To this piecemeal method of composition, in which narrative alternated with tirades on political and social questions, was added the further disadvantage of the lack of exact information, which, owing to the dearth of documents, could only have been gained by personal investigation.
-Holbach died in Paris on 21 January 1789, a few months prior to the French Revolution. His authorship of his various anti-religious works did not become widely known until the early 19th century.+The "philosophic" declamations perhaps constituted its chief interest for the general public, and its significance as a contribution to democratic propaganda. The ''Histoire'' went through many editions, being revised and augmented from time to time by Raynal; it was translated into the principal European languages, and appeared in various abridgments. Its introduction into France was forbidden in 1779; the book was burned by the public executioner, and an order was given for the arrest of the author, whose name had not appeared in the first edition, but was printed on the title page of the [[Geneva]] edition of 1780. Raynal escaped to [[Spa, Belgium|Spa]], and thence to [[Berlin]], where he was coolly received by [[Frederick the Great]], in spite of his connection with the philosophe party.
 +At [[St. Petersburg]] he met with a more cordial reception from [[Catherine II of Russia|Catherine II]], and in 1787 he was permitted to return to France, though not to Paris. He showed generosity in assigning a considerable income to be divided annually among the peasant proprietors of upper Guienne. He was elected by Marseilles to the States-general, but refused to sit on the score of age. Raynal now realized the impossibility of a peaceful revolution, and, in terror of the proceedings for which the writings of himself and his friends had prepared the way, he sent to the Constituent Assembly an address, which was read on May 31, 1791, deprecating the violence of its reforms.
 +
 +This address is said by [[Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve|Sainte-Beuve]] (''Nouveaux lundis'', xi.) to have been composed chiefly by [[Clermont Tonnerre]] and [[Pierre Victor, baron Malouet|Pierre V. Malouet]], and it was regarded, even by moderate men, as ill-timed. The published ''Lettre de l'abbé Raynal a l'Assemblee nationale'' (December 10, 1790) was really the work of the [[Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert|comte de Guibert]]. During the [[Reign of Terror|Terror]] Raynal lived in retirement at Passy and at [[Montlhery]]. On the establishment of the Directory in 1795 he became a member of the newly organized Institute of France. He died in the next year on the 6th of March at [[Chaillot]].
 +
 +==Bibliography==
 +A detailed bibliography of his works and of those falsely attributed to him will be found in [[Joseph Marie Quérard|Quérard]]'s ''La France littéraire'', and the same author's ''Supercheries dévoilées''. The biography by A Jay, prefixed to Peuchet's edition (Paris, 10 vols, 1820-1821) of the ''Histoire ... des Indes'', is of small value. To this edition Peuchet added two supplementary volumes on colonial development from 1785 to 1824. See also the anonymous ''Raynal démasqué'' (1791); [[Cherhal Montreal]], ''Éloge ... de G. T. Raynal'' (an. IV.); a notice in the ''Moniteur'' (5 vendémiaire, an. V.); B Lunet, ''Biographie de l'abbé Raynal'' (Rodez, 1866); and J Morley, ''Diderot'' (1891).
 +
 +* A. Jay, ''Précis historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de l'abbé Raynal'', Paris, 1820 ;
 +* A. Feugère, ''Un Précurseur de la Révolution. L'Abbé Raynal (1713-1796),'' Angoulême, 1922 ;
 +* ''Raynal, de la polémique à l’histoire'', G. Bancarel, G. Goggi ed. Oxford, SVEC, 2000 ;
 +* G. Bancarel, ''Raynal ou le devoir de vérité'', Genève Champion, 2004.
 +
 +Ashgate plans to publish a translation of Raynal's selected writings in 2006.
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Guillaume Thomas François Raynal (April 12, 1711 – March 6, 1796) was a French writer and man of letters during the Age of Enlightenment.

