Duchenne de Boulogne  

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-In [[physiology]], a '''smile''' is a [[facial expression]] formed by flexing the [[muscle]]s most notably near both ends of the [[mouth]]. The smile can be also around the [[eyes]] ([[Duchenne smile]]). Among [[human]]s, it is [[Convention (philosophy and social sciences)|customarily]] an expression of [[pleasure]], happiness, or [[amusement]], but can also be an involuntary expression of [[anxiety]], in which case it can be known as a grimace. There is much evidence that smiling is a normal reaction to certain stimuli and occurs regardless of culture. Happiness is most often the cause of a smile. Among [[animal]]s, the exposure of [[teeth]], which may bear a resemblance to a smile, is often used as a threat or warning display - known as a [[snarl]] - or a sign of [[submission]]. In [[chimpanzees]], it can be a sign of [[fear]].+ 
-==Film, television and theatre==+'''Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne)''' (born September 17, 1806 in [[Boulogne-sur-Mer]]; died September 15, 1875 in [[Paris]]) was a [[French language|French]] [[neurologist]] who revived [[Luigi Galvani|Galvani's]] research and greatly advanced the science of [[electrophysiology]]. The era of modern [[neurology]] progressed from Duchenne's understanding of the conductivity of neural pathways, his revelations of the effect of lesions on these structures and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests ([[Nerve conduction study|NCS]]), and clinical photography.
-*[[Smile (1975 film)]], a 1975 film+ 
 +The biographer Joseph Collins wrote of Duchenne that he found neurology, "a sprawling infant of unknown parentage which he succored to a lusty youth" and although it is [[Jean-Martin Charcot]] who many medical historians hold as the father of modern neurology, Charcot owed much to Duchennne, acknowledging him as, "''mon maître''." Duchenne's greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that immortalize his name, [[Duchenne muscular dystrophy|Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy]], [[Progressive muscular atrophy|Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy]], [[Erb's palsy|Duchenne-Erb paralysis]], Duchenne's disease ([[Tabes dorsalis]]), and Duchenne's paralysis ([[Progressive bulbar palsy]]). He was the first clinician to practise muscle [[biopsy]], the harvesting of ''[[in vivo]]'' tissue samples with an invention he called, "''l'emporte-pièce''" (Duchenne's trocar). <!--This device has been described as Duchenne's miniature harpoon, an expression that hearkens to his parentage by the sea--> In 1855 he established the science of [[electrotherapy]] with a textbook titled, ''De l'electrisation localisée et de son application à la physiologie, à la pathologie et à la thérapeutique.'' A companion atlas to this work titled, ''Album de photographies pathologiques'', was the first neurology text illustrated by photographs. His monograph, ''[[Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine]]'' –also illustrated prominently by Duchenne's photographs–was the first study on the physiology of emotion and was seminal to Darwin's later work.
 + 
 +Duchenne's contemporaries appended "''de Boulogne''" to his name to avoid confusion with the like-sounding<!--better than the word homophonic in this case--> name of Edouard Adolphe Duchesne (1804–1869), a popular society physician. <!--The epitaph developed into an honorific, but at first it was used somewhat derisively as though to say, "who is this clown from the provinces, from Boulogne no less?"-->
 + 
 +<!--Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (1806-75), who, as Collins says, found neurology ''a sprawling infant of unknown parentage which he succored to a lusty youth." was descended from a long line of seafaring people at Boulogne, and it was an inborn love of science which prevented him from complying with his father's wish that he should become a sailor. (This is a quote from Fielding Garrison, "An Introduction to the History of Medicine" who is quoting Collins's biography of Duchenne. Someone with a copy of Collins should get the original quote.)-->
 + 
 + 
 +==Other works by Duchenne==
 + 
 +* [[poliomyelitis|acute poliomyelitis]]
 +* [[Functional electrical stimulation]] as a localization test in Neurological examination.
 +* identified [[progressive bulbar paralysis]]
 +* studies into [[lead poisoning]]
 +* identified [[muscular dystrophy|pseudohypertrophic muscle dystrophy]]
 +* [[tabetic locomotor ataxia]]
 + 
 +==Works==
 +* ''Essai sur la brûlure'' (1833)
 +* ''De l'Électrisation localisée et de son application à la physiologie, à la pathologie et à la thérapeutique'' (1855)
 +* [http://vlp.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/library/data/lit38953 ''Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou Analyse électro-physiologique de l'expression des passions applicable à la pratique des arts plastiques''] (1862)
 +* ''Physiologie des mouvements démontrée à l'aide de l'expérimentation électrique et de l'observation clinique, et applicable à l'étude des paralysies et des déformations'' (1867)
 + 
 + 
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Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne (de Boulogne) (born September 17, 1806 in Boulogne-sur-Mer; died September 15, 1875 in Paris) was a French neurologist who revived Galvani's research and greatly advanced the science of electrophysiology. The era of modern neurology progressed from Duchenne's understanding of the conductivity of neural pathways, his revelations of the effect of lesions on these structures and his diagnostic innovations including deep tissue biopsy, nerve conduction tests (NCS), and clinical photography.

The biographer Joseph Collins wrote of Duchenne that he found neurology, "a sprawling infant of unknown parentage which he succored to a lusty youth" and although it is Jean-Martin Charcot who many medical historians hold as the father of modern neurology, Charcot owed much to Duchennne, acknowledging him as, "mon maître." Duchenne's greatest contributions were made in the myopathies that immortalize his name, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne-Aran spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Duchenne's disease (Tabes dorsalis), and Duchenne's paralysis (Progressive bulbar palsy). He was the first clinician to practise muscle biopsy, the harvesting of in vivo tissue samples with an invention he called, "l'emporte-pièce" (Duchenne's trocar). In 1855 he established the science of electrotherapy with a textbook titled, De l'electrisation localisée et de son application à la physiologie, à la pathologie et à la thérapeutique. A companion atlas to this work titled, Album de photographies pathologiques, was the first neurology text illustrated by photographs. His monograph, Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine –also illustrated prominently by Duchenne's photographs–was the first study on the physiology of emotion and was seminal to Darwin's later work.

Duchenne's contemporaries appended "de Boulogne" to his name to avoid confusion with the like-sounding name of Edouard Adolphe Duchesne (1804–1869), a popular society physician.


Other works by Duchenne

Works





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