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Events and trends
- 509 BC– Overthrow of Roman monarchy, and beginning of Republican period. First pair of Roman consuls elected. Tarquinian conspiracy formed, but discovered and the conspirators executed. Forces of Veii and Tarquinii, led by the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus defeated in the Battle of Silva Arsia by the Roman army. Consul Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first republican triumph on 1 March.
- September 13, 509 BC—The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September.
- 508 BC—War between Rome and Clusium
- 508 BC—War between Clusium and Aricia
- 508 BC—Office of pontifex maximus created in Rome.
- 508 BC—Cleisthenes reorganizes Athens. He creates the deme, a local unit to serve as the basis of his political system. Citizenship is tightly linked to the deme, for each deme keeps the roll of those within its jurisdiction, who are admitted to citizenship. He groups all the demes into 10 tribes, which thus form the link between the demes and the central government. The central government includes an assembly of all citizens and a new council of 500 members. This is a very early form of democracy.
- 507 BC—Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power and increases democracy.
- 506 BC—Battle of Boju: The forces of the State of Wu under commander and strategist Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu in Zhou Dynasty China, destroying the Chu capital of Ying and causing King Jing of Zhou to flee.
- 505 BC-504 BC—War between Rome and the Sabines.
- December 4, 502 BC—Solar eclipse darkens Egypt (computed by modern astronomers; no clear historical record of observation exists)
- 502 BC—Naxos rebels against Persian domination sparking the Ionian Revolt.
- 501 BC—Naxos is attacked by the Persian Empire.
- 501 BC—In response to threats by the Sabines, Rome creates the office of dictator.
- 501 BC—Confucius is appointed governor of Chung-tu.
- 501 BC—Gadir (present-day Cádiz) is captured by Carthage. (approximate date)
- 500 BC—Bantu-speaking people migrate into south-west Uganda from the west. (approximate date)
- 500 BC—Refugees from Teos resettle Abdera.
- 500 BC—Darius I of Persia proclaims that Aramaic be the official language of the western half of his empire.
- 500 BC—Signifies the end of the Nordic Bronze Age civilization in Oscar Montelius periodization system and begins the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
- 500 BC—Foundation of first republic in Vaishali Bihar India.
- c. 500 BC – She-Wolf, with late 15th century or early 16th century additions (twins), is made. It is now kept at Museo Capitolino, Rome.
- 500 BC—World population: 100,000,000<ref>an average of figures from different sources as listed at the US Census Bureau's Historical Estimates of World Population</ref>
- c. 500 BC—Vulca makes Apollo of Veii, from Portonaccio Temple. It is now kept at Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome.
- c. 500 BC - Yayoi period starts in Ancient Japan.
- The Gutaii tribe began around this time, in Middle and Southern Africa.
- Lucretia, Roman noblewoman
- Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman consul (509 BC)
- Aruns Tarquinius, Roman prince (509 BC)
- Titus Junius Brutus, Roman noble and monarchist conspiractor
- Tiberius Junius Brutus, Roman noble and monarchist conspiractor
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