Feminist epistemology  

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-'''Feminist philosophy''' refers to [[philosophy]] approached from a [[feminist]] perspective. Feminist philosophy involves both attempts to use the methods of philosophy to further the cause of the feminist movements, and attempts to criticise or re-evaluate the ideas of traditional philosophy from within a feminist framework. 
-There is no one school of feminist philosophy: feminist philosophers, as philosophers, are found in both the [[analytic philosophy|analytic]] and [[Continental philosophy|Continental]] traditions, and the myriad different viewpoints taken on philosophical issues within those traditions; and feminist philosophers, as feminists, are found belonging to the many different varieties of feminism.+'''Feminist epistemology''' is an examination of the subject matter of [[epistemology]] from a [[feminist]] standpoint. [[Elizabeth S. Anderson|Elizabeth Anderson]] describes feminist epistemology as being concerned with the way in which [[gender]] influences our concept of knowledge and "practices of inquiry and justification".
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-Feminism has provided a new perspective to many traditional problems of philosophy. For example, [[Feminist epistemology|feminist epistemologists]] have challenged traditional ideas of how we know things and of [[rationality]], by arguing that these traditional philosophical ideas are based on male assumptions and perspectives and ignore women's voices. Some feminists have also particularly attacked the aggressive argumentative style of traditional philosophy as being male-focused and [[patriarchal]] in nature. However, other feminists have defended the traditional philosophical method, arguing that the aggressiveness of [[traditional]] philosophy can be used to feminist ends. Some feminists have criticised other feminists for attacking traditional philosophy as aggressive, on the grounds that [[aggression]] is a valid female trait, and that feminists should not seek to repeat traditional sex roles which say women can't be aggressive (much less intellectually so).+
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-==Feminist philosophers==+
-*[[Simone de Beauvoir]]+
-*[[Judith Butler]]+
-*[[Hélène Cixous]]+
-*[[Bracha Ettinger]]+
-*[[Patricia Hill Collins]]+
-*[[Germaine Greer]]+
-*[[Donna Haraway]]+
-*[[Sandra Harding]]+
-*[[Nancy Hartsock]]+
-*[[Julia Kristeva]]+
-*[[Dorothy Smith]]+
-*[[Mary Wollstonecraft]]+
-*[[Alison Wylie]]+
-*[[Carol Gilligan]]+
-*[[Uma Narayan]]+
-*[[Seyla Benhabib]]+
-*[[Luce Irigaray]]+
-*[[Monique Wittig]]+
-*[[Mary Daly]]+
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-==Feminist philosophy critics==+
-Critics of feminist philosophy are not generally critics of feminism as a political or cultural movement; only the philosophical positions put forth under the title "feminist philosophy".+
-*[[Paul R. Gross]]+
-*[[Susan Haack]]+
-*[[Norman Levitt]]+
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-A phenomenological approach to the question of gender, that treats masculinity and femininity not as pertaining ascriptively to males and females, but as alternative ways, open to both women and men, of human beings presenting themselves as ''who'' they are, is taken by the Australian philosopher, [[Michael Eldred]]. 'Feminine' being is then thought as an 'interstitial' mode of encounter between you-and-me rather than showing off who one is in self-presentation. This approach is indebted to both the German tradition of dialogical philosophy and to Heidegger's questioning return to Greek ontology in search of as yet latent, alternative historical modes of (human) being apart from the established Western modes of 'substantial' standing presence.+
==See also== ==See also==
-* [[Feminist epistemology]]+* [[Feminist philosophy of science]]
 +* [[Epistemic advantage]]
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Feminist epistemology is an examination of the subject matter of epistemology from a feminist standpoint. Elizabeth Anderson describes feminist epistemology as being concerned with the way in which gender influences our concept of knowledge and "practices of inquiry and justification".

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