Ergodic literature  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Calligrammes, subtitled Poems of war and peace 1913-1916, (French: Calligrammes; poèmes de la paix et da la guerre, 1913-1916[1]) is a collection of poems by Guillaume Apollinaire, and was first published in 1918. Calligrammes is noted for how the typeface and spatial arrangement of the words on a page plays just as much of a role in the meaning of each poem, as the words themselves - a form called a calligram. In this sense, the collection can be seen as either concrete poetry or visual poetry. Apollinaire described his work as follows:

"The Calligrammes are an idealisation of free verse poetry and typographical precision in an era when typography is reaching a briliant end to its career, at the dawn of the new means of reproduction that are the cinema and the phonograph. --Guillaume Apollinaire, in a letter to André Billy" --Michel Butor

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