Endemic warfare  

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-The '''Late Middle Ages''' is a term used by historians to describe [[history of Europe|European history]] in the [[periodization|period]] of the [[14th century|14th]] to [[16th century|16th centuries]] (AD 1300–1500). The Late Middle Ages were preceded by the [[High Middle Ages]], and followed by the [[Early modern Europe|Early Modern era]] ([[Renaissance]]).+'''Endemic warfare''' is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a [[tribe|tribal]] [[warrior]] society. Endemic warfare is often highly ritualized and plays an important function in assisting the formation of a social structure among the tribes' men by proving themselves in battle.
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-Around [[1300]], centuries of [[Europe]]an prosperity and growth came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, such as the [[Great Famine of 1315-1317]] and the [[Black Death]], reduced the population perhaps by half. Along with depopulation came social unrest and [[endemic warfare]]. [[France]] and [[England]] experienced serious peasant risings (the [[Jacquerie]] and the [[Peasants' Revolt]]), and the [[Hundred Years' War]]. The unity of the [[Catholic Church]] was shattered by the [[Western Schism|Great Schism]]. Collectively it is sometimes called the [[Crisis of the Late Middle Ages]].+
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-On the other hand, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences. The rediscovery of ancient [[Ancient Greece|Greek]] and [[Ancient Rome|Roman]] texts led to what has later been termed the [[Renaissance]] – the rebirth. This process had started already through contact with the [[Arab]]s during the [[Crusades]], but accelerated with the capture of [[Constantinople]] by the [[Ottoman Empire|Turks]], when many [[Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly [[Italy]]. Meanwhile, the invention of [[printing]] was to have great effect on European society. This facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning, one end result of which for the Catholic Church would eventually be the [[Protestant Reformation]]. The growth of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the fall of Constantinople in [[1453]] (incidentally also the year counted as the end of the Hundred Years' War), cut off trading possibilities with the east. But [[Christopher Columbus|Columbus]]’s discovery of [[Americas|America]] in [[1492]], and [[Vasco da Gama]]’s circumnavigation of [[Africa]] in [[1498]], opened up new trade routes, strengthening the economy and power of European nations.+
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-All these developments taken together make it convenient to talk of an end to the Middle Ages, and the beginning of the modern world. It should be noted that the division will always be a somewhat artificial one, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society, and therefore there is a certain continuity between the [[Classical antiquity|Classical]] and the Modern age. Also, some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the 14th century Renaissance as a direct transition to the Modern Era.+
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Endemic warfare is the state of continual, low-threshold warfare in a tribal warrior society. Endemic warfare is often highly ritualized and plays an important function in assisting the formation of a social structure among the tribes' men by proving themselves in battle.



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