Centralisation  

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-:''[[Peasants' War]]''  
-# The [[Protestant]] (rather than the [[Roman Catholic]] or [[Orthodox]]) [[Christian]] [[religion]]. 
-# Collectively, the Protestant [[church]]es or the Protestants. 
-== Northern Renaissance ==+# The act or process of [[centralize|centralizing]], or the state of being centralized; the act or process of combining or reducing several parts into a whole; as, the centralization of power in the general government; the centralization of commerce in a city.
- +
-The [[Northern Renaissance]] was distinct from the [[Italian Renaissance]] in its [[centralization]] of political power. While Italy was dominated by independent [[city-state]]s, countries in [[central Europe|central]] and [[western Europe]] began emerging as [[nation-state]]s. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the [[Protestant Reformation]] and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various [[Protestantism|Protestant]] groups and the [[Roman Catholic Church]].+
- +
-== Protestant work ethic ==+
- +
-The '''Protestant work ethic''', sometimes called the '''Puritan work ethic''', is a [[Calvinism|Calvinist]] value emphasizing the necessity of constant [[labor]] in a person's calling as a sign of personal [[salvation]]. [[Protestantism|Protestants]] beginning with [[Martin Luther]] had reconceptualised work as a duty in the world for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. The [[Catholicism|Catholic]] idea of [[Divine grace|good works]] was transformed into an obligation to work diligently as a sign of grace. +
-==Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians==+
-<!--(in alphabetical order by century.)-->+
-;Twelfth century+
-* [[Peter Waldo]], French reformer, founder of the earliest Protestant church, the [[Waldensians]]+
- +
-;Fourteenth century+
-*[[John Wycliffe]], English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation".+
- +
-;Fifteenth century+
-*[[Jan Hus]], Catholic Priest and Professor, father of an early Protestant church (Moravianism), Czech reformist/dissident; burned to death in [[Constance]], [[Holy Roman Empire]] in 1415 by Roman Catholic Church authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. After the devastation of the Hussite Wars some of his followers founded the [[Unitas Fratrum]] in 1457, "Unity of Brethren", which was renewed under the leadership of Count [[Zinzendorf]] in [[Herrnhut]], [[Saxony]] in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the [[30 Years War]] and [[Counter Reformation]]. Today it is usually referred to in English as the [[Moravian Church]], in [[German language|German]] the [[Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine]].+
- +
-;Sixteenth century+
-*[[Jacobus Arminius]], Dutch theologian, founder of school of thought known as [[Arminianism]].+
-*[[Heinrich Bullinger]], successor of [[Zwingli]], leading reformed theologian.+
-*[[John Calvin]], French theologian, [[Protestant Reformation|Reformer]] and resident of [[Geneva, Switzerland]], he founded the school of theology known as Calvinism.+
-*[[Balthasar Hubmaier]], influential Anabaptist theologian, author of numerous works during his five years of ministry, tortured at Zwingli's behest, and executed in Vienna.+
-*[[John Knox]], Scottish Calvinist reformer.+
-*[[Abaomas Kulvietis]], jurs and a professor at Königsberg Albertina University, as well as a Reformer of the Lithuanian church.+
-*[[Martin Luther]], church reformer, Father of Protestantism, theological works guided those now known as [[Lutheranism|Lutherans]].+
-*[[Philipp Melanchthon]], early Lutheran leader.+
-*[[Menno Simons]], founder of [[Mennonitism]].+
-*[[John Smyth (1570-1612)|John Smyth]], early [[Baptist]] leader.+
-*[[Huldrych Zwingli]], founder of Swiss reformed tradition.+
- +
-== See also ==+
- +
-*[[Northern Renaissance]]+
-* [[Protestant work ethic]]+
-==See also==+
-*[[Anti-Catholicism]]+
-*[[Anti-Protestantism]]+
-*[[Black Legend]]+
-*[[Christian eschatology]]+
-*[[Christian Flag]]+
-*[[Detailed Christian timeline#Renaissance and Reformation|Christian timeline for Renaissance & Reformation]]+
-*[[History of Protestantism]]+
-*[[List of Protestant churches]]+
-*[[Protestant Reformation]]+
-*[[Protestant work ethic]]+
-*[[Islam and Protestantism]]+
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  1. The act or process of centralizing, or the state of being centralized; the act or process of combining or reducing several parts into a whole; as, the centralization of power in the general government; the centralization of commerce in a city.




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