He was born at Lapanouse in Rouergue. He was educated at the Jesuit school of Pézenas, and received priest's orders, but he was dismissed for unexplained reasons from the parish of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, to which he was attached, and thenceforward he devoted himself to society and literature. The Abbé Raynal wrote for the Mercure de France, and compiled a series of popular but superficial works, which he published and sold himself. These - L'Histoire du stathoudérat (The Hague, 1748), L'Histoire du parlement d'Angleterre (London, 1748), Anecdotes historiques (Amsterdam, 3 vols., 1753) - gained for him access to the salons of Mme. Geoffrin, Helvétius, and the Baron d'Holbach.

He had the assistance of various members of the philosophe côteries in his most important work, L'Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes (Amsterdam, 4 vols., 1770). Diderot indeed is credited with a third of this work, which was characterized by Voltaire as "du réchauffé avec de la declamation." The other chief collaborators were Pechméja, Holbach, Paulze, the farmer-general of taxes, the Abbé Martin, and Alexandre Deleyre. To this piecemeal method of composition, in which narrative alternated with tirades on political and social questions, was added the further disadvantage of the lack of exact information, which, owing to the dearth of documents, could only have been gained by personal investigation.

The "philosophic" declamations perhaps constituted its chief interest for the general public, and its significance as a contribution to democratic propaganda. The Histoire went through many editions, being revised and augmented from time to time by Raynal; it was translated into the principal European languages, and appeared in various abridgments. Its introduction into France was forbidden in 1779; the book was burned by the public executioner, and an order was given for the arrest of the author, whose name had not appeared in the first edition, but was printed on the title page of the Geneva edition of 1780. Raynal escaped to Spa, and thence to Berlin, where he was coolly received by Frederick the Great, in spite of his connection with the philosophe party.

At St. Petersburg he met with a more cordial reception from Catherine II, and in 1787 he was permitted to return to France, though not to Paris. He showed generosity in assigning a considerable income to be divided annually among the peasant proprietors of upper Guienne. He was elected by Marseilles to the States-general, but refused to sit on the score of age. Raynal now realized the impossibility of a peaceful revolution, and, in terror of the proceedings for which the writings of himself and his friends had prepared the way, he sent to the Constituent Assembly an address, which was read on May 31, 1791, deprecating the violence of its reforms.

This address is said by Sainte-Beuve (Nouveaux lundis, xi.) to have been composed chiefly by Clermont Tonnerre and Pierre V. Malouet, and it was regarded, even by moderate men, as ill-timed. The published Lettre de l'abbé Raynal a l'Assemblee nationale (December 10, 1790) was really the work of the comte de Guibert. During the Terror Raynal lived in retirement at Passy and at Montlhery. On the establishment of the Directory in 1795 he became a member of the newly organized Institute of France. He died in the next year on the 6th of March at Chaillot.

Bibliography

A detailed bibliography of his works and of those falsely attributed to him will be found in Quérard's La France littéraire, and the same author's Supercheries dévoilées. The biography by A Jay, prefixed to Peuchet's edition (Paris, 10 vols, 1820-1821) of the Histoire ... des Indes, is of small value. To this edition Peuchet added two supplementary volumes on colonial development from 1785 to 1824. See also the anonymous Raynal démasqué (1791); Cherhal Montreal, Éloge ... de G. T. Raynal (an. IV.); a notice in the Moniteur (5 vendémiaire, an. V.); B Lunet, Biographie de l'abbé Raynal (Rodez, 1866); and J Morley, Diderot (1891).

  • A. Jay, Précis historique sur la vie et les ouvrages de l'abbé Raynal, Paris, 1820 ;
  • A. Feugère, Un Précurseur de la Révolution. L'Abbé Raynal (1713-1796), Angoulême, 1922 ;
  • Raynal, de la polémique à l’histoire, G. Bancarel, G. Goggi ed. Oxford, SVEC, 2000 ;
  • G. Bancarel, Raynal ou le devoir de vérité, Genève Champion, 2004.

Ashgate plans to publish a translation of Raynal's selected writings in 2006.



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